Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)4.00 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.4.10 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.4.20 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.3.60 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.4.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Lake Chad Basin: Impact of extreme weather & climate events ...
Cameroon has been experiencing an interplay of protracted crisis situations which continues to define political, economic and social developments in the country. Longstanding grievances in the anglophone community in Northwest and Southwest regions due to marginalisation of the minority English-speaking regions by the francophone-dominated government escalated into widespread protests and strikes in late 2016.?This has resulted in the emergence of different separatist groups clamouring for the creation of a self-proclaimed Ambazonian Republic in the northwest and southwest. Clashes between the military and the separatist forces has intensified insecurity in the regions, leaving over 600,000 people internally displaced and about 85,900 people seeking refuge in Neighbouring Nigeria.?
Boko Haram's insurgency in Nigeria's northeast has also spilled over into Cameroon's Far North region, mainly due to the proximity and porosity of borders between the two countries. After Nigeria, Cameroon is the second most-affected country by the violence and insecurity linked to BH in Lake Chad basin.?More than 133,000 Nigerian refugees fled to Cameroon's far north, while violence by Boko Haram and the Islamic State in West Africa Province (ISWAP) has also internally displaced more than 377,000 people in the same area.?
Apart from the above, Cameroon is also host to over 353,000 refugees from CAR mainly due to conflict.?The CAR refugees are predominately located in the Est, Adamaoua and Nord regions.
No significant recent humanitarian developments. This crisis is being monitored by our analysis team.
VERY high constraints
Non-state armed group activity has deteriorated humanitarian access in the country over the past six months. Although the presence of these groups and clashes with security forces continue to force populations to flee and reduce humanitarian access in Far North region, the level of access constraints seems even higher in Northwest and Southwest regions. The persistence of lockdowns imposed by non-state armed groups, which would last several weeks, is one of the main constraints on the movement of civilians and humanitarian organisations in affected areas. Aid organisations, which do not have a lockdown exemption, often have to suspend operations for several days, delaying aid for thousands of people. Movement restrictions, threats, and intimidation by armed separatist groups also severely limit access to services for people in need. Several attacks on students and staff by armed separatist groups in recent months also further limit access to school.
Regional authorities continue to interfere with the implementation of humanitarian activities. After authorities arrested some of its staff accused of supporting armed separatist groups, one humanitarian organisation decided to further reduce its activities in Southwest region by closing two health structures. Administrative constraints affect the continuity of operations, particularly those involving humanitarian flights, resulting in their suspension for several weeks. Civil aviation authorities have also imposed an additional layer of clearance for humanitarian flights, causing their temporary suspension. Humanitarians rely only on the state airline, delaying aid delivery in Far North, Northwest, and Southwest regions. Non-state armed groups often divert humanitarian aid, especially following security incidents.
In conflict-affected areas, the presence of IEDs contributes to a reduction in humanitarian access. Flooding during the rainy season (June–September) have also damaged many roads and made others impassable for humanitarian organisations.
For more information you can consult our latest Global Humanitarian Access Overview – December 2022.
Protection: Top priority for affected populations is protection. Attacks by both Boko Haram, the separatists and Cameroonian armed forces are still ongoing in the far north, the northwest and southwest respectively.
Health: Nearly 300 health facilities are no longer fonctional due to the intensification of the Anglophone crisis. This intensifies deteriorating health conditions for the over 4 million people living in the English-speaking regions. A cholera outbreak have been declared in October 2021. As of 30 April, 4,677 positive cases and 78 related deaths are reported.? Currently, there are 13 hospital beds per 10,000 population in the whole of Cameroon and existing health facilities complain of a lack of technical and medical personnel.?
Education: 85% of schools have been shut down and over 620,000 children have been forced out of school since both the Anglophone and Boko Haram crisis began. Students are forced to stay at home as their school buildings were either burnt or converted to separatists’ camps in the northwest and southwest. Forced school boycotts are also enforced by separatists in these areas, making education a priority need for affected populations.?
Information gaps and needs
Insecurity continues to play a major role in information gaps recorded for needs assessment as sporadic attacks in the Northwest and Southwest continues.