Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)3.40 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.3.50 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.3.50 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.3.30 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian constraints.3.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Colombia: expanding displacement and protection crisis
Armed conflict between the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and the Colombian government lasted five decades and displaced more than 7 million people. A peace deal signed in November 2016 ended the conflict and the FARC started a Demobilisation, Disarmament and Reintegration (DDR) process, while other armed groups such as the Ejército Popular de Liberación (EPL) and Ejército de Liberación Nacional (ELN) reshuffled and are fighting for control of land and illicit crop production in areas vacated by the FARC. ? Forced displacement and landmine contamination are major humanitarian concerns. Internal displacement is under-registered, due to threats by armed groups against displaced people and officials involved in the registration of IDPs. The departments most affected by displacement are Chocó, Nariño, Valle del Cauca, and Cauca on the Pacific coast, Norte de Santander on the border with Venezuela, and Antioquia. In rural communities, armed group activity restricts movement and limits access to basic health services, crops, and labour markets. Afro-Colombians, indigenous and rural communities are disproportionally affected. ? Attacks against human rights activists and community leaders by armed groups increased in 2018 and 2019. ? Colombia also experiences frequent natural disasters. The rainy season (May-November) typically results in flooding in many regions, putting thousands of people in need of shelter and NFIs. The Caribbean coast and the Andean regions are usually the most affected by floods and landslides.
INFORM measures Colombia's risk of humanitarian crisis and disaster for 2019 as High at 5.5/10, a slight increase from 5.4/10 in 2018. Hazard and exposure as well as vulnerability are a particular concern, at 6.8/10 and 6.2/10. ?
07/07: Armed clashes between the ELN, EPL and other organized armed groups in Norte de Santander since beginning of June have displaced up to 800 people from La Playa municipality, who are currently in a situation of confinement due to mobility restrictions. This situation is hampering access to basic goods and services, like food, livelihoods and medical care. Protection needs are very high, with the people affected exposed to risk of kidnapping, presence of landmines and imposed curfew. Some 300 people need to be urgently relocated; since improvised shelters are overcrowded, some people have been sleeping outside under heavy rains and low temperatures. There is a lack of drinking water, with most sources contaminated. Latrines have broken down, increasing the risk of vector-borne diseases. Mental health concerns and need for support are high. Since the beginning of 2019 there have been 67,000 people affected by violence in Norte de Santander comparing to 163,000 in 2018. Despite the decrease, humanitarian needs are still high. ?
03/07: Up to 417 people from the indigenous community in Pichima Quebrada, north of Litoral de San Juan, Choco are still displaced from 3 June. The IDPs are being accommodated in three temporary shelters. In addition there are more than 1,000 people (3 indigenous communities and one afro-Colombian) in a situation of confinement since 19 of June. The humanitarian situation in Choco has been deteriorating in 2019, especially in regard to confinement and mass displacement, with an increase of 282% and 238% respectively comparing to 2018. Protection concerns are recurrent, due to lack of security measures. Restricted access to food and livelihoods is affecting the normal diet of indigenous communities, with reported cases of malnutrition. ?
Increased violence, natural disasters, and bureaucratic requirements for people needing humanitarian assistance are restricting access. Hostilities among armed groups fighting for control of illegal trades in areas now vacated by FARC – particularly in the Pacific regions and along the Venezuelan border – have led to increased displacement and population confinement, disrupting access to basic services. Landmine presence is also restricting movement. Violence has repeatedly prevented a timely humanitarian response and delayed assessments of people in need. Physical constraints including flooding and landslides during the rainy season in April-May and October-November, and wildfires due to drought and El Niño, make access difficult in affected areas. Despite government efforts to help Venezuelan migrants, overstretched resources as well as people’s fear to denounce a situation of irregularity are limiting access to basic services for many Venezuelans.
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