This thematic report analyses the most pressing humanitarian needs in Gaza against the backdrop of long-standing vulnerabilities, access restrictions, and political developments. Research was conducted through the secondary data analysis and conversations with key informants in Gaza, West Bank, and Israel. The report identifies key drivers of the crisis and provides an overview of emergency response preparedness. Aggravating factors have been identified to better understand the impact of potential deterioration of the security situation in Gaza. Existing information gaps and lessons learned based on the response to past acute crises in Gaza are included.