An estimated 54% of the population in Monguno Local Government Area (LGA) is displaced, and the LGA is among those in Borno with the highest burden of population displacement and needs (along with Mafa, Kukawa. and Dikwa). Over 122,000 people from other LGAs are displaced in Monguno LGA, and another 32,000 IDPs have returned to the LGA. Many returning IDPs are living in secondary displacement and in dire need of food, shelter, access to livelihood opportunities, and healthcare. Insecurity remains a challenge: areas outside Monguno town remain unsafe and sporadic attacks by Boko Haram in surrounding villages and LGAs continue to cause displacement within Monguno and prevent returns beyond the headquarters.
34 suicide attacks have been reported across Nigeria’s Borno state since January, resulting in over 170 deaths. This is the highest number of attacks over this period in Borno since at least 2013, although the lowest number of fatalities.
In the last week of May, heavy rainfall and flooding were registered across the states of Pernambuco (PE) and Alagoas (AL) in northern Brazil. In Pernambuco, 24 out of 185 municipalities have declared state of emergency: 55,000 have been displaced and up to 2.2 million temporarily affected by damage to WASH infrastructure. In Alagoas, the highest estimates are of 16,000 people (4,000 families) displaced and 27 out of 102 municipalities in state of emergency, including the capital. As of 6 June, localised rains were still expected in Pernambuco but the overall level of rainfall for both states should decrease significantly.
In southeastern Sindh, below-average rainfall during the 2016 monsoon (July to October) resulted in no or substantially less crop production for the third consecutive year and in livestock losses, affecting the two main livelihood sources in the region.
According to ECHO, 27% of the population in Sindh is moderately to acutely food insecure. A lack of access to WASH facilities and medical services exacerbates food security and nutrition conditions. Landless agricultural labourers, pastoralists, and sharecroppers are most vulnerable and the worst hit. Comparable and recent data on food insecurity rates is missing, but according to the latest assessment conducted in 2015, GAM and SAM rates were well above emergency levels.
Since September 2016, response has been limited. According to a report by the UN Country Team in Pakistan published in February 2017, the 2015 findings are still valid and the region is on the verge of a humanitarian crisis.
UPDATE: Results from an IPC Acute Food Insecurity analysis conducted since May and published in August shows that three of the most affected districts (Tharparkar, Jamshoro, and Sanghar) are facing Emergency (IPC Phase 4) food insecurity, while one (Umerkot) is facing Crisis (IPC Phase 3), confirming the analysis of this note published in April and updated in May.?
- WASH: Access to safe drinking water for human and livestock consumption is limited. Communities depend for the most part on unsafe rainwater or groundwater for drinking.
- Health: Due to various waterborne diseases and malnutrition, 99 children have died since January 2017 in Tharparkar district, Sindh. Medicines and health staff are lacking. Health facilities are often far away and transportation costs high.
- Nutrition: GAM rates in the east and southeast of Sindh province were between 29-31% and SAM rates 11-12% during the latest assessment in 2015.
In Tharparkar district and surrounding areas of Sindh province, southeastern Pakistan, the third consecutive year of below-average cereal production, coupled with losses of small animals (in particular sheep and goats) and limited assistance, has caused food insecurity and acute malnutrition.?
High levels of malnutrition, coupled with limited access to water, sanitation and medical services, have compromised the health and coping capacities of the most vulnerable communities. 99 children have died in Tharparkar district since January 2017 from waterborne diseases and malnutrition.?As a result of a lack of comprehensive assistance, the alarmingly high nutritional and food insecurity trends that were recorded in 2015 are likely to have persisted. According to ECHO, 27% of the population in Sindh is moderately to severely food insecure??
Health and water are the two immediate concerns, according to a UN survey conducted in February 2017. Water, in all aspects, including drinking purposes, for agricultural activities, and for livestock was reported to be the main problem across the communities surveyed. Moreover, support for livestock maintenance, cash grants, and food aid are needed.?
Water scarcity is a critical issue in southeastern Sindh. The main sources of drinking water include wells (protected and unprotected) and rainwater catchments, and fewer communities rely on government water supply schemes.?Water sources are difficult to access. Households have to travel 2–15km, often using camels or donkey carts, to collect drinking water.?
Very few communities use cloth filtration and boiling to improve the quality of drinking water. ?No treatment is given to water consumed by livestock. ?Over 70% of water samples in Sindh are unfit for human consumption. More than half of the water samples collected from reverse osmosis plants installed in Tharparkar were found unsafe due to bacterial contamination and high total dissolved solids concentration. ? Manchar Lake, Sindh's largest source of fresh water, is polluted with arsenic, mercury, magnesium, and cadmium. ?
