2022

Colombia: protection concerns and community protection responses
Created: 18/11/2022 +

Overview

The dynamics of violence and armed conflict have remained significant throughout Colombia despite the signing of the Peace Agreement between the Government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC-EP) in 2016. Colombian women, girls, boys, men, and communities in general face numerous protection concerns, including forced displacements, confinements, and massacres, which have increased since 2016.

This report provides an overview of the main protection concerns in Colombia. It exposes the main threats of armed conflict and its differentiated impact on the population. It presents by population group the community’s coping mechanisms and reactive responses to mitigate, adapt to, and recover from the various protection threats they are exposed to.

This report is available in Spanish here.

Panama-Colombia border: migration crisis
Created: 02/11/2022 +

Overview

Between January–September 2022, more than 150,000 people crossed into Panama from Colombia through the Darién Gap. Of this number, 71% were Venezuelans. Around 14,500 were children. Although migrants have historically used the Darién route to reach Central America, the flow of migrants through this route considerably increased between 2021–2022. A large number of migrants stranded on the Colombian side of the border, generating needs for healthcare, food, and shelter.

Colombia: Impact of floods in La Guajira
Created: 13/10/2022 +

Overview

On 8 October, category one hurricane Julia swept through La Guajira department in northeastern Colombia, with extreme rainfall and maximum sustained winds of 65km/h that caused flooding. The hurricane affected over 159,000 people. Uribia municipality faced the highest impact with at least 22,000 people affected as at 8 October. The number of households affected in Uribia increased from 3,000 on 8 October to 5,000 households on 10 October. Over 60% of the affected population are Wayúu indigenous people, 12% are Venezuelan migrants and refugees, and 40% are children and adolescents.

Colombia: Nariño humanitarian overview and differentiated impact on specific groups
Created: 07/10/2022 +

Overview

In 2022, high levels of violence, poverty, and unmet basic needs have worsened the humanitarian crisis in the subregions of Telembí, Sanquianga, and Pacífico Sur in Nariño department. As at 31 August, armed conflict affected a total of 86,400 people in 45 events. In the same period, the conflict killed 12 human rights defenders, including one Afro-descendant and nine indigenous people, and armed groups committed five massacres affecting 17 people.

This report aims to provide an overview of the displacement and confinement situation and the differentiated impact on indigenous peoples and Afrodescendant communities observed between January–August 2022. It presents the main conflict dynamics in the subregions of Telembí, Sanquianga, and Pacífico del Sur in Nariño department.

This report is available in Spanish here.

Colombia: Antipersonnel mines
Created: 02/06/2022 +

Overview

Colombia is the country with the second-highest number of victims of antipersonnel mines (APMs) in the world, resulting from more than five decades of conflict. In 2016, the Colombian Government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC-EP) signed the Peace Agreement, which established guidelines for the identification of mined areas and an ambitious humanitarian demining programme. Since then, there has been a notable decline in APM and explosive remnants of war (ERW) events in the country.

This report analyses events involving APMs and ERW in Colombia since the signing of the Peace Agreement with the FARC-EP in 2016 and their humanitarian impact. It also highlights the existing and growing risk of casualties from APMs and ERW.

This report is available in Spanish here.

Colombia: Escalation of violence in Putumayo
Created: 31/03/2022 +

Overview

Putumayo, a department in southwest Colombia bordering Ecuador and Perú, is a strategic corridor for human trafficking, drug and arms trafficking, and resource extraction. The collective Putumayo-Caquetá zone has 22,041 hectares of coca crops, making it the third-largest zone in the country. Around 348,000 people, or 0.8% of the national population, live in Putumayo. 50,694 people (18% of the Putumayo population) are indigenous, and 10,262 (4%) are Afro-Colombians. Indigenous communities are especially at risk of confinement and limitations on their daily activities.

Access the report in Spanish here.

Colombia: Impact of the armed conflict on children and youth
Created: 31/03/2022 +

Overview

According to Colombia’s Victims Unit, between 1985 and 2021, armed conflict in the country affected more than two million children and youth,1 including through displacement, confinement, recruitment, abuse, and sexual violence. Although violence decreased after the 2016 demobilisation of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARCEP), attempts by other armed groups to take over the power vacuum in areas previously dominated by the FARC-EP has increased conflict levels. Between 2020 and 2021, there was an astounding 88% increase (from 12,481 to 23,465) in the number of conflict-affected children and youth. Displacement impacted around 13,000 children among those affected by conflict in 2021. The number of children and adolescents recruited into armed groups to bolster their ranks has also increased.

