• Crisis Severity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Impact ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Humanitarian Conditions ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Complexity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Access Constraints ?
    No constraints
    Extreme constraints

Key figures

  • 13,029,000 Total population [?]
  • 4,452,000 People exposed [?]
  • 91,000 People displaced [?]

Special Reports




On 27 September 2020, heavy fighting broke out between Azeri and Armenian forces in and around the contested region of Nagorno-Karabakh. Clashes continued for six weeks until 9 November 2020, when Armenia and Azerbaijan signed a Russia-brokered ceasefire. However, tensions along the Armenia-Azerbaijan borders are renewed from time to time. The conflict resulted in the deaths of over 140 civilians and about 6,000 soldiers, over 560 civilians injured, widespread destruction to civilian infrastructure, and disruption to services in both countries.? 

Nagorno-Karabakh was recognised as part of Azerbaijan but is de facto controlled by an ethnic Armenian administration. Under the ceasefire provisions, Armenia returned Aghdam, Kelbajar, and Lachin districts, as well as parts of Gazakh district, to Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan maintains control over the territory gained in Nagorno-Karabakh during the latest conflict. Russian peacekeepers were deployed in the remaining areas of Nagorno-Karabakh and along the Lachin corridor that connects Stepanakert to Armenia. The deal also calls for the return of IDPs and refugees to Nagorno-Karabakh, without providing any further details.? 

As at December 2021, over 20,000 people are still displaced from Nagorno-Karabakh and its adjacent districts to Armenia and registered as “refugee-like” out of the 90,000 originally displaced during September – November 2020 fighting. 28% of them were registered in Yerevan province, 16% in neighbouring Syunik province (which borders Nagorno-Karabakh), 15% in Ararat province, and 41% in other provinces. Shelter, household items, employment, and food are key priority needs for people living in refugee-like conditions. The winter season adds extra pressure on the refugee-like population because of the additional expenses required, such as heating. ? 

Cities in Azerbaijan have been hit by shelling, causing casualties and damaging civilian infrastructure. According to the Government of Azerbaijan, 40,000 people in the country have been displaced by the conflict as at November 2020. The humanitarian consequences remain unclear, with significant information gaps on the needs in Nagorno-Karabakh and the displaced population in Azerbaijan.?

Latest Developments


No significant recent humanitarian developments. This crisis is being monitored by our analysis team.


Humanitarian Access



Conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh broke out on 27 September between Azerbaijan and Armenia-backed ethnic Ar-menian forces. Fighting restricted the access of people in need to services, and roads were sometimes blocked, restricting people’s access to safety. Humanitarian organisations are primarily concentrated in Armenia, with some service provision in Azerbaijan. Access to Nagorno-Karabakh itself is difficult to ensure, as aid agencies are subject to a complex registration and review process in Azerbaijan. The ICRC was the only active aid organi-sation in Nagorno-Karabakh prior to the most recent conflict, and at the height of hostilities was forced to reduce and suspend activities, although it is now operational. Humanitarian organisations had no access to adjacent territories, which were also affected by the recent and past conflicts. Nagorno-Karabakh was and is subject to the control of different actors, namely ethnic Armenians and Azerbaijan. Fighting restricted movement and destroyed or damaged civilian infrastructure in Nagorno-Karabakh as well as in Azerbaijan. It has also likely left additional UXOs in the region, which had already created access constraints prior to the recent conflict. As the situation is evolving, it is unclear how humanitarian access will shift in Nagorno-Karabakh under the provisions of the ceasefire agreement.

Read more in the latest ACAPS Humanitarian Access Overview.

Information Gaps


The humanitarian consequences remain unclear with significant information gaps on the needs in Nagorno-Karabakh is not yet available or information on the current displaced population in Azerbaijan.