Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)4.10 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.4.10 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.4.20 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.4.10 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.4.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Cameroon: Education crisis in North West and South West regions
Humanitarian Access Overview
Cameroon: COVID-19 outbreak
Cameroon: Escalation of the Anglophone crisis
Cameroon has been experiencing an interplay of protracted crisis situations which continues to define political, economic and social developments in the country. Longstanding grievances in the anglophone community in Northwest and Southwest regions due to marginalisation of the minority English-speaking regions by the francophone-dominated government escalated into widespread protests and strikes in late 2016.?This has resulted in the emergence of different separatist groups clamouring for the creation of a self-proclaimed Ambazonian Republic in the northwest and southwest. Clashes between the military and the separatist forces has intensified insecurity in the regions, leaving over 650,000 people internally displaced and about 60,000 people seeking refuge in Neighbouring Nigeria.?
Boko Haram's insurgency in Nigeria's northeast has also spilled over into Cameroon's Far North region, mainly due to the proximity and porosity of borders between the two countries. After Nigeria, Cameroon is the second most-affected country by the violence and insecurity linked to BH in Lake Chad basin.?The number of Nigerian refugees fleeing to Cameroon's far north has surpassed the 100,000 mark, while violence by Boko Haram has also internally displaced more than 290,000 people in the same area.?
Apart from the above, Cameroon is also host to over 290,000 refugees from CAR mainly due to conflict.? The CAR refugees are predominately located in the Est and Adamaoua regions.
No significant recent humanitarian developments. This crisis is being monitored by our analysis team.
ACAPS' team is daily monitoring the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. For more information related to the outbreak in Cameroon, see our special report below.
VERY High constraints
Humanitarian access is worsening – especially in the Far North and in the Southwest and Northwest regions, which are affected by Boko Haram and the Anglophone crisis respectively. Access by humanitarians to people living in these areas is of particular concern, because of checkpoints established by security forces and separatist groups, attacks on humanitarian workers, and disruption of humanitarian operations related to the Anglophone crisis. There are bureaucratic impediments related to obtaining the necessary authorisations to implement humanitarian operations by different authorities. Physical, environmental, and security constraints are also heavily affecting humanitarian access across the country. Road conditions, which were already poor, worsened during the rainy season, especially in the Far North. Increasing insecurity in the Far North limits the movement of goods, people, and humanitarian staff while continued violence in the Southwest and the Northwest regions blocks access to populations in need. Schools are targeted in the Anglophone region, and IDP camps have been violently attacked in the past months in the Far North. COVID-19-related measures have aggravated the situation, limiting the movements of the population and constraining humanitarian operations, especially in the Anglophone region. The rise of violence targeting civilians by Boko Haram is likely to worsen humanitarian access in the Far North in the coming months.
Read more in the latest ACAPS Humanitarian Access Overview.
Protection: Top priority for affected populations is protection. Attacks by both Boko Haram, the separatists and Cameroonian armed forces are still ongoing in the far north, the northwest and southwest respectively.
Health: The intensification of the Anglophone crisis led to the closure of over 40% of the health centres. This intensifies deteriorating health conditions for the over 4 million people living in the English-speaking regions. Outbreaks of diseases such as cholera have already been recorded at the end of 2019.? Currently, there are 13 hospital beds per 10,000 population in the whole of Cameroon and existing health facilities complain of a lack of technical and medical personnel.?
Education: 85% of schools have been shut down and over 620,000 children have been forced out of school since both the Anglophone and Boko Haram crisis began. Students are forced to stay at home as their school buildings were either burnt or converted to separatists’ camps in the northwest and southwest. Forced school boycotts are also enforced by separatists in these areas, making education a priority need for affected populations.?
Update from the October 2020 Global Risk Analysis
Rise in violent events targeting civilians, IDPs, and refugees in the Far North region results in increased displacement and protection needs
Boko Haram’s violence against civilians in the Far North region, as well as related fatalities, increased slightly during most of 2020 - but have so far decreased in 2021.? Although the risk identified by ACAPS in October 2020 has not materialised, violence and humanitarian needs in the region continue to be high.
Targeted attacks and events of generalised violence became more frequent in 2020 than in the previous years, and particularly affected Mayo-Sava, Mayo-Tsanaga, and Logone-et-Chari divisions.? In December 2020, 460 protection incidents were reported, including cases of looting, extortion of properties, and injuries. The same month, two suicide attacks were carried out in Mayo-Sava division, and there was also a violent attack on four islands of Lake Chad in Lagone-et-Chari division, with casualties and abductions reported. In 2020, violence triggered the internal displacement of 322,000 people. Over 115,000 refugees and 123,000 returnees live in the Far North. Humanitarian access continues to be highly constrained. In December 2020, some areas of the region were reported to be inaccessible without armed escorts.?
Read the full latest Global Risk Analysis here.
Information gaps and needs
Insecurity continues to play a major role in information gaps recorded for needs assessment as sporadic attacks in the Northwest and Southwest continues.