Access the report in Spanish here.

Colombia: Update on the overview of risks from November 2021 to April 2022
Created: 09/03/2022 +

Overview

ACAPS identified five risks to the humanitarian context and published an overview report in November 2021 looking at the following six months. After monitoring each risk and its corresponding indicators and reviewing any relevant developments since November, ACAPS analysts and technical experts were able to update the risk outlook, creating the basis for this risk update.

Access the report in Spanish here.

Colombia: Confinements
Created: 21/02/2022 +

Overview

This document analyses forced confinement in Colombia, identifying the types of confinement, trends in various departments, and the most affected populations. It also shows the impact of confinements on communities, including the sociocultural impact. It is based on a review of secondary sources. Interviews with key informants provided additional information. 

Access the report in Spanish here

Colombia: Violence in Arauca department
Created: 31/01/2022 +

Overview

On 2 January 2022, confrontations began in rural areas along Arauca River on the Colombia-Venezuela border. As at 24 January, the Colombian Government and humanitarian organisations recorded 36 people killed, around 1,530 IDPs (407 families), 21 families displaced from Venezuela, and at least five indigenous communities still affected by confinement in the department of Arauca and Boyacá. On 27 January 2022, local mayoral officials reported a lack of shelter, food, and hygiene items. The dispute between the armed groups remains active, with explosions and kidnappings as expressions of war.

2021

Colombia: Regional needs analysis - Chocó
Created: 22/12/2021 +

Overview

Following the demobilisation of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC-EP) as a result of the Peace Agreement with the Colombian Government in 2016, three dynamics developed in Chocó: in the south of the department, the National Liberation Army (ELN) maintained control of most municipalities; to the north, in Chocó's Urabá, the Gaitanist Self-Defence Forces of Colombia (AGC) confronted other armed groups and consolidated itself as the hegemonic actor; in the centre, territories were disputed between AGC and ELN. In 2020-2021, these dynamics changed as the AGC tried to expand towards the centre and south of the department, provoking new clashes with the ELN. As a result, there has been an increase in forced displacement, confinement, homicides, and other manifestations of violence against the civilian population.

Access the report in Spanish here

Colombia: Regional needs analysis - Meta & Guaviare
Created: 22/12/2021 +

Overview

The departments of Meta and Guaviare have historically been affected by Colombia’s armed conflict because of the presence of armed groups that seek to control strategic routes for the commercialisation of drugs and for irregular economies. This report provides a comprehensive analysis of local dynamics, humanitarian needs and the factors likely to aggravate them, and an outlook for the coming months in the departments of Meta and Guaviare. The analysis is based on secondary data and KIIs.

Access the report in Spanish here

Colombia: Floods in the department of La Guajira
Created: 19/11/2021 +

Overview

The department of La Guajira is located in the extreme north of Colombia, on the Colombian Caribbean Coast. It has two rainy seasons during the year – one between April–May and the other between September–November. With a landscape of majorly clay loam soil, La Guajira is a department where increased rainfall frequently leads to flooding. In fact, more than half of the natural disasters affecting the department are floods. According to forecasts by the Colombian Institute of Hydrology, Meteorology and Environmental Studies, rainfall in La Guajira in November 2021 will be 40–60% higher than the historical average. 

Colombia: Overview of risks from November 2021 to April 2022
Created: 17/11/2021 +

Overview

This risk report seeks to inform humanitarian decision makers and facilitate response planning through an analysis of the following:

  • the possible evolution of the crisis dynamics in Colombia over the next six months (November 2021 to April 2022)
  • factors that may lead to changes in the humanitarian situation
  • humanitarian needs that may arise if risks materialise.

Access the report in Spanish here.

Colombia: Nariño and the Telembí triangle
Created: 29/09/2021 +

Overview

The department of Nariño is a strategic point for drug trafficking and other irregular economies such as illegal mining and illicit crops. The three municipalities that make up the Telembí triangle (Barbacoas, Magüí Payán, and Roberto Payán) have been particularly affected by the conflict and the actions of armed groups. The changing dynamics of the armed conflict in the region and the limited response capacity have increased the needs of communities in Nariño and the Telembí triangle. At least ten armed groups are disputing territory in the department. 

Access the report in Spanish here.

