Airstrikes and ground attacks hit multiple towns and cities in the northeast of Syria after Turkey launched a military offensive into the Kurdish-held territory on 9 October. As of 18 October, fighting between Turkish Armed Forces (TAF) and the Kurdish-led Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) caused over 146 civilian casualties and displaced at least 190,000 people from their homes. The majority have fled into Hasakeh and Raqqa governorates where towns are overwhelmed by the influx of IDPs and services are overstretched. Particularly Hasakeh city has seen large numbers of arrivals. Conflict has severely damaged the water and electric supply infrastructure.