For many years, Iraq has been one of the most contaminated countries by landmines and explosive remnants of war (ERW) – and remains so today. Several factors are challenging mine action operations in Iraq. The level and type of contamination is a challenge in itself, as it is complex and exceeds the capacity of existing resources to address it. While operators are focused on clearing legacy-mined areas, conflict has raised strategic and operational questions from clearance organisations. Improvised mines and explosive booby traps represent a considerable technical challenge, especially as they are located in urban settings. Political instability, the persistence of disputes over territories, access, security concerns, and administrative constraints also continue to create challenges.