Colombia: Floods in La Mojana subregion
Created: 14/09/2021 +

Overview

On 27 August 2021, the Cauca River in the north of Colombia flooded, causing serious damage to five municipalities in La Mojana subregion. La Mojana is located in the north of Colombia, between the departments of Bolivar, Sucre, Antioquia, and Cordoba. It is surrounded by the Magdalena, Cauca, and San Jorge rivers. The flooding was a result of atypical rains during August and a rupture in a dam that functioned as a retaining wall for the river, affecting all municipalities of the subregion.

Colombia: Post-conflict violence in Cauca
Created: 06/08/2021 +

Overview

In 2016, the Colombian Government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC-EP) signed a peace agreement. While the demobilisation of the FARC-EP was seen as a first step towards pacifying many regions of Colombia, armed groups continued and even escalated the violent attacks in several regions, including the Cauca department. Confrontations among these groups have resulted in forced displacement, confinement of llocal populations to their homes, and limited access for humanitarian workers. These armed groups have also attacked civilians – especially human rights defenders and indigenous and Afro-descendant leaders. 

CrisisInSIght: Global Risk Analysis
Created: 26/03/2021 +

Overview

ACAPS Global Risk Analysis outlines a number of key contexts where a notable deterioration may occur within the next six months, leading to a spike in humanitarian needs. We continue to monitor closely the risks identified in order to establish how they have evolved and if they have materialised. You can find the updates of the risks identified in Global Risk Report – October 2020 at the end of this analysis. The objective is to enable humanitarian decisionmakers to understand potential changes that could have humanitarian consequences. By exposing the possible developments and understanding their impact, these potential changes can be taken into account in planning and preparedness.

Colombia and Venezuela: Needs and vulnerabilities of the Caminantes
Created: 21/01/2021 +

Overview

The humanitarian crisis in Venezuela continues to drive refugee and migration flows into Latin American countries. Because of a loss of economic resources – in some cases caused or aggravated by COVID-19-related restrictions – an increasing number of refugees and migrants are travelling in part or entirely on foot (so-called ‘caminantes’). During their journey, they are exposed to a series of protection risks and are in need of basic goods and services such as food, water, and shelter. 

Access the report in Spanish here. This product has been translated by Translators Without Borders.

2020

Colombia: Violence against civilians
Created: 27/11/2020 +

Overview

Reports of violence against civilians in Colombia have increased in 2020. As projected by ACAPS, armed groups and criminal organisations have taken advantage of COVID-19 containment measures to expand their territorial and social control, often by exploiting and inflicting violence on local communities. This violence is mainly concentrated in remote, rural areas where armed groups compete for control of illicit economies and state presence is weak. The departments of Cauca, Meta, Putumayo, Chocó, Nariño and Antioquia are especially affected. Indigenous and Afro-Colombian communities, who often live in these conflict-affected areas, are especially vulnerable to this violence and are targeted by armed groups for opposing their activities. Venezuelan refugee and migrant households are also at risk due to economic vulnerabilities and lack of access to support services. Women and girls are also at an increased risk of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) in the context of increased conflict. COVID-19 containment measures leave many of them isolated and cut off from protection services.

Read the report in Spanish

Latin America: COVID-19 and impact on education
Created: 03/11/2020 +

Overview

As at 29 October 2020, Latin America had reported close to 10.9 million cases of COVID-19 and close to 393,000 deaths. The region accounts for less than one tenth of the world’s population, yet has one third of the recorded deaths from COVID-19. Most schools in the region have remained closed since initial lockdown in March. Only two countries, Nicaragua and Uruguay, have fully reopened schools, while Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Colombia have partially reopened schools. Schools in the remaining 12 countries of Central and Southern America remain closed, the majority through the end of 2020 or early 2021. As at 30 September, approximately 98% of more than 131 million school-aged children in Latin America were not receiving face-to-face education.

Read the report in Spanish

CrisisInSIght: Global Risk Analysis
Created: 03/11/2020 +

Overview

ACAPS Global Risk Analysis outlines a number of key contexts where a notable deterioration may occur within the next six months, leading to a spike in humanitarian needs. We continue to monitor closely the risks identified in order to establish how they have evolved and if they have materialised. You can find the updates of the risks identified in Global Risk Report – March 2020 at the end of this analysis. The objective is to enable humanitarian decisionmakers to understand potential changes that could have humanitarian consequences. By exposing the possible developments and understanding their impact, these potential changes can be taken into account in planning and preparedness.

