• Crisis Severity ?
    4.5
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Impact ?
    4.6
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Humanitarian Conditions ?
    4.5
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Complexity ?
    4.5
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Access Constraints ?
    5.0
    No constraints
    Extreme constraints

Key figures

  • 41,800,000 Total population [?]
  • 35,900,000 People affected [?]
  • 10,375,000 People displaced [?]
  • 24,400,000 People in Need [?]

Special Reports

01/10/2021

Special Reports

23/08/2021

Overview

25/08/2021

Following an offensive that saw the Taliban take control of almost all districts previously held by the government, the Taliban entered the capital Kabul on 15 August and consolidated their power in Afghanistan. President Ghani and key government officials had fled the country and the Afghanistan government collapsed. The Taliban have nominated some of their members to form a government and have been in communication with a ‘coordination council’ formed by Afghan leaders to manage the transfer of power ?. Despite the Taliban’s taking control of much of the country, other resistance and armed groups started to challenge their authority ?. Uncertainties remain regarding the future of Afghan government and what form of Shariah law the Taliban intend to implement.

More than 409,000 people have been newly internally displaced by the conflict between the Taliban and  Government forces and the Taliban’s territorial expansion from May-August. Assessments and response are underway but humanitarians have limited capacity and national staff. Unified policies on humanitarian aid are not yet known, though Taliban officials in some areas have already requested that aid operations continue ?. The Taliban’s rapid advancement has raised fear and uncertainty among the population. Although the group has made public claims of amnesty, inclusiveness, and moderation, there are protection concerns for women, minorities, people in rural areas, and those affiliated with foreign entities ?.

Afghanistan is prone to natural disasters, including drought and floods. The government had declared drought conditions on 22 June. Water resources are increasingly strained owing to below-average precipitation since October 2020. Drought has triggered internal displacement, decreased livelihood opportunities, and contributed to food insecurity ?. Flooding regularly affect various parts of Afghanistan, particularly northern and eastern areas. Around 27,000 people have been affected by flooding in 2021 as at end July ?.

Latest Developments

27/04/2022

Humanitarians responding to rising needs in Afghanistan continue to face operational challenges related to transferring funds into the country. Banks continue to follow low-risk policies in strict compliance with the sanctions against Afghanistan, even after the adoption of the humanitarian exemptions resolution 2651 by the UN Security Council in late December 2021. Prior to the Taliban takeover, 75% of public spending depended on foreign aid, which has been largely cut off. The population is increasingly coping with economic hardship by using negative strategies including skipping meals, child labour, and child marriage.  In 2022, 8.7 million people in Afghanistan are at risk of hunger, including 4.7 million children and pregnant and lactating women, at elevated risks of illness, impaired child growth, and death should they become malnourished.  Over 23 million people are in need of food assistance, with acute food shortages reported in all 34 provinces of the country. ?

Humanitarian Access

07/12/2021

EXTREME Constraints 

Humanitarian access continues to be extremely restricted after the withdrawal of US troops and the Taliban takeover of the country on 15 August 2021. The security situation deteriorated between July–August, which hampered people’s movement to access humanitarian and non-humanitarian services. While the security situation has improved recently, sporadic violent attacks are still being reported. Taliban’s regulations and approach towards humanitarian organisations also remain uncertain despite assurances to allow their operations in the country. There are also reports of Taliban officers visiting NGO offices and questioning operations.

Access to health services is challenging, as 87% of Afghanistan’s 2,300 health facilities have closed following the takeover and the suspension of international donors’ assistance. This temporary suspension of humanitarian funds and operations has affected people’s access to aid. Active humanitarian organisations also struggle with limited capacity and national staff, as well as a shortage of supplies. Insecurity, fear, and Taliban interference challenge people’s mobility and their access to aid, with women and girls, ethnic minorities, and undocumented people being the most affected. The safety of female aid workers remains a major concern for organisations still operating in Afghanistan.

Insecurity around Kabul airport and border closures create more challenges for Afghan asylum seekers who attempt to flee the country. The operations of humanitarian organisations are also affected by movement restrictions and insecurity. Access to humanitarian services across the country is hampered by poor infrastructure, which is recurrently damaged because of conflict and natural disasters. Road closures and checkpoints also cause delays in the provision of aid and hinder humanitarian staff movement.

