• Crisis Severity ?
    4.0
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Impact ?
    4.2
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Humanitarian Conditions ?
    4.0
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Complexity ?
    3.9
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Access Constraints ?
    4.0
    No constraints
    Extreme constraints

Key figures

  • 123,516,000 Total population [?]
  • 4,725,000 People displaced [?]
  • 25,900,000 People in Need [?]
  • 0 Severe humanitarian conditions - Level 4 [?]

Special Reports

04/11/2022

Special Reports

26/01/2022

Special Reports

17/11/2021

Special Reports

04/11/2021

Overview

26/10/2022

More than 25 million people in Ethiopia are in need of humanitarian assistance as a result of internal conflict, displacement, and recurrent natural hazards. As at July 2022, an estimated 2.7 million people were displaced internally as a result of conflict (main driver of displacement in the country) and drought. Additional 2 million people are IDP returnees. These figures only capture accessible areas, with Tigray for example not included due to operational constraints. The country also hosts more than 876,000 refugees from South Sudan, Somalia, Eritrea, and Sudan. Most of them have been living in camp settings in Benishangul Gumuz, Gambela, and Somali regions and in the capital city Addis Ababa.  

The country is affected by recurrent natural hazards, primarily drought and flooding. Several consecutive years of drought and a record fourth consecutive below-average rainfall in southern and southeastern Ethiopia have disrupted the livelihoods of hundreds of thousands of farmers and herders, resulted in the death of livestock, and led to a worsening food security situation. Emergency (IPC Phase 4) food insecurity is expected in drought-affected areas, including parts of Oromia, Somali, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ (SNNP) region, and South West Ethiopia Peoples’ (or South West) region. 

The resumption of fighting in northern Ethiopia since 24 August 2022, has made security in the area highly volatile with airstrikes reported frequently, insecurity recorded along the Tigray-Eritrea boarder, and the conflict spilling into the neighboring regions of Afar and Amhara and a deterioration of people’s living conditions including food insecurity, increased malnutrition rates, and overcrowded collective centres sheltering the displaced. Resource constraints (partial blockade of banking and cash transfers, is limiting humanitarian activities and access to resources needed to deliver aid) and limited coordination continue to restrict the ability to upscale humanitarian services, keeping humanitarian needs high. 

Conflict in other regions, such as Benishangul Gumuz (particularly Metekel and Kemashi zones) and Oromia (including Wellega and Guji zones), continues to affect people’s freedom of movement and livelihood activities. The situation has resulted in mass displacement and subsequent humanitarian needs. The needs of IDPs have largely remained unmet because of the volatile security situation and major humanitarian access constraints.  

INFORM ranks Ethiopia’s risk of humanitarian crisis and disaster as very high at 6.8/10. The lack of coping capacity stands at 6.8/10 and vulnerability at 6.4/10. ?

Latest Developments

02/11/2022

The cholera outbreak declared in Bale Zone, Oromia Region on 16 September has led to 273 reported cases including 9 deaths as at 25 October. Cases are reported in Liban Zone (Somali region) and Bale zone. An estimated 459,000 people in the affected woredas including those at IDP sites are at high risk because they lack clean water and sanitation. Jerry cans, water storage tanks, and treatment tablets are needed. ?

An estimated 185,200 people are internally displaced, and additional 79,600 are affected following heavy rains in the Gambella region that caused flooding in 12 woredas and in the regional capital from August to October. Displaced people are staying in schools and health facilities that are overcrowded and inadequate, or in the open air. Protection concerns include loss of documentation and increased risks for girls and women of abuse or exploitation. People with disabilities likely need additional assistance. Livelihoods have been disrupted as 72% of cropland has been damaged (mainly maize), and around 8% of livestock died in the floods. Risk of waterborne disease outbreak is high with pools of stagnant water, inadequate sanitation, and hygiene, and damaged or contaminated water supply. Access to healthcare at nearly 80 health facilities is reportedly cut off because of the floods. Schools are flooded, impacting around 56,000 students. The displaced people urgently need food, NFIs, shelter, WASH, and protection services.?