Colombia: Risk Overview
Created: 09/09/2020 +

Overview

This risk report seeks to inform humanitarian decision-makers and facilitate response planning through an analysis of possible evolution of the crisis dynamics in Colombia over the next six months in 2020 and into early 2021, factors that will likely provoke a change in the situation and humanitarian needs which are likely to arise if the risks materialize.
The first case of COVID-19 in Colombia was reported on 6 March 2020. As of 7 September, 666.500 cases of COVID-19 have been reported. Bogotá, the capital city, is the most affected area, with 226.000 cases. Since the beginning of the outbreak, the Colombian government has implemented a series of containment measures, including closure of borders and schools and a national lockdown. 

Read the report in Spanish

Colombia: Impact of COVID-19 Government Measures
Created: 16/04/2020 +

Overview

The first case of COVID-19 was reported in Colombia on 6 March 2020. The government has since implemented a series of containment measures to mitigate disease spread and strengthen the Colombian health system. The containment measures themselves have a secondary impact, affecting humanitarian needs among vulnerable population groups. The purpose of this report is to support the humanitarian response in Colombia to understand the following issues:

  • How do government measures mitigate the epidemic impact on vulnerable population groups?
  • What are their factors of vulnerability in relation to the measures?
  • Which humanitarian needs are likely to arise in the short to medium term?

The primary focus of the analysis is on Colombian internally displaced people (IDPs), Venezuelan refugees and migrants, and, to a lesser extent, Colombian host communities and Colombian returnees, although some findings and conclusions apply to broader population groups (such as low-income households in general). This report does not present specialised health analysis and does not focus on government measures directly related to health.

Read this report in Spanish

CrisisInSight: Global Risk Analysis
Created: 25/03/2020 +

Overview

ACAPS' Global Risk Analysis outlines a number of key contexts where a notable deterioration may occur within the next six months, leading to a spike in humanitarian needs. ACAPS analysts conduct daily monitoring and independent analysis of more than 150 countries to support evidence-based decision-making in the humanitarian sector.

For the next six months, ACAPS has identified risks in the following contexts: Burkina Faso, Colombia, Ethiopia, Honduras, India, Libya, Maynmar, Nigeria, and Yemen.

The objective of ACAPS’ Global Risk Analysis is to enable humanitarian decision makers to understand potential changes that would likely have humanitarian consequences. By exposing the more probable developments and understanding their impact, they can be included in planning and preparedness, which should improve response.

See previous Global Risk Analysis report

2019

Colombia: Displacement in Choco
Created: 05/11/2019 +

Overview

In October 2019 a re-intensification of armed clashes between the ELN (Ejército de Liberación Nacional) and the AGC (Autodefensas Gaitanistas de Colombia) for control of territories and resources in the municipality of Bojayá, Chocó department (northwest Colombia) have caused the confinement of 2,250 indigenous and Afro-Colombian people. Their freedom of movement has been severely curtailed as they cannot leave their place of residence. One civilian was allegedly killed in crossfire between the armed groups and 16 local leaders were threatened. As time goes by the humanitarian needs of those confined worsen. They do not have access to their usual sources of livelihood (fishing, agriculture), security hazards limit humanitarian access to the area, and the governmental response so far has not been adequate.

Humanitarian Access Overview
Created: 31/10/2019 +

Overview

ACAPS Humanitarian Access Overview provides a snapshot of the contexts where humanitarian action faces the biggest constraints. Our analysts have scored each context on nine variables in order to rank and compare humanitarian access worldwide. Crisis affected populations in about 60 countries are not getting the humanitarian assistance they need due to access constraints. Eight new countries were included in the ranking since the last ACAPS HumanitarianAccess report released in May 2019. Among the indicators, ‘Physical constraints’ and ‘Restrictions and obstruction to services and assistance’ are the most common challenges. This report presents the score boards for all the countries assessed. Narratives are provided only for countries with high, very high, or extreme constraints.

Humanitarian Access Overview
Created: 02/05/2019 +

Overview

We looked into nine indicators to rank and compare the humanitarian access levels worldwide. Affected populations in more than 50 countries are not getting proper humanitarian assistance due to access constraints. Humanitarian access has deteriorated in Colombia, Iraq, Myanmar, Nigeria, Pakistan, and Somalia over the past six months. 13 new countries entered the ranking since the latest ACAPS Humanitarian Access report released in August 2018. Physical constraints and restriction/obstruction of access to services and assistance are the most common challenges.

