• Crisis Severity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Impact ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Humanitarian Conditions ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Complexity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Access Constraints ?
    No constraints
    Extreme constraints

Key figures

  • 258 Fatalities reported [?]



Western Mediterranean Route characterized by the sea between Algeria, Morocco and Spain. Since 2018, the Western Mediterranean Route has seen the largest influx of migrants and asylum seekers trying to reach Europe. Spain has become an important crossing point for migrants travelling via sea and overland from Morocco and Algeria. A 41% increase in sea arrivals is reported in the first four months of 2019 compared to the previous year. ? This trend will likely continue, surpassing the total of 65,383 migrants who arrived in Spain in 2018.  Morocco (24%), Guinea (15%), and Mali (14%) remain the highest countries of origin, accounting for more than 50% of all migrants and asylum seekers of the Western Migration Route arriving in Spain in 2019. Two-thirds of migrants arriving in Spain are men. ? As of 31 May, at least 164 people have lost their lives or remain missing on the Western Mediterranean Route to Europe in 2019. ?

The needs of arrivals are high. According to IOM 48% of migrants and refugees who arrived in Spain in 2018 have directly experienced human trafficking, exploitation or abuse while travelling on the Western Mediterranean Route. ?However, the increased influx has put pressure on Spain’s infrastructure and increased protection concerns related to unaccompanied children, as well as groups with specific needs. ?Migrants’ and asylum seekers’ main needs are related to food, shelter, protection, and healthcare.? 

The path, mainly between Morocco and Spain has also been the main route used by criminal networks to smuggle drugs into the Europe. ?

Latest Developments


No recent significant humanitarian developments. This situation is being monitored by our analysis team. 

Information Gaps and Needs

  • Information about migrants is scarce and often inadequate. Numbers of people leaving Algeria and Morocco to reach Spain, or other destinations in Europe,  are estimations. 
  • The needs of migrants and refugees remain largely unknown.