Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)2.50 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.2.30 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.2.00 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.3.50 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.3.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Cameroon: Escalation of the Anglophone crisis
Longstanding grievances among the Anglophone population based in Northwest (NW) and Southwest (SW) regions concerning marginalisation, particularly in the education and legal systems, by the Francophone-dominated government led to widespread protests in October 2016. When protesters were met with force by Cameroonian security personnel in late 2017, the situation escalated into an armed conflict with increasing support in the Anglophone region to seek independence from Cameroon as an independent English-speaking Republic of Ambazonia.?Some 20 separatist groups, including the Ambazonia Military Forces (AMF), regularly clash with the Cameroonian security forces in the NW-SW regions.?Meanwhile, grave human rights violations and discriminatory treatment of Anglophone civilians by the Cameroonian security forces are regularly reported and drive opposition against the government in the Anglophone regions. ? The breakdown of basic services in the Anglophone region has sparked the displacement of more than 536,000 people to NW, SW, West, and Littoral regions as well as over 46,000 people to Nigeria.?
31/03/2020: In response to UN Secretary-General’s call for a global ceasefire, the Southern Cameroon Defence Forces (SOCADEF) announced they would cease hostilities from 29 March. The biggest separatist armed group, Ambazonian Defence Forces (ADF), said they will not participate in the ceasefire because it would mean giving Cameroonian state forces access to their communities. The Cameroon government has not commented on the ceasefire.?
18/03/2020: On 17 March the Cameroonian government announced closure of land, sea and air borders with immediate effect and till further notice in attempt to contain Covid-19. The GoC also closed all public and private educational institutions at all levels and banned any gathering of more than 50 persons.? The 22 March scheduled rerun of parliamentary elections in 11 constituencies of the northwest and southwest is thus no longer feasible.?The closure of borders will prevent the population of the Anglophone region from seeking refuge in neighboring Nigeria. The planned voluntary repatriation of 700 refugees from Nigeria back to Cameroon will also not be able to go ahead.
ACAPS' team is daily monitoring the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. For more information related to the outbreak, see content below:
VERY HIGH CONSTRAINTS
Access has deteriorated in the North-West and South-West (NWSW) regions where hostilities between Anglophone separatists and the government have heightened insecurities. The presence of both state security forces and non-state armed groups challenge the humanitarian space throughout these regions by imposing roadblocks, demanding exchanges for relief, and confiscating aid. Continued violence, poor roads, and lockdowns restrict the movement of people in the Anglophone regions. Concern continues for the growing number of IDPs across the NWSW, who struggle to access basic services.
Read more in the latest ACAPS Humanitarian Access Overview.