Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)1.90 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.2.10 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.1.50 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.2.30 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.2.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Egypt is a destination country, with refugees arriving from across the Middle East and East Africa. There are around 259,000 registered refugees and asylum seekers from 58 different countries: half are from Syria (130,000), followed by Sudan (49,000), South Sudan (20,000), Eritrea (19,000), and Ethiopia (16,000). ?
Newly arrived refugees and asylum seekers mix with an urban refugee population and are heavily reliant on humanitarian assistance.? There are no refugee camps. Most Syrian refugees and asylum seekers live in overcrowded and poor neighbourhoods of cities in governorates such as Giza (37,000), Cairo (23,000), Alexandria (21,000), Qalyubia (18,000) and Sharqia (10,000). ? Rising costs and long waiting times to obtain the necessary documentation and residence permit leave Syrians in Egypt in a precarious situation. ? Both host communities and Syrian refugees have difficulties in accessing formal employment with their livelihoods at stake.? An aggravating factor is the ongoing economic crisis Egypt is facing, with high inflation rates.?
INFORM measures Egypt's risk of humanitarian crisis and disaster to be high, at 5.1/10, with the dimension of hazard and exposure scoring the highest at 7.5/10.?
No significant recent humanitarian developments. This crisis is being monitored by our analysis team.
For more information on the humanitarian impact of the COVID-19 outbreak, please see the relevant paragraph below.
Egypt has registered 81,158 confirmed cases and 3,769 deaths as of 12 July. On 27 June, Egypt lifted a night-time curfew which was in effect since 25 March to curb the spread of the virus. Exhaustive information on the impact of the outbreak on Syrian refugees is not available, but reports point to threatened livelihoods and job loss affecting at least some of the 130,000 registered Syrians in Egypt. They might be unable to pay rent or have more difficulty accessing food. Syrian refugees formally have the same rights to access healthcare as Egyptians.?
Find more information related to the COVID-19 pandemic here.
Livelihoods: The issuing of residency permits to Syrian refugees and asylum-seekers in Egypt represents a challenge in accessing economic opportunities.?
Protection: Only 45% of surveyed Syrians had a residence permit in 2017; without these they are deprived of a legal and physical protection tool.?
Education: Lack of school access for children over 14 could lead to children working to contribute to family income instead. Lack of documentation for registration also limits access to education. ?
Information Gaps and Needs
- One of the most comprehensive needs assessment of Syrian refugees in Egypt dates back to 2017 and more recent data is lacking.
- 2,900 Palestinian refugees from Syria are estimated to live in Egypt, mostly in Cairo.? They are not registered by UNCHR and their legal status in the country is precarious, yet more precise information on their needs and number is lacking.