Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)4.10 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.4.00 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.4.50 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.3.70 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.4.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Ethiopia: Pre-crisis situation in Tigray
Humanitarian Access Overview
Outbreaks in East Africa: Desert Locusts and COVID-19
About 8.4 million people in Ethiopia need humanitarian assistance, due to internal conflict, international displacement, and recurrent natural hazards. As a secondary effect of the intercommunal violence in 2019, it is estimated that there is an IDP population of 2 million people primarily located in the Amhara, SNNP and Benishangul Gumuz woreda’s. Ethiopia also hosts more than 760,000 refugees from South Sudan, Sudan, Somalia, and Eritrea. Most of them live in camp settings.?
Recurrent natural hazards, drought, and flooding result in humanitarian needs. Several consecutive years of drought in southern and southeastern Ethiopia have led to worsening food security and disrupted the livelihoods of hundreds of thousands of farmers and herders. Nationally, 8.5 million people require emergency food assistance in June 2020. The states with IPC 3 or higher are Afar, Oromiya, Somali and Tigray.?
INFORM measures Ethiopia's risk of humanitarian crisis and disaster as high at 6.9/10. Meanwhile, the lack of coping capacity stands at 6.8/10 and vulnerability at 6.6/10.?
07/01/2021: Intercommunal violence has risen in Metekel Zone, Benishangul-Gumuz region since mid-2020. Between end of July 2020 and 4 January 2021, over 101,000 people were displaced by violence from Bullen, Dangur, Dibate, Guba, Mandura and Wombera woredas of Metekel. Since September 2020, almost 350 people have been killed due to the violence, including 207 civilians killed by unidentified armed groups on 23 December. The majority of IDPs displaced to neighbouring towns, while some fled to Amhara Region. The IDPs are in inadequate makeshift shelters including schools and meeting halls. Needs of those affected by the violence are health and protection (including SGBV services), shelter/NFIs, WASH, and food. The overall insecurity in Metekel zone has made humanitarian access challenging, with staff and goods unable to reach the affected people. The regional government has provided limited life-saving assistance since July 2020, including food and NFIs, using armed escorts.?
very High constraints
This analysis covers humanitarian access over the last six months across Ethiopia. The current situation in Tigray region is extremely volatile. As of 2 December, the UN was granted humanitarian access in federal government-controlled areas in the regions affected by the conflict and by the resulting displacement. Assessments are ongoing and the situation is likely to evolve quickly
A political crisis, COVID-19, and the onset of conflict between the federal government and the government of the Tigray region has resulted in significant deterioration of humanitarian access since our previous report in July 2020. Incidents of violence have increased in frequency across the country, leading to the killing of civilians and heightened displacement in a number of regions. This poses a threat to humanitarian workers and their access to areas prone to violence or where conflicting authorities vie for control. The conflict in Tigray has been accompanied by a communications blackout across the region and humanitarian access was only granted on 2 December in federal government-controlled areas. Assessments are ongoing at the time of writing; however, areas not under control of the Federal Government Forces remain inaccessible. Several airports and transportation routes have ceased operations or been disrupted, mainly in the Tigray region. The border with Sudan has been partially closed since the beginning of the conflict. Infrastructure in Ethiopia creates regular access barriers (unequal access in different regions, poor roads, and communications that are prone to disruption, especially during climate-related events). Recent flooding has reduced mobility, with inundated roads and some damage and destruction in the Afar region. COVID-19 prevention measures have interrupted supply chains for food and humanitarian aid across the country
Read more in the latest ACAPS Humanitarian Access Overview.
WASH: Most WASH needs are in the affected populations of Afar, Amhara, Oromia and Somali regions. Within the climate and conflict affected population, 89% of IDPs do not have access to safe drinking water and 78% do not have access to working sanitation facilities.?
Food: 8.6 million people in Ethiopia have been facing high levels of acute food insecurity (IPC Phase 3 or above) between October–December 2020, as a result of the combined impact of COVID-19, conflict, desert locusts, and economic decline.?
Information Gaps and Needs
Security concerns have made certain regions (West Wellega, SNNP) inaccessible. This has substantially limited the amount and generalisability of the information.?