Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)2.00 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.2.80 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.1.40 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.2.30 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.2.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
Brazil: Floods in Bahia and Minas Gerais
Heavy rains in Brazil since November 2021 have caused flooding in the north of the country.? The impact of the floods could worsen in January–March 2022, as these are normally the months with the highest rainfall and torrential rains. ? The states most affected by the floods have been Bahia and Minas Gerais, with at least 163 municipalities currently in state of emergency. ?
A subtropical cyclone hit Bahia on 7 December, affecting localities in the south and extreme south, especially the municipalities of Medeiros Neto, Jucurucu, and Itamarajú. ? In the north of Bahia, heavy rains caused two dams to break between 25–26 December: one near the town of Vitoria da Conquista and the other in Jussiape. ? This situation led to a rise in local rivers and increased flooding. ?
In total, in both states, the floods have killed at least 26 people and affected 815,597, leaving around 101,256 in need of humanitarian assistance. ? Heavy rains have displaced at least 42,929 people and caused 34,163 to experience homelessness. ? The rains have destroyed houses, bridges, and road infrastructure, making it difficult for the population to move around and for humanitarian aid to be delivered. ?
The main sectoral needs reported are shelter, WASH, NFIs, and livelihoods. The process of returning to homes has been slow as the reconstruction of damaged homes has not been completed. Shelter capacity may be exceeded as the rainy season continues. Destruction and closure of commercial establishments has limited the population's access to NFIs. ? Damage to the water and sanitation systems has reduced access to water and sanitation services. ?
No significant recent humanitarian developments. This crisis is being monitored by our analysis team. More detailed information about the floods in the states of Bahia and Minas Gerais (Brazil) can be found in this briefing note.
Health: The capacity of medical centres in both states is not at its limit, but the number of health facilities in the affected areas is insufficient. ? The overcrowding and shortage of shelters puts the health of the affected population at risk – especially pregnant women, infants, and children. There is a risk of transmission of diseases such as dengue, zika, influenza A, and COVID-19 for the displaced population, as there is a shortage and lack of use of sanitary items such as soap, alcohol, repellent, and masks. There has been an increase in the number of people hospitalised because of respiratory diseases.?
WASH: Heavy flooding has caused damage to water and sewage systems, resulting in stagnant water and solid waste in shelters, public spaces, and roads.? This has led to cases of diarrhoea and skin diseases, but there is a lack of information on the total number of cases. ? At least 34,163 people have lost their homes (IFCR 05/01/2022), so shelter capacity is at maximum, preventing social distancing and creating shortages of hygiene items, toiletries, and gender-specific showers. Lack of safe drinking water in government and makeshift shelters makes adequate sanitation impossible. ?
Food insecurity: The floods have caused crop losses and the impossibility to carry out livestock activities; 75% of the affected territories are rural. ? In Minas Gerais, vegetable producers have lost up to 100% of their production, leading to a lack of availability of food and higher food prices.? The total number of hectares of crops affected by floods to date is unknown, but there is a risk of food insecurity because most of the food production in this area is for family and local consumption.? The destruction of road infrastructure and bridges has affected livelihood activities and access to food in both states.?