99 children have died in Tharparkar district since January 2017 from waterborne diseases and malnutrition.?As most deaths occur within the community rather than at medical facilities, the reported number of deaths may be far lower than the actual number of deaths. In 2016, 476 deaths were reported in official figures, although the actual number may have been over 600.?
Between September 2016 and February 2017, 20–35% of children were ill. The most common health concerns were pneumonia, fever/flu/coughing, diarrhoea, meningitis, and cholera, according to a UN survey. Most women are anaemic and newborns are underweight at birth due to malnourished mothers. There is a lack of medicines and health staff, especially female doctors. Roads are poor, few transport options are available, and costs are high. Health facilities are located 35-60km away. ?
GAM rates in the east and southeast of Sindh province were between 29-31%, and SAM rates 11-12% in 2015. These rates are well above the emergency threshold for both GAM (15%) and SAM (5%). The numbers refer to the latest drought needs assessment conducted in the last quarter of 2015. ? These rates are likely to persist to date due to a lack of comprehensive assistance and the continued effects of drought. Maternal malnutrition, with a Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) below the emergency threshold of 21cm, is also estimated to be very high at 20.8%. ?The consumption of unsafe drinking water exacerbates malnutrition.
Less rain, less cultivation, low crop yields, and deaths of livestock are the main contributing factors in the reduction in household income.
The affected areas are in arid mono-cropping zones where agricultural activities are totally dependent on the monsoon rainfall from July to September. ?
Since August 2016, major livestock losses have been reported due to disease and low availability of water and fodder. Goats and sheep are the main ruminants kept, and losses of 20%–40% of goats are reported, as well as 35%-50% of sheep. Livestock prices in February were much lower than in normal times. ?
According to ECHO, 27% of the population in Sindh is moderately to severely food insecure. ?Most households have already consumed the cereal stock from previous harvests as a result of limited production in 2016.?Analysis of variance showed that Badin and Tharparkar districts were categorised in Crisis (IPC Phase 3).? Although children and adults consume three and two meals a day, respectively, the portions are small and nutritional content is limited. ?
The nearest accessible markets to the population for purchasing food and non-food items are the ones located in the main cities, normally at a distance of 35–50km.?
Female headed households are more likely to resort to distress sales. 68% of female-headed households surveyed at the end of 2015 were either landless or sharecroppers, which are the livelihood groups most vulnerable to the impact of drought. 41% are landless agricultural labourers or pastoralists, and 27% are sharecroppers. ? These livelihood patterns and vulnerabilities are likely to persist to date (Anonymous source, UNICEF Pakistan).
Landless households, sharecroppers and smallholders have significantly lower food consumption scores than medium or largeholders or households with skilled or stable employment.? Sharecroppers, together with landless agricultural labourers, make up the poorest segment of the population. According to UNDP, 75.5% of the population in rural Sindh lives under the poverty line, with peaks of 87% and 84.7% in Tharparkar and Umerkot, respectively.?
Complementarity between cropping and livestock indicates that households that rely exclusively or heavily on livestock are more insecure in their livelihoods and nutrition. The less diverse the productive assets of a household are, the more those households must rely on seasonal casual and agricultural labour for income. Moreover, they rely on weather conditions to support sufficient natural forage for their livestock. ?
Recurrent floods during the monsoon season from July to October exacerbate drought effects in some districts of southeastern Sindh, such as Umerkot, including a lack of safe drinking water, and the loss of livestock and produce.
Poverty and feudalistic rural economy
Agriculture is a key driver of the economy of Sindh province. Land is owned by a few large landowners who rent out land to sharecroppers. Agro-pastoralist tenant farmers live in perpetual debt to landowners, vendors, and others.?
National and international response capacity
Affected areas received very limited assistance between September 2016 and February 2017, which is not sufficiently covering needs. The current nutritional response by the government is not fully operational. ?
The Livestock Department, supported by FAO, is running out of routine vaccination for small and large animals in Tharparkar and Umerkot districts. WFP is implementing a conditional cash assistance project, which covers around 15-20% of households eligible for the Benazir Income Support Programme (BISP), a government poverty reduction scheme. Moreover, community-based management of acute malnutrition is ongoing. ?
In 2016, ECHO’s contributions for projects in Pakistan amounted to EUR 25.5 million. A significant part of this funding was directed to Sindh province.?
Selling livestock is an immediate coping mechanism to meet needs. In Tharparkar district, droughts often result in the migration of families in search of pastures for their livestock, disrupting children’s basic schooling.?
