Ex-Seleka and FPRC-led coalition
Created in 2012, Seleka was an alliance of mostly Muslim parties based in the north of the country that briefly took power in 2013, but was then dissolved and split into different groups. In 2014, the ex-Seleka reunited under different groups such as: the Popular Front for the Renaissance of Central Africa (FPRC) led by Nourredine Adam and Abdoulaye Hissene, and associated politically with former president Michel Djotodia; the Mouvement Patriotique Centrafricain (MPC) of Mahamat al-Khatim; and the Rassemblement Patriotique pour le Renouveau de la Centrafrique (RPRC) led by Zakaria Damane. These three groups formed a political alliance between 2015 and 2016, together with the anti-Balaka/Mokom wing of former president Francois Bozize, known as "the Coalition".?
The FPRC-led alliance "the Coalition" has been fighting Union pour la Paix en Centrafrique (UPC) of Ali Darassa since 2016, although the UPC is also formed by ex-Seleka, mainly Fulani.?Members of the Runga community dominate the FPRC, pushing for partition of the country. The UPC does not have a separatist agenda and has refused to join the FPRC-led coalition.?
To counter the widespread violence of Seleka militias, mostly Christian and animist anti-balaka movements emerged in 2013 as self-defence groups. They were joined by many members who defected from the armed forces. Although there was no clear coordination and structure among anti-balaka groups, several coalitions have been set up since 2014. An estimated 80,000-85,000 anti-balaka affiliated fighters are in CAR. The "Legitimate Coordination", also known as anti-balaka Mokom, operating in the Bossangoa-Bouca-Batangafo triangle, are hardliners of the anti-balaka movement. They receive support from former president Bozize and his party, the Kwa Na Kwa.?Since February 2017, some anti-balaka groups have allied with reunified ex-Seleka factions against UPC in Ouaka, Haute-Kotto and Mbomou prefecture. These are mainly viewed as opportunistic alliances.?
Lord's Resistance Army
The Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) has an estimated 120 fighters in CAR.? Since late 2014, LRA has divided.? LRA-Kony is led by its leader and founder, Joseph Kony, and operates near the mineral-rich region of Kafia-Kingi at the border with DRC, Sudan and South Sudan. This group reportedly moved to DRC as of June 2017.? LRA-Achaye, a splinter group, operates in the Zemio-Djema-Rafai triangle.? In August 2017, the LRA conducted four attacks in eastern CAR that resulted in 60 civilian casualties and abducted 37 people from a community in DRC on the border with CAR.? LRA armed group were frequently reported in 2017, especially in Haute-Kotto prefecture, as well as in DRC. ?
Retour, Reclamation and Rehabilitation - 3R
3R emerged in late 2015 to protect Fulani people from attacks by anti-balaka groups in Nana-Mambere, Ouham-Pende, and Mambere-Kadei prefectures. Since September 2016, 3R fighters have made significant gains, seizing parts of Ouham-Pende, notably the locality of Koui.? In its area of influence, humanitarian access is nearly nonexistent.?
Forces Armees centrafricaines - FACA
The Central African Republic Armed Forces (FACA) have been operational again since 28 January 2018. FACA was dismissed four years earlier due to its implication in the Central Africa crisis. FACA has been deployed in Paoua, in Ouham-Pendé, following violent clashes that began in late December 2017. Its role is to help MINUSCA secure the area.?
UN peacekeeping mission (MINUSCA)
MINUSCA took over peacekeeping operations from the France-backed African Union forces (MISCA) in September 2014. On 15 November 2017, its mandate was extended until 15 November 2018, with 900 additional military personnel to the contingent of 10,750 soldiers and 2,080 police officers.?The force has been subject to a number of accusations and in June, 629 Congolese troops were withdrawn following allegations of sex abuse, corruption, and poor discipline.?
Discontent with MINUSCA has grown following rumours about bias towards specific armed groups. In September 2017, armed groups in the prefectures of Nana-Mambere and Mbomou targeted Bangladeshi Blue Helmets they believed were partial towards Muslim communities in these areas. ?In 2016, local residents claimed MINUSCA Pakistani battalion supported ex-Seleka in Kaga-Bandoro. Concerns have also been raised about alleged collaboration between MINUSCA's Cameroonian troops and 3R, which is led by a Cameroonian.?
The African Union has been engaged since early 2017 in the international mediation to end conflict in CAR. In July 2017, a Roadmap for Peace and Reconciliation in CAR was signed in Libreville.?
At the beginning of May 2018, Russian mediators arrived in Bangui. Despite the lack of information on the number of Russian soldiers, local sources reported that their objective was to mediate and convince ex-Seleka armed groups to disarm.?