Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)2.30 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.2.40 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.2.70 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.1.60 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.No constraintsExtreme constraints
Brazil has received a significant influx of refugees and migrants from Venezuela since 2016, fleeing political and economic turmoil in their home country. As of February 2020, there are 253,000 Venezuelan refugees and migrants in Brazil, many of them in need of humanitarian assistance. There are also 130,000 active asylum requests from Venezuelans.?
The main point of entry for Venezuelans into Brazil is in the northern state of Roraima, in the Amazon region. From there most refugees and migrants go to the state capital: Boa Vista. As of February 2020, 6,000 Venezuelans were hosted in camps and host communities in Roraima. The state of Roraima is geographically isolated from the rest of of the country, making spontaneous onward movement difficult.?
According to the World Health Organization, Latin America and the Caribbean are now the global epicentre of the COVID-19 pandemic. Transmission is increasing in border areas in parts of the Amazon, notably in Brazil, Peru, Colombia and Venezuela. These areas often lack health and WASH infrastructure. Indigenous communities and Venezuelan refugees and migrants are particularly vulnerable.?
ACAPS' team is daily monitoring the impact of COVID-19. Find more information related to the outbreak here.
Protection: Refugees and migrants from Venezuela are vulnerable to discrimination, GBV, human trafficking and forced labor. Local protection networks in Brazil are overstretched; mechanisms to identify risks of exploitation and trafficking are weak. Women and girls are subjected to exploitative situations, rape, and sexual assault.
Shelter and NFIs are particularly needed in in the border states of Roraima and Amazonas, where most refugees and migrants arrive. Shelters, often overcrowded, lack adequate infrastructure and hygienic measures.
Health: the public health system in Brazil offers universal health access to the population, though local health services are stretched and overcrowded in some states including Roraima. Needs are particularly high among pregnant women.?
Brazil has the highest number of cases and deaths of COVID-19 in Latin America. As of 23 May, there are 330,000 confirmed cases and 21,000 deaths. Experts suggest it is probably an underestimation. Large cities such as São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro are the main hotspots but there are signs that the virus is reaching smaller cities inland. Health authorities in the states of Manaus and Para have already declared the collapse of public health and funeral systems. As of May 2020, there are 27 confirmed cases among Venezuelan refugees and migrants. Venezuelan refugees and migrants already in Brazil maintain access to public health services and social benefits. However, hundreds of Venezuelans live in informal settlements exposed to increased transmission risks.?