Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)4.60 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.4.50 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.4.50 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.4.80 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.4.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Humanitarian Access Overview
DRC: Mount Nyiragongo eruption
DRC: Impact of COVID-19, conflict and policy reforms on education
A complex emergency has persisted in DRC for more than 20 years. Population displacement is frequent and repeated, and mostly driven by armed clashes and intercommunal violence between foreign, self-defence, and other armed groups. More than 5 million people are internally displaced. The situation in the eastern provinces remains particularly volatile; humanitarian needs are projected to be higher in 2021 than at the beginning of 2020, as displaced and local populations are faced with violence, food insecurity, floods, disease outbreaks, and the secondary effects of COVID-19 restrictions. Over 941,000 refugees from DRC live in African host countries. DRC also hosts about 527,000 refugees, mainly from Rwanda, Central African Republic, Congo, and Angola.? Since mid-December 2020, 92,000 refugees fleeing violence related to the 27 December elections in CAR have arrived in Bas-Uele, Nord-Ubangi, and Sud-Ubangi provinces. Most of the arrivals are located in villages close to the river border, where access is a challenge and where host communities were already struggling to meet their own needs. ?
Over 7,900 protection incidents were reported across DRC in 2020, a 21% increase from 2019 attributable to the deteriorating security situation in conflict-affected areas. 93% of recorded violations occurred in Nord-Kivu, Ituri, and Sud-Kivu. Reported extrajudicial killings by armed groups increased dramatically, from 1,029 in 2019 to 2,487 in 2020. ?
19.6 million people – 29% of the analysed population – are projected to need food assistance for the January–June 2021 period. This is an increase from the 13.56 million (28% of the analysed population) in the same period last year. It is, however, a decrease from the July–December 2020 period (21.8 million, or 33% of the analysed population), mainly because predictions for the January–June 2021 period include the easing of COVID-19 restrictions and favourable weather conditions. Insecurity, displacement, and poor transport infrastructure will continue to hamper the population’s access to food.?
16/09/2021: Intercommunal clashes in Boyawozo village, Businga territory (Nord Ubangi province) resulted in several deaths and injured people. At least 39 homes and schools were burnt and more than 400 people displaced to several camps in the province. The IDPs urgently need shelter, food, NFIs, medical care and school supplies.?
16/09/2021: Over 16-18 August, at least 20,700 people fled Batwa Kadimba, Mweka territory (Kasai region), to other villages in Mweka and Dimbelenge territories following clashes between the Congolese army and an armed group. Needs of the displaced are not yet known.?
08/09/2021: On 4 September, at least 30 people were killed in Luna-Samboko village, in Irumu territory (Ituri province) in an attack attributed to the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF). This happened four days after a convoy heading to Beni was ambushed in an attack also attributed to the ADF, resulting in 10 people dead and 14 vehicles burned. At least 534 fatalities been recorded in Ituri since President Tshisekedi declared a state of siege in eastern DRC (Ituri and North Kivu provinces) on 6 May 2021, in response to rising insecurity. The violence is hampering humanitarian access in Ituri and resulting in displacement. The number of people displaced by these attacks is unclear, but Ituri currently hosts some 1.7 million IDPs in total. Newly displaced people seek refuge within local communities, adding pressure to the very limited resources available. IDPs' priority needs are health, food, shelter and WASH.?
Very high constraints
Humanitarian access constraints continue to be very high, particularly in Ituri, North Kivu, and South Kivu provinces, because of increasing attacks targeting civilians. Insecurity and transport difficulties caused by limited infrastructure disrupt people’s access to basic services. Administrative procedures remain challenging for all humanitarian organisations and agencies. NGOs face delays in their registration processes, and ad hoc or unofficial taxes are imposed on humanitarian organisations by different authorities. COVID 19 measures resulted in the restriction of humanitarian personnel and goods movements and delays in the delivery of humanitarian projects’ permits. Armed attacks, especially in Ituri province, often lead to the temporary relocation of staff and suspension of humanitarian operations, leaving displaced people and host communities without the basic services these organisations provide. Attacks targeting humanitarian personnel and their convoys are often reported, mainly in the eastern provinces. Schools were destroyed in Ituri, North Kivu, Tanganyika, and South Kivu. Poor road and airport infrastructure creates a major logistic problem for the delivery of aid. Humanitarian access is restricted in certain areas, especially during the rainy season.
Read more in the latest ACAPS Humanitarian Access Overview.
Health: Displacement often leads to the loss or deterioration of access to health services. Poor WASH infrastructure contributes to the spread and risk of outbreaks of communicable diseases such as measles, cholera, malaria, Ebola, and COVID-19.
Protection: Protection concerns remain high, particularly among IDPs, returnees, refugees, and host communities. Those who commit protection violations often go unpunished and victims have limited access to support structures. Reported GBV incidents increased by 86% between January–September 2020 compared to the same period in 2019. This increase can likely be attributed to continued violence and displacement and COVID-19-related restrictions, as well as increased public awareness and operational capacity which have allowed for increased reporting of GBV cases.
Food security: Conflict and displacement are the main drivers of food insecurity. Seasonal floods, along with crop and animal diseases, further affect livelihoods. Poor road infrastructure limits access to markets. ?