While the “No Objection Certificate”, which allows INGOs to implement projects in restricted areas in Pakistan, is not needed for humanitarian projects in Sindh, ?the government has severely limited nutrition assistance in the area since September 2016 and replaced it with its own nutrition support programme (Anonymous source, UNICEF Pakistan).
Information gaps and needs
No recent data is available on food security and nutrition. However, the Nutrition Cell of the Government of Sindh conducted a SMART and IYCF KAP assessment (Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices on Infant and Young Child Feeding) through Action against Hunger, funded by ECHO, in Tharparkar district in 2016. The report is being finalised (Anonymous source, UNICEF Pakistan).
The mortality rate among children under five has been reported as a percentage of children within a community instead of number of deaths per 1,000 live births, making comparisons difficult.
There is a lack of information on how feudalism constrains humanitarian assistance.
In April 2017, district health officials in Tharparkar have declared that they will stop sharing information about children's deaths with media, citing a "misuse" as the reason.? This development is likely to widen the current information gap.
The outlook for the next few months suggests that food insecurity may rise if there are no or limited rains in the coming monsoon (July to October) and if response remains limited. The situation could deteriorate into a humanitarian emergency. ?Depleted seed stocks means sowing next year is likely to be reduced.
Northern Burkina Faso has seen a rapid deterioration of the security situation since January 2017. Various attacks have been carried out in the area ranging from targeted killings, assassination attempts, village and school incursions to complex attacks against army or police position ?. The Ansarul Islam group, which has links to the Ansar Dine movement in Mali, is suspected to be behind most of the recent attacks ??. The increase in threats and attacks has caused fear across the region and led to the closure of over 600 schools in Oudalan and Soum provinces ?. Insecurity is also impacting access to other social services such as health, food security and protection.
Ansarul Islam is a new armed group, first known in December 2016 when it claimed responsibility for the attack of Nassoumbou military base in Burkina Faso, which resulted in 12 soldiers killed. Since then, it has claimed responsibility or being suspected for most of the recent attacks in the region ?. Ibrahim Malam Dicko is allegedly the leader. He first joined the Macina Liberation Front, an armed group close to Ansar Dine based in Mali, and in 2016 established his militia around Djibo in Burkina Faso and Douna and Selba in Mali ?. The aim of this group seems to re-establish a Fulani kingdom in the Sahel region ?.
- Education: School closures have interrupted education for an estimated 72,000 children.
- Health: Various attacks have resulted in the disruption of health service provision, as health centres closed and people are scared to travel.
- Food security will worsen in the area. Households are expected to face Stressed outcomes (IPC Phase 2) between April and September.
- WASH: Scheduled repairs or constructions of wells and latrines are being delayed because of rising insecurity.
Overall the security situation remain tense in these provinces, limiting programmes and activities in the region. Delays are expected to occur as the security measures would adapt to the volatile context.
Severe acute malnutrition was reported as 3.6% in Burkina Faso’s Sahel region in February, exceeding the emergency threshold ?. According to the 2010 Demographic Health Survey, infant mortality rate was 119 deaths per 1,000 live births, compared to 69.7 at national level in 2010 ??. 90% of Sahel inhabitants have faced at least one significant barrier to access health services in case of a disease, related to lack of financial means and distance of the nearest health centre?.
Health and nutrition
After an attack on a military base on 16 December, Nassoumbou health centre was closed for more than a week, obliging more than 6,700 people – including 1,300 children under 5 years old – to walk over 15km to reach medical assistance??.
In March 2017, Diguel, Tongomayel and Gasseltepaoua health centres in Soum province are closed, leaving about 39,000 people without access to basic health services, including 7,300 children under 5 and 2,200 pregnant women. In Gorgadji rural district, in Seno province, a health centre was closed due to its proximity to a police station, a usual target by the armed groups?.
Teachers are being threatened and personally targeted by jihadists in the region, leading most of the educational facilities in the region to close. In January, armed individuals threatened teachers in Soum province, ordering them to teach Koranic education instead of using French ?. Early March, the Ansar-al-Islam group shot three people in Kourfayel, including a school director?. Many teachers have temporarily fled to other regions or Ouagadougou ?. Schools are increasingly being burned down or attacked?.
As of 16 March, in Oudalan province 190 primary, seven middle, and 15 high schools are closed, representing about 70% of educational facilities in the area, affecting close to 55,000 children. In Soum province, almost all schools are closed, notably 380 primary, 17 middle, and 15 high schools – affecting close to 18,000 children??. According to the last Demographic Health Survey, school enrolment rate was already very low in the Sahel region, 19% at primary level and only 4% for secondary?.
