• Crisis Severity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Impact ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Humanitarian Conditions ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Complexity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Access Constraints ?
    No constraints
    Extreme constraints

Key figures

  • 11,400,000 Total population [?]
  • 4,900,000 People in Need [?]



Natural disasters, such as floods, earthquakes, landslides, and periods of drought, regularly affect Haiti. At least 5.2 million people in the country needed humanitarian assistance as at December 2022. Food insecurity persists across the country, with approximately 4.7 million people facing Crisis (IPC Phase 3) food insecurity levels. Causes include the combined effects of natural hazards and poor socioeconomic conditions. As at August 2022, almost 114,000 people were internally displaced either because of increased fighting between criminal gangs in Port-au-Prince (85% of the total displaced population) or by the 14 August 2021 earthquake in southern Haiti (15%). ?

Since the assassination of President Jovenel Moïse on 7 July 2021, gangs have rapidly expanded their territory, especially in Port-au-Prince. People affected by gang violence often face killings, persecution, confinement, abduction, robbery, and forced displacement. In Port-au-Prince alone, there are more than 100 gangs, which control major roads and derive revenue from customs, water and electricity distribution systems, and bus services. This situation has hampered humanitarian access both in Port-au-Prince and in other areas of Haiti. ?

A 7.2 earthquake struck southwestern Haiti on 14 August 2021. The earthquake occurred 13km southeast of Petit-Trou-de-Nippes, in the department of Nippes, about 125km west of the capital Port-au-Prince. The presence of criminal gangs in other areas of the country has delayed reconstruction and hindered access to the communities most affected by the earthquake. ?

As at 1 January 2023, over 22,469 suspected cases of cholera (with 18,729 hospitalised), including 450 deaths, were reported in the outbreak declared at the beginning of October 2022. The rapid escalation in the number of cases has put a strain on the capacity of medical facilities to treat cholera. Greater access to vaccines is needed to limit its spread. ?

INFORM measures Haiti's risk of humanitarian crisis and disaster to be very high at 6.5/10. ?

Latest Developments


On 3 June 2023, heavy rains across the country caused flooding, rock slides, and landslides, mainly affecting the departments of Centre, Nippes, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, and Sud-Est. The rains have affected almost 37,000 people, including 13,400 displaced, damaged more than 1,200 houses, and affected other infrastructure, such as roads, bridges, schools, and health centres, although the exact numbers are unknown. In Centre department, flooding has caused damage to crops, which could affect food security. The affected population needs shelter, food, hygiene kits, and drinking water. There is also a need for activities such as water pumping and the cleaning of flooded houses, roads, and drainage in towns. Insecurity and violence by armed gangs and infrastructure damage in Port-au-Prince limit humanitarian access, both in the city and to other areas. Further rains in the coming days could aggravate the situation and cause further damage.  ?

Humanitarian Access



Haiti faced High humanitarian access constraints in the past six months, scoring 3/5 in ACAPS Humanitarian Access Index. The humanitarian access situation remained stable. 

For more information you can consult our latest Global Humanitarian Access Overview – December 2022

Key Priorities


Food Security: Expected declines in crop production caused by below-average and irregular rains since March, continued inflation, and the effects of COVID-19 containment measures are affecting food security across the country. The 14 August earthquake in southern Haiti has also had a major impact on food security as a result of crop losses, impacts on livelihoods, and the destruction of the food production infrastructure, mainly in the regions of Sud, Grand'Anse, and Nippes. 40.8% of the population is undernourished, and at least 1,338,000 people in Haiti are in IPC 4. ?

Protection: Political instability and territorial control by criminal gangs have expanded in Haiti since the assassination of President Moïse in July. Armed clashes, intimidations, sexual violence, assassinations, and kidnapping threaten the lives and safety of the population. Kidnapping has become a main source of financing for criminal gangs. Sexual violence has been used as a weapon of control and imposition of territorial dominance; girls and women are particularly vulnerable to it, especially when travelling on public transport, returning from school, or during kidnappings. Despite underreporting, at least 75 people a month are victims, especially children and women. The lack of access to health services prevents the provision of physical and psychological help to this population. There are also reports of sexual violence and abuse at border crossings with the Dominican Republic. Men also suffer sexual abuses and violence, often as an initiation rite into criminal gangs. ?

