Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)4.60 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.4.50 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.4.50 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.4.80 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.4.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Humanitarian Access Overview
DRC: Mount Nyiragongo eruption
DRC: Impact of COVID-19, conflict and policy reforms on education
A complex emergency has persisted in DRC for more than 20 years. Population displacement is frequent and repeated, and mostly driven by armed clashes and intercommunal violence between foreign, self-defence, and other armed groups. More than 5 million people are internally displaced. The situation in the eastern provinces remains particularly volatile; humanitarian needs are projected to be higher in 2021 than at the beginning of 2020, as displaced and local populations are faced with violence, food insecurity, floods, disease outbreaks, and the secondary effects of COVID-19 restrictions. Over 941,000 refugees from DRC live in African host countries. DRC also hosts about 527,000 refugees, mainly from Rwanda, Central African Republic, Congo, and Angola.? Since mid-December 2020, 92,000 refugees fleeing violence related to the 27 December elections in CAR have arrived in Bas-Uele, Nord-Ubangi, and Sud-Ubangi provinces. Most of the arrivals are located in villages close to the river border, where access is a challenge and where host communities were already struggling to meet their own needs. ?
Over 7,900 protection incidents were reported across DRC in 2020, a 21% increase from 2019 attributable to the deteriorating security situation in conflict-affected areas. 93% of recorded violations occurred in Nord-Kivu, Ituri, and Sud-Kivu. Reported extrajudicial killings by armed groups increased dramatically, from 1,029 in 2019 to 2,487 in 2020. ?
19.6 million people – 29% of the analysed population – are projected to need food assistance for the January–June 2021 period. This is an increase from the 13.56 million (28% of the analysed population) in the same period last year. It is, however, a decrease from the July–December 2020 period (21.8 million, or 33% of the analysed population), mainly because predictions for the January–June 2021 period include the easing of COVID-19 restrictions and favourable weather conditions. Insecurity, displacement, and poor transport infrastructure will continue to hamper the population’s access to food.?
18/10/2021: Around 16,000 people have fled Mashala, Mabondo and Kanani villages (Tanganyika province) to more stable areas including Kisengo city since the end of July following military operations against armed groups. Most of the IDPs are with host families while the others are in makeshift camps. Food, NFIs, shelter, medical care and protection are their priority needs.?
13/10/2021: The health situation in Tanganyika province has been particularly challenging since the start of the year with outbreaks of endemic disease and limited medical services available. A cholera outbreak was declared in mid-August in Kalemie town, with 1,016 cases reported as at 26 September – 630 of these since 6 September – and ten related deaths. Patients in the most affected health zones (Kalemie and Nyemba) have only one operational health facility they can go to, which is overwhelmed. In addition to cholera, 284,000 cases of malaria including 686 deaths have been reported this year. This disease particularly affects displaced populations whose access to basic healthcare is very limited. Over the past three years, armed violence in Tanganyika province has drastically reduced access to healthcare and many health facilities have been destroyed or looted. The limited access to health services is particularly affecting children, many of whom are at risk of suffering from malnutrition, diarrhoea, and measles.?
08/10/2021: Since 2 September, around 11,275 people fled Kainama and sought refuge in Eringeti village (Béni territory, North Kivu), following rumours of suspected Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) presence in the surrounding villages. Most of the IDPs are with host families. They are in urgent need of food, cash, healthcare, WASH, and NFIs.?
05/10/2021: Between 25 August and 9 September, around 17,000 people fled southern localities of Irumu territory (Ituri province) and Beni territory (North Kivu province) to Kyondo health zone (Beni) following multiple attacks by armed men. A needs assessment conducted between 10 and 12 September for 9,6000 IDPs identified as most urgent needs food, WASH, health care and NFIs.?
04/10/2021: Since 1 September, around 4,500 people fled preventively their localities to Luna locality (Ituri) following an attack attributed to Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) on a civilian convoy escorted by the Congolese armed forces in Ofaye village (Ituri). IDPs need assistance in protection, food, health, WASH, shelter and education.?
Very high constraints
Humanitarian access constraints continue to be very high, particularly in Ituri, North Kivu, and South Kivu provinces, because of increasing attacks targeting civilians. Insecurity and transport difficulties caused by limited infrastructure disrupt people’s access to basic services. Administrative procedures remain challenging for all humanitarian organisations and agencies. NGOs face delays in their registration processes, and ad hoc or unofficial taxes are imposed on humanitarian organisations by different authorities. COVID 19 measures resulted in the restriction of humanitarian personnel and goods movements and delays in the delivery of humanitarian projects’ permits. Armed attacks, especially in Ituri province, often lead to the temporary relocation of staff and suspension of humanitarian operations, leaving displaced people and host communities without the basic services these organisations provide. Attacks targeting humanitarian personnel and their convoys are often reported, mainly in the eastern provinces. Schools were destroyed in Ituri, North Kivu, Tanganyika, and South Kivu. Poor road and airport infrastructure creates a major logistic problem for the delivery of aid. Humanitarian access is restricted in certain areas, especially during the rainy season.
Read more in the latest ACAPS Humanitarian Access Overview.
Health: Displacement often leads to the loss or deterioration of access to health services. Poor WASH infrastructure contributes to the spread and risk of outbreaks of communicable diseases such as measles, cholera, malaria, Ebola, and COVID-19.
Protection: Protection concerns remain high, particularly among IDPs, returnees, refugees, and host communities. Those who commit protection violations often go unpunished and victims have limited access to support structures. Reported GBV incidents increased by 86% between January–September 2020 compared to the same period in 2019. This increase can likely be attributed to continued violence and displacement and COVID-19-related restrictions, as well as increased public awareness and operational capacity which have allowed for increased reporting of GBV cases.
Food security: Conflict and displacement are the main drivers of food insecurity. Seasonal floods, along with crop and animal diseases, further affect livelihoods. Poor road infrastructure limits access to markets. ?