Insecurity is jeopardising constructions or repair of wells or latrines in schools, villages, and health centres, particularly in Soum province. In particular, constructions of wells for schools in Baraboule and Koutougou and school latrines in Nassoumbou and Baraboule are likely to be delayed ?.
The recurrent attacks are driving down the prices of livestock on markets in the Sahel and reducing household purchasing power, particularly that of the poorest households?. In January, white maize prices were about 10% higher than in the same period last year?. In the coming months, households that are normally already highly market-dependent, as food stocks are usually depleted at this time of the year, will be even more so, but weak purchasing power will curtail their food access and reduce household food consumption. As a result, they will be facing Stressed food security outcomes (IPC Phase 2) between April and September, instead of current Minimal (IPC Phase 1)?.
Most likely estimated food security outcomes for February-May and June-September 2017?
Tighter security measures have been put in place such as increased border patrols?. A curfew has been established at the border, in Markoye-Oursi, Tin Akoff-Nassoumbou, Koutoubou-Baraboule areas, prohibiting motorcycles between 1700 and 0600, as these are the vehicles generally used by assailants?.
A joint mission in Soum province is organising a rapid assessment this week?.
At the request of the Ministry of Education, UNICEF is preparing a rapid response in education?.
Areas affected by Ansarul Islam attacks in Sahel and Central-Nord regions, Burkina Faso, December 2016 - March 2017?
As of 16 March 2017, Iraq’s humanitarian coordinator has warned that the pace of displacement during the first weeks of the west Mosul operation is higher than expected, and response capacity will be exhausted if new arrivals continue to increase. On 19 February an offensive towards the western part of Mosul was launched, and on 21 February new arrivals were outpacing returns for the first time in six weeks. Since then camp capacity has been repeatedly reported as severely restricted.
Suicide attacks and attempts in northeast Nigeria between September 2016 and January 2017
Between 1 December 2016 and 31 January 2017 651 suspected cases and 127 confirmed cases of yellow fever have been reported in Brazil. Of all reported cases, 125 have resulted in deaths. This outbreak is the worst to affect the country since 1980.
Between 1 December 2016 and 31 January 2017, 651 suspected cases and 127 confirmed cases of yellow fever have been reported in Brazil. Of all reported cases, 125 have resulted in deaths.? Case fatality rate was last reported at 55% among confirmed cases and 14% among suspected cases.? Case fatality rates for reported cases generally vary between 15-50%.?
221 suspected cases and 10 confirmed cases were reported between 30 and 31 January alone.?? Only six of all confirmed cases were reported in 2016: three in the state of Goias, two in Sao Paulo and one in Amazonas. The case fatality rate among the 2016 cases was 71%.? The current outbreak is the worst to affect the country since 1980, with 20 times more confirmed cases between 2016 and 2017.????
So far cases have been largely reported among farmers. However, affected areas are close to major urban centres in Brazil, including Sao Paulo, which has nearly 12 million inhabitants in its urban area.? Yellow fever has not been reported in urban centres in Brazil since 1942.?
Vaccination is available in the public health system. However, it is only recommended in areas with risk of transmission, generally near rural areas, and to people traveling to high risk areas abroad, despite the ongoing outbreak of the disease.? ? The Ministry of Health offers a list of municipalities where vaccination is recommended. With the exception of Belo Horizonte, the capital of Minas Gerais and Palmas, the capital of Tocantins, none of the major urban centres in the states currently reporting cases of the disease are included on the list.?? The introduction of the virus into urban areas may severely impact the system’s ability to provide vaccination for the affected population, despite the high numbers of vaccine produced in the country.?
Additionally, Brazil does not require travellers coming into the country to present an international certificate of yellow fever vaccination. People currently travelling in forest or rural areas in Brazil are at risk of contracting the virus, which may cause the disease to spread to other countries, including those in regions where national vaccine stocks are low or inexistent.?
Only 48% of people living in rural areas have access to improved sanitation facilities.? The accumulation of water favours the proliferation of mosquitoes, which is likely to impact on the government’s ability to contain the disease outbreak. Should the disease reach urban centres, populations living in slums and suburban areas, where access to safe drinking water and sanitation is limited, will be especially vulnerable.
Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), located in Rio de Janeiro, is the world’s largest producer of yellow fever vaccine and has broken its production record, with nine million doses of the vaccine in January.? Private clinics may however not be able to keep up with demand, despite Oswaldo Cruz’s production: Sao Paulo reported a four-fold increase in demand for the yellow fever vaccine in January.? On 31 January, stocks of the vaccine in all 371 private hospitals and clinics were declared exhausted.?
