Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)3.30 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.3.10 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.3.00 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.4.00 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.4.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Cameroon: COVID-19 outbreak
Cameroon: Escalation of the Anglophone crisis
Cameroon has been experiencing an interplay of protracted crisis situations which continues to define political, economic and social developments in the country. Longstanding grievances in the anglophone community in Northwest and Southwest regions due to marginalisation of the minority English-speaking regions by the francophone-dominated government escalated into widespread protests and strikes in late 2016.?This has resulted in the emergence of different separatist groups clamouring for the creation of a self-proclaimed Ambazonian Republic in the northwest and southwest. Clashes between the military and the separatist forces has intensified insecurity in the regions, leaving over 650,000 people internally displaced and about 60,000 people seeking refuge in Neighbouring Nigeria.?
Boko Haram's insurgency in Nigeria's northeast has also spilled over into Cameroon's Far North region, mainly due to the proximity and porosity of borders between the two countries. After Nigeria, Cameroon is the second most-affected country by the violence and insecurity linked to BH in Lake Chad basin.?The number of Nigerian refugees fleeing to Cameroon's far north has surpassed the 100,000 mark, while violence by Boko Haram has also internally displaced more than 290,000 people in the same area.?
Apart from the above, Cameroon is also host to over 290,000 refugees from CAR mainly due to conflict.? The CAR refugees are predominately located in the Est and Adamaoua regions.
03/09/2020: On 1 September, a suicide attack killed at least seven civilians and wounded 14 in Goldavi village (Far North region), which hosts some 18,000 IDPs. After the attacks in Nguetchewe (2 August) and Kouyape villages (31 August), this is the third one targeting IDP camps in the last month.?
01/09/2020: Islamic State West Africa Province (ISWAP) members based in Nigeria carried out an attack on 25 August on Bulgaram Island (Lake Chad, Far North region), killing 14 people. The region is strategically important to ISWAP as an access point for food supplies. Bulgaram Island residents had blocked this access prior to the attack.?
25/08/2020: Flooding since end of July in Mayo Danay division, Far North region has displaced over 5,000 people, impacted livelihoods, and damaged field crops. Heavy rains on 21 August affected Douala and surrounding areas (Littoral region), damaging roads and bridges, and displacing about 4,500 people.?
20/08/2020: The dismantling and relocation of military outposts out of Kordo and Gadero towns to Grea town has led to the new displacement of about 6,000 IDPs, refugees and members of host communities to Kolofata district as they feel insecure without military protection. The newly displaced fear another attack following the 2 August attack on an IDP camp in Nguetchewe which left 17 IDPs dead.?
11/08/2020: On 7 August, an aid worker with the Community Initiative for Sustainable Development (COMINSUD) in Batibo Subdivision (Northwest region) was kidnapped and killed by unidentified individuals. Attacks against aid workers are increasing in Cameroon following the 17 June attempted abduction of NGO workers in Fon Baba, and the killing of an MSF aid worker in Kumba on 10 July.?
ACAPS' team is daily monitoring the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. For more information related to the outbreak in Cameroon, see our special report below.
Humanitarian access in Cameroon has remained challenging, with the Government of Cameroon (GoC) systematically denying or downplaying the extent of humanitarian needs in the Northwest (NW) and Southwest (SW) regions. The weekly 'Ghost Town' days implemented by some separatist groups limits the movement of people in affected areas to access aid, and the movement of humanitarian workers. Humanitarian access is also impeded by the presence of both Cameroon security forces’ checkpoints and separatist groups’ checkpoints in the NW and SW. In the Far North, humanitarian organizations have been required to obtain time-consuming written authorizations from state governors for the implementation of humanitarian activities.
Read more in the latest ACAPS Humanitarian Access Overview.
Protection: Top priority for affected populations is protection. Attacks by both Boko Haram, the separatists and Cameroonian armed forces are still ongoing in the far north, the northwest and southwest respectively.
Health: The intensification of the Anglophone crisis led to the closure of over 40% of the health centres. This intensifies deteriorating health conditions for the over 4 million people living in the English-speaking regions. Outbreaks of diseases such as cholera have already been recorded at the end of 2019.? Currently, there are 13 hospital beds per 10,000 population in the whole of Cameroon and existing health facilities complain of a lack of technical and medical personnel.?
Education: 85% of schools have been shut down and over 620,000 children have been forced out of school since both the Anglophone and Boko Haram crisis began. Students are forced to stay at home as their school buildings were either burnt or converted to separatists’ camps in the northwest and southwest. Forced school boycotts are also enforced by separatists in these areas, making education a priority need for affected populations.?
Information gaps and needs
Insecurity continues to play a major role in information gaps recorded for needs assessment as sporadic attacks in the Northwest and Southwest continues.