Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)2.40 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.2.20 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.2.80 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.2.10 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.1.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Brazil has received a significant influx of refugees and migrants fleeing political and economic turmoil from Venezuela since 2016. As at October 2021, there were at least 261,400 Venezuelan refugees, migrants, and asylum seekers in Brazil, many of them in need of humanitarian assistance. ? The number of migrant refugees in Brazil represents 18% of the total 1.3 million migrants and refugees. ? Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, the flow of migrants has decreased as a result of movement restrictions across the borders as part of COVID-19 containment measures. ?
The main points of entry for Venezuelans into Brazil are in the northern state of Roraima (50%) and in the Amazonas region (19%). ? From there, most refugees and migrants make their way to the state capital, Boa Vista. In 2020, over 20,000 refugees and migrants were sheltered in Roraima; however, the number of Venezuelans in Roraima is higher, with some living in makeshift shelters in public spaces.? The state of Roraima is geographically isolated from the rest of the country, making travel to the rest of Brazil difficult.
No significant recent humanitarian developments. This crisis is being monitored by our analysis team.
Protection: Refugees and migrants from Venezuela are vulnerable to discrimination, GBV, human trafficking and forced labor. Local protection networks in Brazil are overstretched; mechanisms to identify risks of exploitation and trafficking are weak. Women and girls are subjected to exploitative situations, rape, and sexual assault.
Shelter and NFIs are particularly needed in in the border states of Roraima and Amazonas, where most refugees and migrants arrive. Shelters, often overcrowded, lack adequate infrastructure and hygienic measures.
Health: the public health system in Brazil offers universal health access to the population, though local health services are stretched and overcrowded in some states including Roraima. Needs are particularly high among pregnant women.?
Brazil has the highest number of cases and deaths of COVID-19 in Latin America. As of 23 May, there are 330,000 confirmed cases and 21,000 deaths. Experts suggest it is probably an underestimation. Large cities such as São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro are the main hotspots but there are signs that the virus is reaching smaller cities inland. Health authorities in the states of Manaus and Para have already declared the collapse of public health and funeral systems. As of May 2020, there are 27 confirmed cases among Venezuelan refugees and migrants. Venezuelan refugees and migrants already in Brazil maintain access to public health services and social benefits. However, hundreds of Venezuelans live in informal settlements exposed to increased transmission risks.?