Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)3.20 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.2.40 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.4.00 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.2.40 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.2.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
- 4,101,000 People in Need [?]
Haiti: Complex crisis
Haiti is regularly affected by natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes, landslides, and droughts. At least 2.6 million people Haiti are in need of humanitarian assistance as of January 2019, out of which almost 50% are children. Food insecurity persists in Haiti, and is driven by the combined effects of natural hazards and poor socioeconomic conditions. ?
INFORM measures Haiti's risk of humanitarian crisis and disaster for 2019 to be high at 6.5/10. Lack of Coping Capacity is of particular concern, at 7.4/10.?
Latin America and the Caribbean have become the global epicentre of the COVID-19 pandemic, according to the World Health Organization. Measures taken to contain virus spread in the region are having negative impacts on the population. The regional economy is forecast to have its biggest contraction ever, particularly affecting those who work in the informal sector. As a result, the World Food Programme estimates that food insecurity across the region in 2020 will likely increase from the current 3.4 million to 13.7 million. In Haiti, the number of people in severe food insecurity is projected to rise from 700,000 to 1.6 million. In the Northern Triangle (Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras), the number of people affected by severe food insecurity is projected to increase from 1.6 million up to 3 million. The number of vulnerable Venezuelan migrants and refugees experiencing severe food insecurity in Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru is expected to increase from 540,000 to more than 1 million. ?
For more information on the humanitarian impact of the COVID-19 outbreak, please see the relevant paragraph below.
The first two confirmed cases of COVID-19 were reported on 18 March. As of 12 May, Haiti has registered 209 confirmed cases with 16 deaths. Current numbers could grow considering the return of many Haitians who lost their jobs in the neighbouring Dominican Republic – almost 15,000 voluntary returns estimated between 17 March and 3 May – and deportation of Haitian citizens from the US without systematic testing. Pre-existing vulnerabilities include fragile healthcare and sanitation systems, six million Haitians living below the poverty line, a deteriorating economic and political situation, deepening food insecurity, and the presence of slums where self-isolation measures are hardly possible. Onset of hurricane season in June might further stretch humanitarian response capacities. The government declared a state of health emergency until 20 May with the closure of airports and ports, but the lockdown has not been systematically enforced as informal workers continue working to survive. There are shortages of medical and protective material.?
Food: Poor households who have suffered from crop losses throughout 2018 are likely to engage in negative coping strategies to meet their food needs as they face Crisis (IPC Phase 3) food security outcomes until around September 2019. ? The WFP estimates that due to the COVID-19 pandemic the number of people in severe food insecurity could rise from 700,000 to 1,6 million in the coming months.?
President Jovenel Moise has encountered repeated periods of civil unrest throughout his presidency, which officially began in February 2017. In November 2016, immediately following the presidential elections that put Moise in power, demonstrations rejecting the results of the low-turnout election ensued, primarily in the capital. Several people were arrested. In September, October, and November 2017, protests erupted against Moise’s administration and the proposed rise in taxes, eventually leading to calls for the President’s resignation. Protests began again in early July 2018 when hikes in fuel prices were introduced; 20 people lost their lives. Sporadic episodes of unrest continued throughout August 2018 and progressed until December, amidst allegations of corruption committed by Moise.
Protests have persisted throughout 2019, as Haitians have repeatedly taken to the street to demonstrate their discontent with stark inequalities, ongoing financial crisis, lack of adequate social services, questions around human rights abuses, and the dissatisfaction with President Moise. The most recent bout of anti-government demonstrations - beginning in mid-September 2019 and still ongoing as of 4 December - have led to the deaths of 42 people and injured more than 86. ?The protests pose significant challenges to the health sector, as patients and staff face difficulties in accessing medical facilities, and in many hospitals supplies are running out. Many schools were forced to remain closed due to security risk.? However, on 2 December, schools began to partially open after 2 months of protests. ? Fuel shortages, security incidences, and roadblocks are impeding the ability of humanitarian organisations to operate, leading to heightened needs. The negative impacts of the volatile situation are expected continue, as Moise has reiterated his unwillingness to step down, as demanded by protestors.?