Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)3.30 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.3.40 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.3.30 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.3.30 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.2.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Burundi has been in crisis since April 2015, following President Nkurunziza’s announcement to run for a third term. The economy has declined significantly due to political instability, insecurity, and suspension of foreign aid, which accounted for 48% of the national income in 2015.?Despite a decrease in overt violence since 2016, violations such as disappearances and torture by the police, military, and the ruling party’s youth league, Imbonerakure, have continued. ?Although the president rescinded his decision to run in the 2020 elections, political persecution has continued. Cases of arbitrary detention and violations of public freedom were reported leading up to the May 2020 election.?Evariste Ndayishimiye, a member of the ruling party, won the presidency and was instated in June, following the death of President Nkurunziza. ?
Insecurity and political persecution have led to displacement, with over 311,000 Burundian refugees living in Tanzania, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Uganda, as of December 2020. ?Over 120,000 Burundians were assisted to return between September 2017 and December 2020, mostly from Tanzania. Returnees, who are mostly subsistence farmers, are generally well received (82% of returnees’ households have access to land, 95% have access to water, and 79% access to healthcare), but have limited access to civil documentation and education. Only 48% of returnee children attend school. ?
The economic crisis, widespread poverty, and climate factors are the main factors leading to food insecurity, heighted in recent years by continuous dry spells, absence of adequate rains, and endemic drought. The protracted complex crisis has left 2.3 million people in need. ?
24/02/2021: An increasing number of Burundian refugees have returned to the country since July 2020. By end-2020 there were 120,000 assisted returns and 143,000 returnees are projected for 2021. Most of the returnees who arrived in 2020 are in the provinces of Makamba, Kirundo and Ruyigi, which lack the social and economic infrastructure for their reintegration. Returnees in 2021 will likely face challenges such as limited access to shelter, lack of access to livelihoods, and insufficient daily nutritional intake. 56% of returnees report consuming only one meal per day. Access to education is challenging, with children lacking birth certificates or the French language skills to easily integrate; resuming after long lapses in education; or needing to contribute to their family's livelihood. 52% of returnee children do not attend school. Protection needs are high, including while in-transit from other countries, and likely to persist upon return.?
04/02/2021: Heavy rainfall since the beginning of January caused flooding in Cibitoke and Bujumbura provinces. 356 houses have been severely damaged or destroyed in Cibitoke, mostly in Rugombo commune. Rising water levels will likely cause further damage to houses, causing collapse and increasing shelter needs. Flooding in Bujumbura resulted in the displacement of 5,800 people.?
03/02/2021: Delayed and below-average rainfall has affected low altitude areas of the country, particularly the Northern Lowlands (northern Kirundo and Muyinga provinces). The latest multisector rapid assessment showed that 17% of households surveyed (about 36,400 households) in the Northern Lowlands had more than 50% of their crops destroyed by dryness. Due to dry conditions, combined with above-average food prices and decreased income sources related to COVID-19 restrictions, the area is expected to continue to face Stressed (IPC Phase 2) food security outcomes until May. Some poor and very poor households will face Crisis (IPC Phase 3). Households depending on agriculture as main source of income (90% of the Burundi population) are particularly vulnerable to food insecurity and loss of livelihoods.?
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Health: A lack of health centres in 50% of administrative departments as well as a lack of health workers and medical supplies is one of the major barriers to the provision of adequate healthcare, rendering the country extremely vulnerable to epidemics and other shocks. ?
Protection: The violent repression mainly targets opponents of the government and/or the ruling party (CNDD-FDD) or people perceived as such but also Burundians trying to flee the country, journalists, and members of civil society organisations. ?
Access to basic services: A growing proportion of the population is deprived of access to education, nutrition, healthcare, and WASH as financial pressure from authorities and the ruling party (CNDD-FDD) is increasing with additional taxes and involuntary contributions for the 2020 elections, exacerbating poverty.?
Food Security and Livelihoods
Over 90% of Burundi's population depend on subsistence farming. High exposure to extreme climatic events (dry spells, floods, hail, and landslides) coupled with intensive exploitation of croplands weaken agricultural production however, driving food insecurity. Provinces in the north and north-east of the country, as well as areas along Lake Tanganyika, are particularly affected. The return of Burundian refugees from Tanzania and Rwanda and internal displacement driven by natural disasters are adding further pressure to already scarce natural resources; only 36% of the country’s land is cultivable, leading to competition over land. COVID-19 mitigation measures also disrupt trade – especially informal commerce – and limit cross-border movements, leading to loss of income. Between October–December 2020, 1.33 million people (11% of the assessed population) were estimated to be facing high acute food insecurity (IPC Phase 3 or above). Returnees and IDPs are particularly vulnerable to food insecurity and malnutrition.?