Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)2.70 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.3.20 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.2.50 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.2.80 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian constraints.2.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Conflict and displacement in Mali, Niger and Burkina Faso
The Sahel region has been increasingly impacted by the presence and activities of Islamist armed groups whose influence reaches from the regions bordering Mali to others closer to the capital and toward the east of the country, in the regions bordering Niger. ?Most of the attacks carried out in the country are attributed to Ansaroul Islam and the Support Group to Islam and Muslims (JNIM). Since January 2018, a least 89 civilians were killed in attacks led by those groups.? Increased violence in 2019 led to the displacement of more than 120,000 people since January, bringing the total of internally displaced to over 170,000.? On 11 January, the State of Emergency declared on 31 December was extended for six months in 14 provinces mainly located in the Boucle du Mouhoun, Nord, Sahel, and Est regions. ?
A total of 1.2 million people are in need. ?IPDs and host communities have urgent multiple sectoral needs. Continuous conflict drive food insecurity, as displaced people cannot access their fields and/or markets. More than 1090 schools remain closed; leaving more than 150,000 children without access to education. Health services remain severely restricted. Access to water remains a major issue, particularly in the Sahel region. ?
INFORM measures Burkina Faso’s risk of humanitarian crisis and disaster to be medium, at 5.1/10. A lack of coping capacity and vulnerability are all at concerning levels, at 6.1/10 and 5.8/10 respectively. ?
11/06: More than 330,000 children are out of school. More than 2,024 schools (1,844 primary and 180 secondary schools), have been closed following continuous insecurity and attacks in six regions in Burkina Faso. Northern Sahel region accounts for almost 1,000 of the schools closed. ?
Around 80% of Burkina Faso’s population relies on agricultural livelihoods.? Agriculture is mainly rainfed, making it highly dependent upon the amount of rainfall. The combination of a longer than usual dry season in 2017 and below-average rainfall in 2018 negatively impacted both food availability and agriculture incomes? and found some 307,000 people in Crisis (IPC-3) food security outcomes over September-December 2018. ? Food security has been further impacted by violence between armed groups and both civilian and security forces, that has increased exponentially, especially in the north. As a result, more than 115,000 people have been internally displaced, including 70,000 since January 2019, and access to fields is constrained. ?The situation is not showing sign of a normalisation and violence is likely to endure due to lack of local governance and strong presence of armed groups in the northern regions, and the instability in neighbouring countries.
Violence is likely to impact the next planting season (normally March to mid-May), with lasting consequences on the food security of local populations. The conflict is also likely to disrupt livestock migration (usually January-June). Market activity is likely to drop, especially in areas closer to the border with Mali and Niger where violence is particularly bad, impacting both farmer and herder livelihoods. ? Some 4.7 million people living in conflict-affected areas in northern Burkina Faso rely on livestock and cereals as their main sources of livelihood. ?Consequently the number of people in IPC phase 4 (Emergency) is likely to increase during the first half of 2019 and exceed the 24,000 people expected to face IPC Phase 4 from June-August in the regions affected by conflict. Should the conflict spread to the rest of the country, the overall number of food-insecure people will increase. At least some of the 38,000 people projected to face Crisis in the Est and Centre-Est region are likely fall into Emergency.?
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Food security is of particular concern in the regions affected by insecurity. More than 307,000 people were experiencing IPC Phase 3 (Crisis) crisis or IPC Phase 4 (Emergency) food security outcomes, a figure expected to rise to around 676,000 people during the 2019 lean season. Nine provinces among 45 have GAM rates higher than 10%. ?133,000 Children under 5 years at risk of SAM in 2019. ?
Protection is a priority for populations affected by insecurity, particularly in the Sahel, Nord, and Centre Nord regions where attacks against civilians have been increasing and where most of the displaced people are gathered. Some 29,000 refugees from Mali are also concentrated in those areas. ?
Health needs are high as access to services is poor and insecurity has led to the suspension of services in several health centres. ?
Information Gaps and Needs
- Information on quantified sectoral needs in Nord and Sahel regions is limited.
- Limited or lack of information on access constraints for the population to humanitarian assistance and basic social services.