Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)0 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.2.90 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.0 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.2.90 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.3.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
- 200,000 People displaced [?]
Protests against the reform of the social security system that began in April 2018 were instantly met by violent repression from Nicaraguan authorities, prompting a period of large-scale civil unrest characterised by protests, demonstrations, and strikes. Reports of violence, arbitrary detentions, harassment tactics, intimidation campaigns, and incidents of torture against opposition protesters and human rights defenders have increased and are likely to continue, with no political resolution in sight. ? By 2022, approximately 10% of the total population (680,000 people) had emigrated to Costa Rica in the south and to the US in the north. ?
Nicaragua experienced an economic recession in 2018–2019, followed by the COVID-19 crisis. The current socio-political crisis is limiting any economic recovery. ?
No significant recent humanitarian developments. This crisis is being monitored by our analysis team.
Nicaragua faced High humanitarian access constraints in the past six months, scoring 3/5 in ACAPS Humanitarian Access Index. The humanitarian access situation remained stable.
For more information you can consult our latest Global Humanitarian Access Overview – December 2022.
Protection: In 2022, the UN Committee against Torture affirmed that the Nicaraguan police has exercised arbitrary detentions, torture, and forced disappearances against government opponents. The committee reported that the Government refused to cooperate in providing information for the investigations. ?
Food security and livelihoods: As at 2021, Nicaragua had made progress in overcoming hunger through local food production, as domestic agriculture produced 80% of its food, but approximately 17% of children under five still suffered from chronic malnutrition. Natural disasters, including hurricanes and droughts, regularly affect the country. Disrupted livelihoods in the agricultural sector would severely affect food security. ?
WASH: Access to drinking water is unequal across Nicaragua’s departments, with up to 82% of families without daily water access. Even in areas with continuous water access, it is only available between four and 22 hours per day . 40% of the rural population lacks basic facilities for the evacuation and disposal of human waste. ?
Information gaps and needs
There are important information gaps in Nicaragua. The Government does not publish updated IDP figures, and people are also reluctant to disclaim their status. The Humanitarian Needs Overview is only partial as several sectors in Nicaragua, including health and education, have denounced that the Government is taking measures against COVID-19 crisis management critics and those who question official figures. ?