Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)3.30 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.3.10 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.3.00 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.4.00 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.4.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Cameroon: COVID-19 outbreak
Cameroon: Escalation of the Anglophone crisis
Cameroon has been experiencing an interplay of protracted crisis situations which continues to define political, economic and social developments in the country. Longstanding grievances in the anglophone community in Northwest and Southwest regions due to marginalisation of the minority English-speaking regions by the francophone-dominated government escalated into widespread protests and strikes in late 2016.?This has resulted in the emergence of different separatist groups clamouring for the creation of a self-proclaimed Ambazonian Republic in the northwest and southwest. Clashes between the military and the separatist forces has intensified insecurity in the regions, leaving over 650,000 people internally displaced and about 60,000 people seeking refuge in Neighbouring Nigeria.?
Boko Haram's insurgency in Nigeria's northeast has also spilled over into Cameroon's Far North region, mainly due to the proximity and porosity of borders between the two countries. After Nigeria, Cameroon is the second most-affected country by the violence and insecurity linked to BH in Lake Chad basin.?The number of Nigerian refugees fleeing to Cameroon's far north has surpassed the 100,000 mark, while violence by Boko Haram has also internally displaced more than 290,000 people in the same area.?
Apart from the above, Cameroon is also host to over 290,000 refugees from CAR mainly due to conflict.? The CAR refugees are predominately located in the Est and Adamaoua regions.
14/07/2020: A community health worker working for Doctors Without Borders in Kumba village, in Cameroon’s Southwest, was killed by separatist fighters after being accused of collaborating with government forces. Doctors Without Borders confirmed and condemned the attack.?
26/06/2020: 14 women and 2 men were abducted by Boko Haram insurgents in Mainankoua village bordering Nigeria in Cameroon's Far North on 23 June. The attack comes as insurgents renewed their focus on Cameroon's Far North where Boko Haram's activities have decreased over the past months.?
19/06/2020: NGO workers in the Ngoketunjia department of Northwest region were attacked on 17 June while offering primary health services in the area. Separatists attempted to kidnap the workers but were stopped by members of the community. The workers were harassed, and their phones taken away.?
11/06/2020: Attacks on humanitarian workers in NW and SW Cameroon are increasing. Humanitarian organisations report that workers have been harassed, illegally detained, or kidnapped by the Cameroonian military and by separatist groups. In the last 2 months, six attacks have been recorded on humanitarian facilities in the NW and SW, the most recent on 3 June when health workers in Ndop (NW) were attacked. Checkpoints set up by separatist groups have been used in some attacks against humanitarian workers. While the military has denied all allegations, separatist groups have stated on social media that aid organisations have to obtain express permissions from their own governments before they operate in the NW and SW.?The number of groups operating in the anglophone area appears to make this approval process cumbersome, further constraining access in the English-speaking areas.
ACAPS' team is daily monitoring the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. For more information related to the outbreak in Cameroon, see our special report below.
Humanitarian access in Cameroon has remained challenging, with the Government of Cameroon (GoC) systematically denying or downplaying the extent of humanitarian needs in the Northwest (NW) and Southwest (SW) regions. The weekly 'Ghost Town' days implemented by some separatist groups limits the movement of people in affected areas to access aid, and the movement of humanitarian workers. Humanitarian access is also impeded by the presence of both Cameroon security forces’ checkpoints and separatist groups’ checkpoints in the NW and SW. In the Far North, humanitarian organizations have been required to obtain time-consuming written authorizations from state governors for the implementation of humanitarian activities.
Read more in the latest ACAPS Humanitarian Access Overview.
Protection: Top priority for affected populations is protection. Attacks by both Boko Haram, the separatists and Cameroonian armed forces are still ongoing in the far north, the northwest and southwest respectively.
Health: The intensification of the Anglophone crisis led to the closure of over 40% of the health centres. This intensifies deteriorating health conditions for the over 4 million people living in the English-speaking regions. Outbreaks of diseases such as cholera have already been recorded at the end of 2019.? Currently, there are 13 hospital beds per 10,000 population in the whole of Cameroon and existing health facilities complain of a lack of technical and medical personnel.?
Education: 85% of schools have been shut down and over 620,000 children have been forced out of school since both the Anglophone and Boko Haram crisis began. Students are forced to stay at home as their school buildings were either burnt or converted to separatists’ camps in the northwest and southwest. Forced school boycotts are also enforced by separatists in these areas, making education a priority need for affected populations.?
Information gaps and needs
Insecurity continues to play a major role in information gaps recorded for needs assessment as sporadic attacks in the Northwest and Southwest continues.