Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)4.50 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.4.50 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.4.50 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.4.40 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.4.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
CAR: Displacement resulting from electoral violence
DRC: Impact of COVID-19, conflict and policy reforms on education
Humanitarian Access Overview
A complex emergency has persisted in DRC for more than 20 years. Population displacement is frequent and repeated, and mostly driven by armed clashes and intercommunal violence between foreign, self-defence, and other armed groups. More than 5 million people are internally displaced. The situation in the eastern provinces remains particularly volatile; humanitarian needs are projected to be higher in 2021 than at the beginning of 2020, as displaced and local populations are faced with violence, food insecurity, floods, disease outbreaks, and the secondary effects of COVID-19 restrictions. Over 941,000 refugees from DRC live in African host countries. DRC also hosts about 527,000 refugees, mainly from Rwanda, Central African Republic, Congo, and Angola.? Since mid-December 2020, 92,000 refugees fleeing violence related to the 27 December elections in CAR have arrived in Bas-Uele, Nord-Ubangi, and Sud-Ubangi provinces. Most of the arrivals are located in villages close to the river border, where access is a challenge and where host communities were already struggling to meet their own needs. ?
Over 7,900 protection incidents were reported across DRC in 2020, a 21% increase from 2019 attributable to the deteriorating security situation in conflict-affected areas. 93% of recorded violations occurred in Nord-Kivu, Ituri, and Sud-Kivu. Reported extrajudicial killings by armed groups increased dramatically, from 1,029 in 2019 to 2,487 in 2020. ?
19.6 million people – 29% of the analysed population – are projected to need food assistance for the January–June 2021 period. This is an increase from the 13.56 million (28% of the analysed population) in the same period last year. It is, however, a decrease from the July–December 2020 period (21.8 million, or 33% of the analysed population), mainly because predictions for the January–June 2021 period include the easing of COVID-19 restrictions and favourable weather conditions. Insecurity, displacement, and poor transport infrastructure will continue to hamper the population’s access to food.?
Clashes between the DRC army and non-state armed groups in Masisi territory, North Kivu province have displaced around 7,500 people. They are sheltering in a health centre and urgently need humanitarian assistance, but access is a challenge as clashes continue. A one-month state of siege was declared in North Kivu and Ituri provinces due to the increasing violence.?
ACAPS' team is daily monitoring the impact of COVID-19. Find more information related to the outbreak here.
Very high constraints
The security situation remains volatile because of armed clashes and inter-ethnic conflicts, particularly in Nord-Kivu, Sud-Kivu, and Ituri provinces. Insecurity hampers the population’s access to services and aid, as attacks often displace people from towns and villages into the forest and other remote areas. Main roads in the eastern provinces are targets of violence, hindering the freedom of movement of people in need. People are also required to pay to pass through checkpoints, which are set up by both security forces and armed groups. NGOs have reported difficulties in registration processes and obtaining visas. Humanitarian operations are sometimes temporarily suspended because of violence. In some areas, access is subject to extensive negotiations with several parties. Armed groups ambush and rob aid convoys and abduct aid workers for ransom. In 2020, ten humanitarian workers were killed, 19 were injured, and 54 were kidnapped. Certain areas can be completely cut off from road access when flooding occurs. Poor road conditions – including large stretches of unpaved road – limit travel, particularly for heavy vehicles used for transporting aid.
Read more in the latest ACAPS Humanitarian Access Overview.
Health: Displacement often leads to the loss or deterioration of access to health services. Poor WASH infrastructure contributes to the spread and risk of outbreaks of communicable diseases such as measles, cholera, malaria, Ebola, and COVID-19.
Protection: Protection concerns remain high, particularly among IDPs, returnees, refugees, and host communities. Those who commit protection violations often go unpunished and victims have limited access to support structures. Reported GBV incidents increased by 86% between January–September 2020 compared to the same period in 2019. This increase can likely be attributed to continued violence and displacement and COVID-19-related restrictions, as well as increased public awareness and operational capacity which have allowed for increased reporting of GBV cases.
Food security: Conflict and displacement are the main drivers of food insecurity. Seasonal floods, along with crop and animal diseases, further affect livelihoods. Poor road infrastructure limits access to markets. ?