Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)2.60 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.2.60 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.2.00 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.3.50 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.3.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Cameroon: COVID-19 outbreak
Cameroon: Escalation of the Anglophone crisis
Longstanding grievances among the Anglophone population based in Northwest (NW) and Southwest (SW) regions concerning marginalisation, particularly in the education and legal systems, by the Francophone-dominated government led to widespread protests in October 2016. When protesters were met with force by Cameroonian security personnel in late 2017, the situation escalated into an armed conflict with increasing support in the Anglophone region to seek independence from Cameroon as an independent English-speaking Republic of Ambazonia.?Some 20 separatist groups, including the Ambazonia Military Forces (AMF), regularly clash with the Cameroonian security forces in the NW-SW regions.?Meanwhile, grave human rights violations and discriminatory treatment of Anglophone civilians by the Cameroonian security forces are regularly reported and drive opposition against the government in the Anglophone regions. ? The breakdown of basic services in the Anglophone region has sparked the displacement of more than 536,000 people to NW, SW, West, and Littoral regions as well as over 46,000 people to Nigeria.?
16/04/2020: The setting up of a Presidential Plan for the Reconstruction and Development of the English-speaking Northwest and Southwest regions have led to attacks between separatists and security forces. The plan was put in place to commence rebuilding of damaged infrastructure in the regions after the government declared that peace had returned to the northwest and southwest. Separatists announced that they would not accept such projects from a ‘foreign’ government in Yaoundé and began attacking machinery meant for the reconstruction, government offices, schools and other administrative units. This resulted in confrontations with the military on 7 April 2020 in Bui, Vekovi, Donga Mantung and Ngoketunjia in the Northwest, and Lebialem, Tatum, Mbiame and Manyu in the Southwest. There is no information on fatalities or injuries, but continued attacks are likely to increase displacement of people from affected areas into Nigeria or other parts of Cameroon. This would be complicated by the closure of international borders and internal restriction of movements due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Humanitarian access to affected population will also be hampered by insecurity and violence.?
11/04/2020: In response to UN Secretary-General’s call for a global ceasefire, the Southern Cameroon Defence Forces (SOCADEF) announced they would cease hostilities from 29 March till 26 April.? The biggest separatist armed group, Ambazonian Defence Forces (ADF), said they will not participate in the ceasefire because it would mean giving Cameroonian state forces access to their communities. The Cameroon government has not commented on the ceasefire.?
VERY HIGH CONSTRAINTS
Access has deteriorated in the North-West and South-West (NWSW) regions where hostilities between Anglophone separatists and the government have heightened insecurities. The presence of both state security forces and non-state armed groups challenge the humanitarian space throughout these regions by imposing roadblocks, demanding exchanges for relief, and confiscating aid. Continued violence, poor roads, and lockdowns restrict the movement of people in the Anglophone regions. Concern continues for the growing number of IDPs across the NWSW, who struggle to access basic services.
Read more in the latest ACAPS Humanitarian Access Overview.