At least 2.2 million people were exposed to the earthquake that struck southwestern Haiti on 14 August. About 2,100 people have died, and more than 12,000 were injured as at 20 August. The Government has declared a month-long state of emergency for the most affected departments.
The most affected areas are in the departments of Sud, Nippes, and Grand’Anse. Jérémie (Grand’Anse department) and Les Cayes (Sud department) arrondissements recorded the most infrastructure damage. Approximately 40% of the population in the three affected departments need emergency humanitarian assistance.
This thematic report examines the impact of this crisis through the three profiles of the worst affected departments. It also analyses existing data on pre-crisis vulnerabilities and humanitarian access constraints at the departmental level.
A 7.2 magnitude earthquake struck southwestern Haiti on 14 August at 8:30 am local time. The earthquake occurred 13km to the south-southeast of Petit-Trou-de-Nippes, in the department of Nippes, at a depth of 10km. Most affected departments include Sud, Grand’Anse, and Nippes, with Les Cayes, Aquin, Cavaillon, Petite-Rivière-de-Nippes, and Anse-a-Veau arrondissements known to be particularly affected and exposed to severe shaking (level VIII on the modified Mercalli intensity scale). The impact of the earthquake was felt in all departments of the country, including the capital Port-au-Prince, around 125km to the east.
An increase in gang violence and criminal activity in Haiti since 1 June 2021 has been affecting around one-third of the territory of Port-au-Prince. Southern neighbourhoods are the most affected: Bas Delmas, Bel Air, Cité Soleil, Fontamara, Laboule 12, Martissant, and Toussaint Brave townships. Violence erupted because of territorial disputes and a reconfiguration of gang alliances. Since 1 June, 95 gangs have been clashing in Port-au-Prince in a bid to gain power, looting local businesses and leading to the desertion of the commercial district. Sporadic clashes between gangs are common in Port-au-Prince, but recent incidents are on a much greater scale and systematic.
ACAPS Global Risk Analysis outlines a number of key contexts where a notable deterioration may occur within the next six months, leading to a spike in humanitarian needs. We continue to monitor closely the risks identified in order to establish how they have evolved and if they have materialised. You can find the updates of the risks identified in Global Risk Report – March 2020 at the end of this analysis. The objective is to enable humanitarian decisionmakers to understand potential changes that could have humanitarian consequences. By exposing the possible developments and understanding their impact, these potential changes can be taken into account in planning and preparedness.
Haiti’s humanitarian situation is complex: the origins of people’s needs are rooted in historical vulnerabilities, and are driven by economic and political instability as well as recurrent meteorological hazards’ impact. 2019 was characterised by socio-political instability in the form of widespread protests, fuelled by an economic downturn that started in 2018. Short-term aid may not adequately address the chronic nature of Haiti’s humanitarian needs, and certain population groups, notably children, may bear the brunt of increasing vulnerability.
Food insecurity, already exacerbated by structural poverty, changing climatic conditions, and limited coping capacity, has notably challenged communities. The chronic food insecurity situation is likely to deteriorate further in 2020, due to the threat of natural hazards and past economic instability and ongoing political instability.
Each year we take stock of our work and put together an annual report – you may have noticed we have published a variety of formats and layouts over the years, very much reflecting our own internal learning and evolution. This year we chose to provide four different perspectives on the global humanitarian situation. Within these pages you will find a comparative analyses of 14 of the major humanitarian situations with respect to the affected populations, people in need and humanitarian access; an analysis of three highly complex and evolving regional crises the sector grappled with over the year; and a spotlight on three severe crises that did not get sufficient attention in 2019. Finally, as the year comes to a close, we have identified a number of risks that may lead to a significant deterioration of particular crises in 2020. We hope you will find these perspectives informative and useful in your planning for 2020.
A magnitude 5.9 earthquake struck Haiti on 6 October, and was followed by a magnitude 5.2 aftershock on 7 October and a magnitude 4.2 aftershock on 8 October. The departments affected by seismic activity were Artibonite, North and North-West.
So far, 17 people have died and at least 421 have been injured. The earthquakes destroyed 353 houses and damaged 7,430. An estimated 31,132 people were affected, although needs assessments are still being completed.
Considering the presence of UN agencies, the scale of pre-positioned aid and the reported response by the government as well as national and external relief actors, the need for international assistance and the impact are estimated at low to moderate.
