Over 100,000 people fleeing ethnic violence have been displaced in Benishangul-Gumuz (mainly in Kamashi Zone) and Oromia regions (mainly East Wollega and West Wollega zones). There are indications that displacement is rising, though the size of the displaced population is not clear. Urgent humanitarian needs are reported, including food, shelter, NFI and health.
Intercommunal conflict in the Somali and Oromia border regions that escalated on 4 August has led to the internal displacement of more than 141,000 people. Shelter and health assistance are among the most urgent needs for the IDPs. The areas most affected by the conflict are Jijiga in Somali region and East Hararghe area in Oromia, where fatalities among the population were reported. With the exception of a reported influx of around 2,000 displaced people into Mekelle Town of Tigray region, there is no other information regarding the impact of the August events on Tigray.
Around 400,000 people have been newly displaced on both sides of the regional borders of Gedeo (SNNP region) and Guji (Oromia region) zones since 1 June. In total, some 700,000 people have been displaced since a new wave of violence between the Gedeo and Guji communities started on 13 April. Insecurity continues to prevent IDPs from returning to their areas or origin. IDPs are staying in shelters in public buildings and spontaneous IDP sites. Host communities have a limited capacity to absorb the new arrivals, with high levels of food insecurity and acute malnutrition already affecting some of the local population. Needs identified include shelter/NFIs, food, WASH, and healthcare.
Following security operations in Moyale, Ethiopia, some 10,000 people have been displaced to Moyale in Marsabit county, Kenya, since 10 March. The displaced population is currently staying in makeshift camps around Moyale. 80% of the displaced people are women and children, including 600 pregnant women and 1,500 children under five. Multisectoral assistance is urgently needed.
A drought that began in October 2016 has been ongoing in Ethiopia, leading to high levels of food insecurity and malnutrition. Somali region is the most affected, where 1.7% of the population are affected by SAM. The Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region (SNNPR), and southern Oromia are also affected. Within the Somali region, the most severely affected areas are Dollo, Korahe, Afder, and Jarar Zones. At least 9.5 million people need food assistance across the country.. As of June, the worst affected households are facing Emergency (IPC Phase 4) food insecurity outcomes. The drought has resulted in significant livestock losses, greatly reduced access to food, and has driven large-scale displacement. The nutritional situation has also been deteriorating rapidly with a caseload of over 376,000 children suffering from SAM - 97,000 of whom are in the Somali region.
The Fall Armyworms infestation worsened significantly in June in Ethiopia, with 145,000 hectares of land affected – compared to 53,000 hectares at the end of May. The infestation, which affected at least 16 other African countries and millions of people since late 2016, has spread to at least six states out of 11 in Ethiopia, and is likely to spread further. Three to four million hectares of maize crops are expected to be affected at this rate. The Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples’ State (SNNPS) is the most affected by livelihoods loss, with about 100,000 people (or 20,000 households) affected.
More than 173,500 refugees and migrants have reached Italy so far in 2016, around 29,000 more than in the same period last year. While the vast majority still use Libya as the departure point to Europe, more are using Egypt and Algeria. The nationality of arrivals is evolving, with fewer Eritreans and more Egyptians.
Protection is a primary concern. The estimated number of deaths on the Central Mediterranean route has grown to over 4,200 people this year, compared to less than 2,900 at the same point in 2015. Many people die on the journey over land to north Africa, but this number is not known. Migrants and refugees also face detention, sexual exploitation, and forced labour. The number of unaccompanied minors arriving in Italy is growing.
Ethiopia isaffected by the worst drought for 50 years, with over 10.2 million people in need of food assistance as of March 2016, compared to 2.9 million in the beginning of 2015. In 2016, the number of people in need is expected to reach over 15 million. Most of the regions of Amhara, Oromia, and SNNPR are reported to be at least in Crisis (IPC Phase 3) food insecurity. In the most affected areas, over 75% of meher cropping production has been lost, one million livestock have died, and over 1.7 million are reportedly at risk due to poor body conditions. Meher cropping represents 90% of the country’s total grain production, which accounts for 80% of Ethiopian agriculture.
Since June 2015, Ethiopia has been affected by the worst drought in the last 30–50 years, with over 10.2 million people in need of food assistance as of December 2015, compared to 2.9 million in the beginning of 2015. In 2016, the number of people in need is expected to reach over 15 million. Most of the regions of Amhara, Oromia, and SNNPR are reported to be in Crisis (IPC Phase 3) food insecurity. In the most affected areas, over 75% of meher cropping production has been lost, one million livestock have died, and over 1.7 million are reportedly at risk due to bad body conditions. Meher cropping represents 90% of the country’s total grain production, which accounts for 80% of Ethiopian agriculture.