WASH: The 14 August earthquake caused a lack of access to clean water in southern Haiti as a result of the damage and destruction of infrastructure used to supply drinking water. On the other hand, water shortages in Port-au-Prince are mainly caused by the lack of fuel to feed power plants resulting from blockades and restrictions imposed by criminal gangs. This puts the population at risk of spreading waterborne diseases. Humanitarian workers have had to restrict WASH operations because of protection risks to humanitarian staff and shortages of fuel for mobilisation. ?

Cholera outbreak


As of 1 January 2023, over 22,469 suspected cases of cholera (18,729 hospitalised), including some 450 deaths in 9 departments of Haiti, were reported in the outbreak declared at the beginning of October. The rapid escalation in the number of cases has strained the capacity of medical facilities to treat cholera and greater access to vaccines is needed to limit its spread. Many of the cases have come from areas that are largely under gang control. Violence and insecurity pose a significant access challenge for the cholera response, alongside petrol shortages resulting from gang-imposed restrictions – including at some oil ports of entry – that have hampered mobility and humanitarian access. Lack of fuel supply at power plants was affecting the functioning of medical centres and reducing humanitarian operations before the outbreak. The poor functioning of hydropower plants and inability to mobilise water tankers, especially in the hardest-to-reach places for humanitarian aid, has hindered access to clean water, sanitation, and safe food, increasing the risk of a rapid expansion in the number of cholera cases. ?

Armed Gang Violence


Since July 2021, following the assassination of Prime Minister Jovenel Moïse, the socio-political crisis has exacerbated. The crisis has left space for increased armed gangs’ activity and fight for territorial control.  Since 24 April 2022, violence has increased in the city of Port-au-Prince and metropolitan area. ?

The upsurge in violence in Port-au-Prince has resulted in 934 killings, 684 wounded and 680 people kidnapped between January and June 2022. Threats, forced recruitment, kidnapping, robbery, and sexual violence are reported. Since the end of April to date at least 17,000 people have been displaced from their homes. Displaced people have taken refuge in makeshift shelters or host families. ?

In Cité Soleil, a commune of Port-au-Prince metropolitan area, confinements and armed clashes between armed gangs have restricted access to goods and services. The inability to bring in water tankers has increased the need for drinking water. Electricity, health care and sanitation services have also been affected. Food security has deteriorated, as livelihoods shortages, price increases and fuel shortages have decreased the availability and accessibility of food. Access to humanitarian aid is limited, humanitarian responders are unable to reach people in need in some areas affected by fighting or road blockages by armed gangs. ?

Political Instability


Since President Jovenel Moïse took office in February 2017, Haiti has faced repeated periods of civil unrest. Recurrent protests took place between 2018–2021. Among the causes of these demonstrations were the rejection of the election results, rising fuel prices, discontent over stark socioeconomic inequalities, and the lack of adequate social services across the country. ?

The assassination of Jovenel Moïse on 7 July 2021 was followed by an escalation in gang violence, with shootings and blockades reported – particularly in the capital city of Port-au-Prince. ?Political instability has increased as Prime Minister Ariel Henry was linked to the assassination of the president on 14 September. Presidential elections scheduled for 26 September were postponed to 7 November, but the dismissal of the Provisional Electoral Council on 28 September could again delay the process. ?

Since July 2021, gang violence remains a concern and a driver of humanitarian needs in Haiti. Confrontations between urban gangs have caused the displacement of around 19,000 people, especially in Delmas, Fontamara, and Martissant neighbourhoods of Port-au-Prince, and resulted in the damage of thousands of houses. ? Gang violence has left around 1,100,000 people in need of immediate humanitarian assistance. ?