Read more in the latest ACAPS Humanitarian Access Overview.

Key Concerns

30/11/2021

Food: About 22.8 million people in Afghanistan were projected to face Crisis (IPC Phase 3) or higher levels of food insecurity between November 2020 and March 2021. Food security was significantly affected by displacement, drought, economic decline, and limited livelihood opportunities ?.

Health: Weak healthcare systems resulting from underinvestment, conflict, and natural disasters have left 14.5 million people in need of health assistance. Regular attacks on healthcare facilities and personnel limit people’s access to healthcare. Paying for healthcare is the second most significant reason for households to take on debt.?

Protection: Since 2014, there have been 10,000 civilian deaths and injuries per year in Afghanistan. For the fifth year in a row, the Afghanistan conflict is the deadliest conflict worldwide for children. Women face restrictions in accessing property, education, and healthcare, and experience high rates of gender-based violence. In 2020, women and children accounted for 43% of casualties.?

Lessons Learnt

05/03/2021

Months with higher temperatures, usually April–October/November, represent the Afghan fighting season – as milder temperatures make roads and other infrastructure, as well as mountain passes, more accessible.?

Heavy rains, which usually fall from January–April, often cause flash floods and landslides in remote northern areas of Afghanistan.?

Update from the October 2021 Risk Analysis

25/03/2022

HIGH RISK LEVEL

Financial crisis leads to reduced income and purchasing power, resulting in increased humanitarian needs in Afghanistan

The Taliban’s takeover, the freezing of assets by the US and EU, and reduced international financial assistance have been driving the possible deterioration of conditions in Afghanistan over the past six months. Drought, displacement and urbanisation, and market and financial system disruptions, which all contribute to increased competition over limited essential public services, worsen the situation.? Following the August 2021 change in administration, more than 500,000 people have lost their jobs, with the number expected to reach 900,000 by mid-2022.? The Afghani currency lost over 31% of its value against the USD in 2021, contributing to price increases on basic goods and causing instability in humanitarian assistance and the value of salaries and cash.? The food security of Afghans is expected to deteriorate between November 2021 and March 2022, with 22.8 million people projected to experience Crisis (IPC Phase 3) food insecurity or higher, up from 19 million between September–October 2021.? A harsh winter season, which has disrupted humanitarian access and depleted food stocks, has also compounded the situation.? No country has yet recognised the Taliban interim administration, who is struggling to maintain functional public services and facing liquidity challenges.? Current strict regulations over banking systems and money transfers highly affect the ability to import goods. The economic situation will likely continue to worsen.

Update from the October 2021 Risk Analysis

25/03/2022

HIGH RISK LEVEL

Increased displacement into surrounding countries, particularly Pakistan and Iran, results in increased needs and heightened protection concerns

Afghanistan continues to experience a deepening economic crisis, compounded by sporadic violent attacks by the Islamic State Khorasan Province, fighting with the National Resistance Front, and the Taliban lacking recognition as the legitimate government from the international community. There have been no significant improvements since the Taliban’s takeover in August 2021. Overall access to basic services, such as education, healthcare, and financial and social services, will likely continue to worsen in 2022, affecting all population groups.? Given these circumstances and the severity of needs, the total number of new Afghan refugees in Pakistan and Iran reached about 122,480 in 2021.? The actual number of Afghans displacing into neighbouring countries might be greater.? Numbers remain difficult to verify as the borders remain tightly controlled, and people resort to using irregular border-crossing locations and smugglers.? As the movements take place irregularly, Afghans are exposed to increased protection concerns, exploitation, and abuse. Major concerns that surfaced in a needs assessment conducted with undocumented Afghans who recently left the country include detention fears and forced returns. Those interviewed cited shelter, livelihood, food, and documentation needs.? Despite the majority of Afghans leaving the country for security-related reasons, deportations continue from host countries.? Unless the situation significantly improves in Afghanistan, refugee arrivals in neighbouring countries will unlikely stop, and the risks highlighted in the October 2021 Global Risk Analysis will continue.