• Crisis Severity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Impact ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Humanitarian Conditions ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Complexity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Access Constraints ?
    No constraints
    Extreme constraints

Key figures

  • 10,040,000 Total population [?]
  • 90,000 People displaced [?]

Special Reports




Nagorno-Karabakh has been a long-time disputed area between Armenia and Azerbaijan. The war that lasted from 1988 to 1994 killed more than 25,000 soldiers and civilians and resulted in the displacement over one million people?.

In September 2020, heavy fighting broke out again between Azeri and Armenian forces in and around the contested region of Nagorno-Karabakh. The conflict lasted six weeks, until Armenia and Azerbaijan signed a Russia-brokered ceasefire. The conflict resulted in 140 civilian deaths, over 560 civilians injured, and over 90,000 displaced (88% being women and children) ?. As at December 2021, over 20,000 people were still displaced and registered as “refugee-like” in Armenia?.

Cities in Azerbaijan were also hit by shelling during 2020 conflict, causing casualties and damaging civilian infrastructure. According to the Government of Azerbaijan, 40,000 people in the country have been displaced by the conflict as at November 2020. The humanitarian consequences remain unclear, with significant information gaps on the needs caused by the fighting?.

On 27 September 2022, renewed hostilities between the two countries in Nagorno-Karabakh caused 207 people to die or go missing. The fighting, which lasted one day, displaced some 7,600 people. It also resulted in 92 homes, two schools, and one hospital damaged?. The conflict in September 2022 affected  mainly people living in the three regions (marzes) of Syunik, Gegharkunik and Vayots Dzor in Armenia ?.

Nagorno-Karabakh was recognised as part of Azerbaijan but is de facto controlled by an ethnic Armenian administration. Under the ceasefire provisions, Armenia returned Aghdam, Kelbajar, and Lachin districts, as well as parts of Gazakh district, to Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan maintains control over the territory gained in Nagorno-Karabakh during the latest conflict. Russian peacekeepers were deployed in the remaining areas of Nagorno-Karabakh and along the Lachin corridor that connects Stepanakert to Armenia ?.

Latest Developments


Since 12 December 2022, the Lachin corridor, which connects Nagorno-Karabakh with Armenia, has been blocked by Azerbaijanis environmental activist who are demanding access to mining sites in Karabakh. Shortages in essential medicine and food are reported due to the blockade, affecting those living Nagorno-Karabakh, largely ethnic Armenians?.

For more information, you can read our report on the Lachin corridor blockade here.

Humanitarian Access



Conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh broke out on 27 September between Azerbaijan and Armenia-backed ethnic Ar-menian forces. Fighting restricted the access of people in need to services, and roads were sometimes blocked, restricting people’s access to safety. Humanitarian organisations are primarily concentrated in Armenia, with some service provision in Azerbaijan. Access to Nagorno-Karabakh itself is difficult to ensure, as aid agencies are subject to a complex registration and review process in Azerbaijan. The ICRC was the only active aid organi-sation in Nagorno-Karabakh prior to the most recent conflict, and at the height of hostilities was forced to reduce and suspend activities, although it is now operational. Humanitarian organisations had no access to adjacent territories, which were also affected by the recent and past conflicts. Nagorno-Karabakh was and is subject to the control of different actors, namely ethnic Armenians and Azerbaijan. Fighting restricted movement and destroyed or damaged civilian infrastructure in Nagorno-Karabakh as well as in Azerbaijan. It has also likely left additional UXOs in the region, which had already created access constraints prior to the recent conflict. As the situation is evolving, it is unclear how humanitarian access will shift in Nagorno-Karabakh under the provisions of the ceasefire agreement.

Read more in the latest ACAPS Humanitarian Access Overview.


Escalation of conflict between Armenian and Azerbaijan in Nagorno-Karabakh triggered by the Lachin corridor blockade results in population displacement and increased humanitarian needs Latest update: 29/03/2023


Highly unlikely Somewhat likely Highly likely


Very low Moderate Major



The humanitarian consequences remain unclear with significant information gaps on the needs in Nagorno-Karabakh is not yet available or information on the current displaced population in Azerbaijan.