Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)2.80 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.3.30 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.2.50 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.2.80 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.2.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Burkina Faso: Escalation of conflict
Conflict and displacement in Mali, Niger and Burkina Faso
The Sahel, Centre Nord and Nord region have been increasingly impacted by the presence and activities of Islamist armed groups whose influence reaches from the regions bordering Mali to others closer to the capital and toward the east of the country, in the regions bordering Niger. ?Most of the attacks carried out in the country are attributed to Ansaroul Islam and the Support Group to Islam and Muslims (JNIM). The armed groups are instrumentalizing pre-existing tensions between farmers and herders. Increased violence in 2019 led to the displacement of more than 404,400 people since January, bringing the total of internally displaced to around 486,360. ?On 13 July, the States of Emergency, declared in December 2018, were extended a second time until January 2020 in 14 provinces located in the Boucle du Mouhoun, Cascades, Nord, Sahel, Centre-Est, and Est regions.?
A total of 6.2 million people are affected by the conflict in Burkina Faso, and around 949,000 in conflict-affected areas are in need of assistance in the northern regions. IDPs and host communities have urgent multiple sectoral needs. Continuous conflict drives food insecurity, as displaced people cannot access their fields and/or markets. Health needs are high as access to services is poor and insecurity has led to the suspension of services in several health centers. More than 2,024 schools remain closed; leaving more than 330,000 children without access to education in six regions. Access to water remains a major issue, particularly in the Sahel region. ?
INFORM measures Burkina Faso’s risk of humanitarian crisis and disaster to be medium, at 5.1/10. A lack of coping capacity and vulnerability are all at concerning levels, at 6.1/10 and 5.8/10 respectively. ?
Access to Mentao camp in Burkina Faso's Northern Sahel region is increasingly hampered according to UNHCR, who were forced to temporarily relocate their staff away from the camp. The schools in the camps have all closed and aid distribution has been restricted for the 7,000 Malian refugees living in the camps. Need of shelter facilities, food, and water has been reported. Mentao is located 5 kilometers south of Djibo, the capital of Soum province, which has been targeted by violent attacks in recent weeks and which is also reportedly increasingly inaccessible. ?
Find the latest conflict update in the Conflict Developments box below.
Source : UNHCR 15/10/2019 - https://data2.unhcr.org/en/country/bfa
Security and safety concerns remain high in northern Burkina Faso. After a spate of violent incidents targeting civilians, aid workers, and police and military personnel in September, armed groups under the umbrella name of JNIM claim to have overtaken Baraboule town after ambushing army and police forces over the course of several deadly attacks.?Djibo, the capital of Soum province, and its surrounding areas are also believed to be inaccessible. ?
On 4 October, an attack on a gold mine killed at least 20 miners and wounded more near the village of Madoudji (Sahel region). ?The day before, ECHO and a local newspaper reported that thousands of people had been displaced to Kongoussi in Bam province of the Centre-Nord region after attacks targeted the areas of Komsliga, Deneon, and Zimtanga. Later reports indicated that upwards of 45 000 people had been displaced and were in need. ?
Although it is unclear who may have caused this displacement, both Ansarol Islam and the Islamic State in the Greater Sahara (ISGS) have both claimed responsibility for recent violent incidents. On 7 October armed men also reportedly entered Tongomayel (Sahel region) and ordered the inhabitants to leave the city, resulting in the displacement of an estimated 2000 people (figures to be confirmed).?
On November 6 a mining convoy was attacked, killing close to 40 civilians and wounding 60 in Burkina's Est province; it is thought to be the deadliest attack in Burkina Faso since hostilities began in 2014.? 16 civilians were killed by suspected militants on 28 October in Pobe-Mengao, Sahel.? This follows several notable attacks including one on a Mosque in Salmossi (Sahel region) on 11 October resulted in 16 deaths and two injuries and was followed by another attack on a mosque in the near-by village of Tidiania de Mansila. ?
Food security is of particular concern in the regions affected by insecurity. According to the FAO, these regions have seen a 20-70% decrease in agricultural activities, half of the land that was cultivated during the 2018/2017 season will not be cultivated in these areas. ?More than 420,000 people were experiencing IPC Phase 3 (Crisis) crisis or IPC Phase 4 (Emergency) food security outcomes from January to May 2019, a figure projected to rise to between 0.5 - 0.99 million by mid-lean season in April 2020.?Nine provinces among 45 have GAM rates higher than 10%. ?133,000 Children under 5 years at risk of SAM in 2019. ?
Protection is a priority for populations affected by insecurity, particularly in the Sahel, Nord, and Centre Nord regions where attacks against civilians have been increasing and where most of the displaced people are gathered. Some 31,000 refugees from Mali are also concentrated in those areas. ?
Health services remain severely restricted, as more than 626,000 people are affected by health facilities that are closed (68) or only offer reduced services (65). ?
Education has been restricted due to insecurity. 1,230 schools have been closed in the country since March 2019, with 2,024 schools closed to date.?
Information Gaps and Needs
- Information on quantified sectoral needs in Nord and Sahel regions is limited.
- Limited or lack of information on access constraints for the population to humanitarian assistance and basic social services.
- Due to the lack of information regarding the conditions in the camps and displacement sites gender, age, and disability-specific needs are difficult to assess.
- As there are significant gaps in the data collection, information sharing, and coordination among agencies related to IDP registry, the latest published IDP number in Burkina Faso has to be viewed carefully: Firstly, the quality of the data cannot be assessed and reviewed as the government, the only organizing body is not sharing the data sets. Secondly, challenges such as double counting are highly likable as no biometric data registry system is put in place, athough this is reportedly changing. Continuous movement complicates the data collection further. Thirdly, despite the double-counting, it is estimated that the numbers of countrywide IDPs will increase when government actors and supporting organizations start assessing the situation and registering IDPs in Est region and the capital Ouagadougou. ?