Hurricane Irma first made landfall on the northeast Caribbean islands during the early hours local time of 6 September. Antigua and Barbuda, Anguilla, Bahamas, British Virgin Islands, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Puerto Rico, St Barthélemy, St. Martin, Sint Maarten, Turks and Caicos, and the US Virgin Islands were all affected. 169,000 people and 75,000 buildings were exposed to wind speeds higher than 252km/h. 5.5 million people lived in areas exposed to winds in excess of 120km/h. At least 37 people have been reported dead.
A new Category 5 Hurricane Maria is moving roughly over the same path as Hurricane Irma. It is expected to affect Dominica, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Puerto Rico, St. Kitts and Nevis, Montserrat and the US and British Virgin Islands. Communities have been advised to take shelter. States of emergency have been declared in number of locations.
Hurricane Irma made landfall on northeast Caribbean islands during the early hours local time of 6 September, affecting Antigua and Barbuda, Anguilla, Bahamas, British Virgin Islands, Cuba, St Barthélemy, St. Martin, the Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Haiti, US Virgin Islands, and Turks and Caicos. Two million people live in areas exposed to in excess of 120 km/h winds.
28 people have been reported dead. 1.2 million people have been affected by damage to water infrastructure. An estimated 20,000 children have been affected throughout the region and 17,000 people are in immediate need of shelter. 70%-90% of infrastructure has been destroyed in Anguila and Barbuda. Livelihoods, housing and infrastructure in the British Virgin Islands, St. Martin, the US Virgin Islands, and Turks and Caicos have been severely affected. 34,000 people have been displaced in Dominican Republic and Haiti alone.
Hurricane Irma made landfall on northeast Caribbean islands during the early hours local time of 6 September, affecting Antigua and Barbuda, Anguilla, British Virgin Islands, St Barthélemy, St. Martin, the Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Haiti, and other islands in the eastern Caribbean Sea. The hurricane is passing over Turks and Caicos, southern Bahamas, northern Dominican Republic and northern Haiti on 8 September.
This thematic report is the second in a series of profiles on the worst affected departments in Haiti following Hurricane Matthew. It compiles and analyses existing pre-crisis data at the departmental level across a range of sectors and is intended to serve as a reference point for understanding the current humanitarian crisis.
This thematic report is the third in a series of profiles on the worst affected departments in Haiti following Hurricane Matthew. It compiles and analyses existing pre-crisis data at the departmental level across a range of sectors and is intended to serve as a reference point for understanding the current humanitarian crisis.
This thematic report is the first in a series of profiles on the worst affected departments in Haiti following Hurricane Matthew. It compiles and analyses existing pre-crisis data at the departmental level across a range of sectors and is intended to serve as a reference point for understanding the current humanitarian crisis.
Hazard profile: Sud is prone to natural disaster and has limited disaster risk reduction mechanisms. Exposure and vulnerability to hurricanes, floods, droughts, earthquakes are elevated compared even to the rest of Haiti.
Societies and communities: 775,000 people live in 18 communes. Settlements are concentrated on the coast, while population density is lower in the mountainous interior.
Economy: Over half the population lives in the bottom two quintiles of socio-economic well-being. Key economic activities include agriculture, fishing and animal husbandry.
Au moins 20% du territoire d’Haïti a été touché par l’ouragan Matthew. Un grand nombre de glissements de terrain et d’inondations ont été rapportés dans toutes les régions côtières, de même qu’à l’intérieur des départements touchés. Les départements les plus touchés sont: Sud, Grand’Anse et Nippes. Au total, 2 128 700 personnes, soit 12 % de la population d’Haïti, ont été touchées, dont 894 100 enfants.
Category 4 Hurricane Matthew struck the southwest coast of Haiti at 0700 local time (1200 GMT) on 4 October. Wind speeds of 230km/h were recorded, and caused widespread damage, flooding, and displacement. It continued across the northwest of the country.
350,000 people require humanitarian assistance, and 14,530 have been displaced. Reported death toll is currently six.
Sud, Sud-Est, Grande'Anse, Nippes, Nord-Ouest, and Ouest departments are the most affected.
It is expected that flooding will exacerbate pre-existing epidemics such as cholera, dengue fever, and Zika.