This report provides baseline, background, and context information on the Tigray region, referring to the situation before the beginning of the conflict that erupted in November 2020. It was compiled to help inform the humanitarian response. Tigray has an estimated population of nearly 5.7 million people, predominantly rural, although recent years have seen rapid urbanisation. Tigrayans constitute the majority ethnic group. Half of the population is under 18 years old. In October 2020, Tigray was hosting over 100,000 IDPs, primarily from Amhara and Oromia regions, and over 5,500 returnee IDPs, as well as more than 95,000 refugees, predominantly from Eritrea, mostly hosted in four camps.