Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)1.70 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.1.10 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.2.00 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.1.60 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.1.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Since 2014 Greece has been an important country of first arrival and transit for refugees and migrants. In 2015, arrivals by land and sea reached its peak with almost 900,000 people, mainyl crossing from the Turkish coast to the Greek Aegean islands. ?
The combined effect of the 2016 EU-Turkey deal and the closure of borders in Eastern European countries caused a significant decrease in arrivals. However, a sharp increase in arrivals was recorded in 2019. In 2019, about 75,000 people arrived in Greece (ca. 60,000 by sea and 15,000 by land), compared to a total of 50,000 in 2018. More than 70% of those arriving in 2019 were from Afghanistan (37%), Syria (27%), and Democratic Republic of Congo (7%). ??? As of 31 January 2020, Greece counts 115,600 migrants and refugees – 74,400 in the mainland and 41,200 on the islands – an increase of over 30,000 since June 2019.??Reception centres on the islands are overcrowded with and conditions are dire with many refugees living in unsuitable tents or makeshift shelters. Medical assistance and WASH facilities are lacking. Women and girls face difficulties in safely accessing services. In December 2019, reception centers on the Greek islands, designed for 5,400 people, hosted over 36,000 people. ?
In 2019, Greece’s conservative government has announced a series of measures to address the critical situation on the Greek islands including the replacement of the open-air camps by closed installations hosting no more than 5,000 people. It has also passed a new asylum legislation aimed at containing the rising number of asylum seekers. Additionally, NGOs will have to meet new requirements to continue their operations in Greece. The planned reforms have been strongly condemned by aid organisations. ?
New temporary accommodations have been built following the fire at Moria Registration and Identification Centre. The Greek government stated it will proceed with the asylum application of those moving to the new accommodations. However, many migrants prefer not to move, fearing a new COVID-19 lockdown. WASH and shelter needs have been reported.?
09/09/2020: Most of the Moria Registration and Identification Centre (Lesbos Island) was destroyed in a fire on the night of 8-9 September. So far there have been no casualties reported. The camp had an original capacity of around 2,000 people, but houses more than 12,000 asylum seekers who will now require emergency shelter assistance. Other needs are not yet known. The transfer to the mainland of 400 unaccompanied children and teenagers is being organised. The cause of the fire is unknown but there have been protests at the camp over lockdown measures imposed following an outbreak of COVID-19 cases (35 confirmed cases as of 9 September). Those fleeing the fire were contained on a nearby highway as a result of the lockdown.?
ACAPS' team is daily monitoring the impact of COVID-19. Find more information related to the outbreak here.
2020 Developments in the Greek Islands
3 Jan 2020
Based on the new 2019 asylum law, the Greek government released a list of 12 countries of origin considered safe for return. The list is intended to accelerate asylum processes and enable faster returns while refugee right groups fear that nationals of these countries will less likely be granted asylum.?
22 Jan 2020
3 Feb 2020
The Greek government announced plans to create a floating barrier to prevent migrants arriving from Turkey from reaching Greek islands. On the north eastern land border with Turkey, extra patrols by police and border guards have been launched and surveillance cameras along the border are planned to be installed soon.?
3 Feb 2020
25 Feb 2020
The announced construction of a detention centre for refugees on Lesbos resulted in protests by islanders blocking the site. Police intervened with tear gas. Additionally, residents organized a general strike across the island.?
As of 16 April there are 32 confirmed cases of COVID-19 within the refugee and migrant population. Ritsona, Malakasa and Koutsochero refugee camps have been quarantined. Greece hosts around 74,400 refugees on the mainland and 41,200 on the islands. Refugees in camps are at high risk of acquiring infectious diseases due to crowded conditions and poor hygiene and sanitation systems.
On 17 March, the Greek Ministry of Migration and Asylum announced measures to prevent an outbreak in the refugee and migrant camps. Residents on the island refugee camps are only allowed to leave between certain hours to obtain food or other essential items. New arrivals will be transferred to the mainland, and visitors and NGOs are not allowed to enter the camps. A growing number of institutions and academics are calling for the evacuation of refugee camps.?
On 17 April authorities announced that around 2,300 refugees will be evacuated from the island camps to hotels in the mainland. The Greek government also announced that asylum services will continue to be suspended until 15 May.?
Find more information about the global impact of COVID-19 here.