Humanitarian Access

07/07/2022

very high constraints

Ethiopia faced Very High humanitarian access constraints in the past six months, scoring 4/5 in ACAPS Humanitarian Access Index. The humanitarian access situation has been improving because a humanitarian truce was declared as of late March 2022, to facilitate the entry of humanitarian convoys into Tigray region. Despite an increase in the number of humanitarian convoys entering, humanitarian aid, fuel and staff movement remain restricted. Conflict in Afar and Amhara has largely subsided since the end of March, allowing for better humanitarian access, but the security situation along the regional borders areas remains volatile.  

For more information you can consult our latest Global Humanitarian Access Overview – July 2022.  

Key Priorities

03/08/2022

Food: food remains a priority need across the country, particularly in northern Ethiopia, but access constraints have limited the understanding of the severity of the situation. There has been no IPC assessment conducted in the country since June 2021, making it difficult to estimate food insecurity levels. Catastrophe (IPC Phase 5) food insecurity is highly likely in parts of Afar, Amhara, and Tigray. Recent food distributions in northern Ethiopia have likely improved food security for those who can access distribution points. In drought-affected areas, more than 7.2 million people need food assistance. ?

WASH: over 4.4 million people in drought-affected areas need water, with the worst-affected areas located in Oromia, SNNP, and Somali regions. Conflict and natural disasters have also damaged WASH facilities, resulting in limited access to WASH services. ?

Health: health needs remain a priority given the impact of conflict and drought. People in need of healthcare have not had access to health services because of major access constraints and the destruction of health infrastructure.?

Insecurity in Benishangul Gumuz region

03/08/2022

Disagreements over land rights, resources, and power between different ethnic groups have been a major driver of conflict in the region, including in Metekel and Kemashi zones. Violence and insecurity have resulted in increased displacement, insecurity, civilian casualties, and access constraints for humanitarian organisations. In January 2021, conflict intensified in Metekel zone and eventually spread to Asosa and Kemashi zones and Mao Komo Special woreda. IDP figures are difficult to verify because of access constraints. IDP needs include food, water, health, emergency shelter, and NFIs, as well as critical nutrition interventions. Insecurity also affects the 70,000 refugees from Sudan and South Sudan living in the region. It limits people’s movement and access to public services, which have been suspended in many rural areas. Conflict has also damaged or destroyed an unknown number of health centres, schools, and infrastructure.?

INSECURITY IN OROMIA REGION

03/08/2022

Oromia experiences protracted conflict, which has led to mass displacement and migration, property destruction, the loss of livelihoods and assets, and strained access to basic services resulting from damages to public facilities during conflict. There is often conflicting information from local, zonal, regional, and federal sources on the severity of needs, especially with regard to food insecurity. It is also difficult to distinguish the extent to which needs are driven by conflict rather than drought or the restriction of services. There are conflict hotspots in the west and southern parts of the region (Wellega and West Guji zones) linked with the Oromo Liberation Army and counter-insurgency campaigns by the Federal Government, as well as intercommunal conflict in eastern Oromia (East and West Hararge). Insecurity led to the deterioration of access in 2021 and continues to be a major barrier to providing humanitarian assistance. ?

UPDATE FROM THE FEBRUARY 2022 RISK ANALYSIS

20/10/2022

MEDIUM RISK LEVEL

Resource-based clashes because of continuing drought increase insecurity and conflict displacement in Oromia and Somali regions

The risk has materialised; the severity of drought has resulted in the further unavailability of resources like water, food, and land and the aggravation of intercommunal conflicts in Oromia and Somali regions. The rainy season between March–May 2022 failed, making it the fourth consecutive failed rainy season?. Below-average rains are also expected for the October–November rainy season ?. By the end of August, drought had affected more than 24 million people in Ethiopia, mostly in Oromia and Somali regions?. This figure is a significant increase from the 6.8 million drought-affected people in December 2021, also mostly in Oromia and Somali?. Between January–June 2022, intercommunal conflicts increased over resources in Oromia, mostly in Guji and West Guji zones. Drought-induced needs likely contributed to the increase. Sporadic intercommunal clashes have also been recorded across the region?. Conflict, followed by drought, remains the main cause of displacement in both regions, but the link between conflict events and the effect of drought- and resource-based clashes is not always clear?. Humanitarian access to the two regions has been extremely restricted because of increased insecurity, affecting drought-response operations?.