Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)3.60 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.4.10 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.4.00 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.2.60 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.1.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Venezuela: COVID-19 outbreak overwhelms health system
Peru: Influx of Venezuelans in Tumbes
As of September 2020, around 5.1 million Venezuelans have fled the country, and with the deteriorating political and economic situation in Venezuela, there is no indication the outflow will slow down soon. UNHCR projects the overall number of Venezuelans fleeing their country to reach 5.5 million by the end of 2020. ?
Many Venezuelans in host countries are in urgent need of food, nutrition, health, and WASH assistance; needs vary depending on the country. Protection assistance is also crucial, including legal help with documentation in order to access healthcare and employment. A significant number of Venezuelans remain in an irregular situation (due to lack of documentation, long waiting periods, high application fees, etc.), leaving them without rights and access to services and vulnerable to exploitation and abuse. As the crisis inside Venezuela continues to deteriorate, host countries are increasingly struggling to respond to the influx of Venezuelans. The rising number of people entering neighbouring countries is putting a strain on basic services, especially in border areas. ?
In order to respond to the influx, a Regional Refugee and Migrant Response Plan (RMRP) has been developed to support and complement national authorities in Latin America and the Caribbean. ?
10/03/2021: A survey on evictions of Venezuelan migrants and refugees conducted in Peru, Ecuador, Brazil, Colombia, Panama, Dominican Republic, and Guyana in October-November 2020 showed 80% of women at risk of or being evicted in the host countries in 2020, compared to 20% of men (over 1,000 interviews overall). 83% of the interviewed women reported not being provided with any agreement or authorisation to live in houses or land. This is also due to the fact that 45% of displaced Venezuelan women do not hold visas or residency permits in the host countries. Lack of visas or residency permits also prevents many of them from accessing basic services or aid, including food and health assistance.?
24/02/2021: A survey among Venezuelan refugees and migrants in seven Latin American countries showed that nearly 40% have been evicted during the pandemic and a further 38% are at risk of losing their homes. The consequences of eviction most endorsed by respondents were homelessness (75%), increased risk of getting COVID-19 (61%), and lack of access to public services (46%).?
ACAPS' team is daily monitoring the impact of COVID-19. Find more information related to the outbreak here.
Venezuelan Refugees and Migrants in the region
Source : R4V
IMPACT OF COVID-19
The COVID-19 crisis has led to significant regional population movements in Latin America, both inside countries and across borders. There are currently around 1 million refugees and asylum-seekers (mostly Venezuelans), 8.3 million IDPs, and 4.2 million people displaced and in transit throughout the region. Many Venezuelan refugees and migrants working in the informal economy in Colombia, Brazil and Peru have lost their livelihoods and face poverty, eviction, food insecurity, and increased protection risks. As a result there is a growing number of Venezuelans that are returning to Venezuela. For the first time since 2015 the number of Venezuelan refugees and migrants in Colombia has decreased, with 68,000 Venezuelans returning to their country.?
On 13 March the Colombian government announced the immediate closure of all borders to limit the spread of COVID-19 but kept open a humanitarian corridor for returnees.
As of 11 June, the situation at the border remains complex. Venezuelan authorities have announced that the humanitarian corridor in Norte de Santander and in Arauca will only be open three times a week with a total quota of 300 people per day. Several groups of Venezuelan refugees and migrants seeking to return to Venezuela have been apprehended. This could lead to the overcrowding of different point along the border and the number of migrants crossing irregularly, putting them at greater exposure to armed groups and natural and health hazards.?
Entry requirements and legal status of Venezuelans
ECUADOR: On 13 August Ecuador’s government announced the end of the “Temporary Residence Visa for Humanitarian Reasons” for Venezuelan migrants and refugees. Many migrants and refugees were unable to meet the requirements to obtain the humanitarian visa even before this announcement. COVID-19 restrictions resulted in loss of livelihoods for many Venezuelan migrants, and restricted movement of people. Venezuelans in Ecuador are now at risk of falling into a condition of greater vulnerability, facing fines they cannot pay and not being able to regularise their situation.?
PERU: After 15 June 2019, Venezuelan nationals need a Humanitarian Visa and a passport to enter Peru. Access only with Venezuelan identification documents is no longer allowed. New arrivals are in an increasingly vulnerable situation and include growing numbers of children. Nutrition, protection and WASH are priority needs.?
COLOMBIA: Migration authorities have announced two new permits aimed to give legal status to Venezuelan migrants in the country. PEP visa will be granted to Venezuelan migrants who entered Colombia before 29 November 2019. PEPFF permit will be granted to Venezuelans that receive formal employment offers. It is estimated that more than 200,000 Venezuelans would benefit from this measures. ?
TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO: A two-week registration period for irregular migrants in Trinidad and Tobago ended on 14 June 2019. Several thousand Venezuelans were unable to register due to backlogs at the three registration centres and are likely in need of protection. Limited prospects to regularise their migration status risks pushing vulnerable people to seek unsafe, informal routes into the country. ?
Update from the October 2020 Global Risk Analysis
The reactivation of Colombia’s economic activity leads to a large influx of Venezuelan refugees and migrants, who will face increased livelihood and protection needs aggravated by a rise in xenophobia
The risk for Colombia/Venezuela identified in the previous ACAPS Global Risk Analysis has materialised, with a moderate impact. On 1 September 2020, Colombia lifted most COVID-19-related restrictions that were having an impact on the economy. As a result, many Venezuelan refugees and migrants decided to return to Colombia or migrate for the first time, despite the border remaining closed until at least 1 June 2021.? As at 31 December 2020, there were 1.7 million Venezuelan refugees and migrants in Colombia; of these, an estimated 967,000 were without regular status.?
As a result of the pandemic, the economic resources of Colombian households have decreased, which has led to increased competition over resources between members of host communities and Venezuelans, contributing to a rise in xenophobia.? Host community members have shown their discontent at the increased presence of Venezuelan refugees and migrants through protests, physical and psychological violence, hate speech, and discrimination.? Comments on social media reflect polarisation and worsening perceptions of Venezuelans in Colombia.?
The closed border and lack of documentation have led to an increase in Venezuelans in Colombia with irregular status and no access to basic services, which also leads to protection concerns. On 8 February however, Colombian President Iván Duque presented the Temporary Protection Statute for Venezuelan Migrants for the regularisation of around 1 million Venezuelans who can prove they were in Colombia before 31 January 2021. This will facilitate their access to healthcare and legal employment opportunities.?
Read the October 2020 Risk Analysis here.