Colombia: expanding displacement and protection crisis
Created: 01/03/2019 +

Overview

Following the signing of the peace agreement between the Government and the FARC in 2016, there has been a reshuffling of illegal armed groups such as the ELN and EPL, with an escalation of fighting for the control of land and illicit crop production in areas vacated by FARC. Over 30,000 people were displaced in mass displacements in 2018, double the amount recorded in 2017. Attacks against human rights activists and community leaders also increased in 2018. The Venezuelan refugee crisis, with over 1 million Venezuelans now living in Colombia, is aggravating the overall humanitarian situation. The convergence of both crises is particularly severe in the Catatumbo region, Norte de Santander, where the presence of armed groups is causing displacement and increasing protection needs for Venezuelan migrants.

2018

Venezuela: Regional update
Created: 05/09/2018 +

Overview

The deepening political and socio-economic crisis in Venezuela has led to one of the biggest mass displacements in the history of South America. Although no consolidated figure for the region is available, all sources indicate that migration from Venezuela to neighbouring countries is drastically increasing. 117,300 Venezuelans filed asylum claims in the first half of 2018 alone, already more than the number of asylum claims reported at the end of 2017 (113,438).

Many Venezuelans in host countries are in urgent need of humanitarian assistance. Food, nutrition, health and WASH needs have been identified. Protection assistance is also crucial, including legal help with documentation in order to access healthcare and employment. Venezuelan migrants also face growing xenophobia from host communities, and are at risk of exploitation, trafficking, and SGBV.

As the crisis inside Venezuela continues to deteriorate, host countries are increasingly struggling to respond to the influx of Venezuelans. The rising number of people entering neighbouring countries is putting a strain on basic services, especially in border areas. Recent measures in several countries deter Venezuelans from entering, such as limiting admission to people with a passport, or enforcing quotas at the border.

Venezuela: Humanitarian Crisis
Created: 23/05/2018 +

Overview

The economic crisis in Venezuela has led to a deterioration of the humanitarian conditions and increased humanitarian needs. Import restrictions and hyperinflation reduce availability and access to basic goods and services. The economic crisis is exacerbated by a political crisis revolving around the erosion of democratic institutions. While the number of people in need in Venezuela and the severity of need is unclear due to lack of data, surveys conducted by local organisations point to an increasingly dire situation. Migration to other countries in South America, particularly Colombia and Brazil, has significantly increased since 2017 and the host countries are increasingly struggling to receive these arrivals. Over one million Venezuelans are estimated to live in Colombia, up from some 300,000 in mid-2017. Priority needs of people affected by the crisis inside Venezuela include food, health, nutrition, and protection. Many migrants from Venezuela hosted by countries in the region also face growing humanitarian concerns, particularly protection and shelter needs.

Humanitarian Access Overview
Created: 14/03/2018 +

Overview

Our methodology uses 9 indicators grouped in 3 categories:
-    Access of humanitarian actors to affected population
-    Access of people in need to humanitarian aid
-    Security and physical constraints
Each category is measured through proxy indicators, such as violence against personnel, denial of needs, or active hostilities.
Data is collected at the country level and may therefore not show disparities between sub-regions.

Read the Humanitarian Access Overview in Spanish

Read the Humanitarian Access Overview in French

 

2017

Humanitarian Access Overview
Created: 17/08/2017 +

Overview

Our methodology uses 9 indicators grouped in 3 categories:
-    Access of humanitarian actors to affected population
-    Access of people in need to humanitarian aid
-    Security and physical constraints
Each category is measured through proxy indicators, such as violence against personnel, denial of needs, or active hostilities.
Data is collected at the country level and may therefore not show disparities between sub-regions.

Colombia: Floods and Mudslides in Mocoa
Created: 11/04/2017 +

Overview

130mm of rain fell in the city of Mocoa in southwest Colombia between 23:00 on 31 March and 01:00 on 1 April local time (between 05:00 and 07:00 GMT), causing the flooding of the Mocoa, Mulato, and Sangoyaco Rivers, and several mudslides throughout Mocoa (Sky News 02/04/2017).  

At least 254 people have died, 200 were injured, 200 remain missing, and around 1,200 have been affected by the floods (Floodlist 02/04/2017 ; ABC 02/04/2017). 17 neighbourhoods of Mocoa have been affected (in the area shown on the map below). Areas in southern Mocoa have been the hardest hit: San Miguel (which may have been completely destroyed), Los Laureles, San Fernando, and El Progreso (Colombia Reports 01/04/2017).