Since the start of the conflict in neighbouring South Sudan on 15 December 2013, more than 218,700 South Sudanese have crossed into Ethiopia’s Gambella region. So far in August, 3,448 new arrivals have been registered. In July, more than 7,200 South Sudanese arrived in Gambella, an increase from the 2,500 arrivals in June. Most people originate from Upper Nile and Jonglei states, and are fleeing food insecurity and generalised violence. Capacity of camps receiving refugees are overstretched. More than 13,000 new arrivals are awaiting transfer to a new camp that is being developed. More than 45,000 refugees are living in host communities. Conditions for those staying at entry points are worse than those staying in camps, as limited facilities are available.
Multiple internal conflicts have led to displacement and a significant increase in humanitarian needs across Ethiopia in 2018. There are 2.8 million IDPs in the country, mainly due to insecurity and violence in Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples (SNNPR) and Oromia border regions, Somali and Oromia border regions and Benishangul-Gumuz and Oromia border regions. Ethiopia also hosts over 900,000 refugees from neighbouring countries. After the opening of the Eritrea-Ethiopia border, around 15,000 Eritreans have been registered at the Endabaguna Reception Centre since September 2018. In addition, 220,000 Ethiopians returned from Saudi Arabia since 5 May 2017, with the majority being forced returns. Needs are further exacerbated by protracted drought and episodes of severe flooding. Continuing food insecurity, malnutrition and water shortages, mainly in pastoral areas, as well as the risk of disease outbreaks are the main humanitarian concerns in the country. Humanitarian needs have increased across all sectors in 2018.
This report compares current humanitarian crises based on their level of humanitarian access. Affected populations in more than 40 countries are not getting proper humanitarian assistance due to access constraints. Out of 44 countries included in the report, nearly half of them are currently facing critical humanitarian access constraints, with four countries (Eritrea, Syria, Venezuela, and Yemen) being considered as inaccessible. Moderate humanitarian access constraints are an issue in eight countries, and 15 face low humanitarian access constraints.
Food security remains a major humanitarian concern in 2018 in multiple contexts. ACAPS highlights in this report five of the worst affected countries, where large populations are food insecure, and where households and areas are either already in Catastrophe or Famine levels of food insecurity (IPC Phase 5), or are at risk of deteriorating into this situation.
Humanitarian Overview 2018 examines major humanitarian crises worldwide to identify likely developments and corresponding needs. The report focuses on countries where the crisis trend indicates a deterioration in 2018 and a corresponding increase in need. It also includes countries where crisis is not predicted to worsen, but is likely to remain severe: Ethiopia, Iraq, Nigeria, Palestine, Sudan, and Syria. Across these countries, food security, displacement, health, and protection are expected
to be the most pressing humanitarian needs in 2018.
Outbreaks of Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, have been reported in DRC, Zambia, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa, Namibia, Swaziland, Ghana and Kenya. Regionally, around 330,000 hectares of staple crops, especially maize, have been affected. The remaining southern African mainland countries remain at high risk. The severity of the impact on regional crop production is yet to be established. The damages caused by the infestation depend on the stage at which the pest attacked the plant. Crops that were infested during the early stages of crop development, in late December, had to be replanted, while those infested later in their growth seem to have recovered without intervention.
Update: The further spread of Fall Armyworm was observed in Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe in March. Damage from existing outbreaks was also sustained in Rwanda, Uganda, and Zambia. While further outbreaks are expected only in northern Tanzania in the coming months, all countries are advised to continue monitoring diligently and to apply appropriate preventative measures. Although the Fall Armyworm season is expected to end in June, long-term impacts are expected for affected countries, and neighbouring countries should also remain diligent.
The Crisis Overview 2015: Humanitarian Trends and Risks for 2016, outlines the countries considered to be in greatest humanitarian need as we approach the end of 2015.
Based on our weekly Global Emergency Overview (GEO), and three years of data on humanitarian needs across 150 countries, we have identified eleven countries where humanitarian needs are likely to be highest in 2016, as well as seven that merit attention, as they face a potential spike in needs. A final section considers the potential impact of the current El Niño event across a number of regions.