Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)2.90 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.2.30 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.3.30 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.2.90 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.1.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Climate shocks, including droughts and flash floods, have resulted in rising levels of malnutrition, displacement, food insecurity, and recurring disease outbreaks. Almost 280,000 Djiboutians, or 29% of the population, are projected to experience moderate and severe levels of food insecurity between 2018 and 2022, with the highest concentrations of severely food insecure people in the regions of Obock, Ali Sabieh and Dikhil.?
In addition to climate shocks, a main driver of food insecurity is Djibouti’s dependence on imports for 90% of its food needs, which means it is highly vulnerable to the fluctuations of international market prices. Agricultural production accounts for only 3% of the GDP as less than the 0.04% of Djibouti’s land area is arable land. Rains are also scarce, with an average of 130mm each year.?
High levels of unemployment and widespread poverty cause further humanitarian needs. 76% of the population between the age of 15 and 35 is unemployed.?
Djibouti is a major migration route in the Horn of Africa with up to 400-600 migrants crossing the country daily on their way to the Arabian Peninsula. 100,000 migrants are estimated to live in Djibouti, the majority from Ethiopia, along with 30,000 refugees from Somalia, Yemen, Eritrea and Ethiopia. A large mobile population with scarce access to water and sanitation heightens risk of disease spread in case of outbreaks.?
WASH: levels of access to sanitation and safe water sources are low. More than 70% of people in cities can access sanitation services; only 16.4% in rural areas. Open defecation is practiced by a minority of the population. Reparation of latrines destroyed by cyclone Sagar in 2018 and constructions of new ones to prevent open defecation were still ongoing when floods hit in November 2019.?
Health: Epidemics of acute watery diarrhoea (AWD) are common, with almost 3,500 cases in 2018 due to lack of access to safe water and low sanitation coverage, especially on migration routes. The number of yearly malaria cases has been increasing since 2012 with 43,000 cases reported in 2019 despite recent governmental efforts aimed at controlling the epidemics.?
Food security: around one-third of the population is chronically food insecure. People in rural areas have the highest levels of food insecurity due to recurring droughts and lack of access to basic services.?
Desert Locust Outbreak
The desert locust outbreak in the Horn of Africa has worsened since December 2019. Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Uganda, Eritrea, Djibouti and South Sudan are most affected. As of 6 June, second-generation spring swarms formed in northwest Kenya, eastern Ethiopia and parts of Somalia. The ability of desert locusts to form large swarms and consume vast quantities of crops and vegetation poses severe risks to agriculture, livelihoods, and food security. In the areas currently affected by locust outbreaks, 13 million people in Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Uganda, South Sudan, and Sudan already face severe food insecurity (IPC Phase 3). This population is particularly at risk. International and local efforts to support the region have been ramped up, with vast areas being treated to stop the migration of the swarms. ?