Cause, symptoms, and treatment
Yellow fever is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease transmitted by infected mosquitoes, and is endemic in South America. The "yellow" in the name refers to the jaundice that affects some patients.? Symptoms also include fever, headache, muscle pain, nausea, vomiting and fatigue. Roughly 15% of cases progress to develop into a more severe form of the disease and approximately half of those die within 7 to 10 days.??
- The jungle (sylvatic) cycle of yellow fever involves transmission of the virus between non-human primates, typically monkeys, and mosquito species found in the forest. The virus is then transmitted by mosquitoes to humans when humans are visiting or working in the jungle.?
- The urban cycle of yellow fever involves transmission of the virus between humans and urban mosquitoes, primarily Aedes aegypti. The virus is usually brought to the urban setting by a human infected in the jungle (or savannah).?
- No specific anti-viral drug for yellow fever is available. However, specific care to treat dehydration, liver and kidney failure, and fever generally improves outcomes?Associated bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics.?
A highly effective vaccine against yellow fever is available and is recommended for preventing outbreaks. The vaccine is safe and affordable. A single dose of yellow fever vaccine is sufficient to provide life-long immunity.?
Infants aged under nine months are usually excluded from vaccination. An exception can be made for infants in areas with high risk of infection. The same rule applies to pregnant women. Also excluded from vaccination are people with severe allergies to egg protein or erythromycin, a type of antibiotic, people with severe immunodeficiency (e.g. due to HIV/AIDS), including patients with autoimmune diseases, such as disorders associated with the thymus organ.??
- In 2015, nine cases of jungle yellow fever were confirmed in three Brazilian states: Goias (six), Para (two), and Mato Grosso do Sul (one). The case fatality rate among these cases was 55.5%.?
- The urban yellow fever vector, Aedes aegypti, is highly present in Brazil and is also responsible for the transmission of other diseases such as dengue, Zika and chikungunya. By 5 November 2016, 1,496,282 suspected cases of Dengue had been reported, compared to 1,677,013 for the same period in 2015. For Chikungunya 2016 suspected figures stood at 265,554 by 5 November, compared to 38,240, showing an increase of approximately 600%. The Zika outbreak was declared in Brazil in 2016. By 5 November, 214,193 suspected cases had been reported.?
- The current yellow fever outbreak is taking place in an area with relatively low vaccination coverage, which could favour the rapid spread of the disease. Despite the state of Espirito Santo and the south of Bahia having favourable ecosystems in rural areas for the transmission of yellow fever, the urban areas of these states were previously considered to be at low risk of transmission and, consequently, vaccination was not recommended. The introduction of the virus in these areas could potentially trigger large epidemics of yellow fever.?
- The incidence diseases transmitted by the aedes aegypti mosquito, also responsible for the urban transmission of yellow fever, typically occurs between January and April. Should yellow fever cases transition from jungle to urban within this period, cases could spike significantly.?
The refugee and migrant population has been particularly affected by the cold wave, due to poor shelter and NFI conditions, and low access to healthcare. There are at least 7,200 refugees in Serbia, with 80 to 100 arriving daily, and around 100 crossing onwards into other countries every weeK.???
2,000 refugees living in warehouses and abandoned houses near the main train station of Belgrade are the most affected by the cold. They are at high risk, especially children.? Another 5,000–6,000 refugees are living in government camps. Most refugees arrived in Serbia in 2016. Conditions in the camps are better, with greater access to NFIs, among other things. However these refugees are still vulnerable, particularly to cold-related health issues.? Many live in unheated tents.?
The cold wave has impacted populations across eastern Europe. At least three refugees in Bulgaria and one in Greece have died.?
More than half of the 7,000 to 8,000 refugees in Serbia are in need of shelter.
Up to 2,000 refugees are living in warehouses in Belgrade. They are sleeping on frozen ground. They have limited access to electricity, largely insufficient for their heating needs. They try to keep warm by burning wood.??
MSF estimates that only around 3,140 refugees live in facilities adapted for winter.? This means that about 2,000 to 3,000 refugees in Serbia live in unheated tents in camps.? Furthermore, the camps are overcrowded, forcing some refugees to sleep outside.?
For refugees near Belgrade’s main train station, the power generator for heating and blankets provided by humanitarian organisations are insufficient. Refugees resort to burning items such as plastic garbage and wooden parts of railway trucks, which are treated with toxic chemicals.??
Around 130 people are stranded on the Hungary–Serbia border, waiting on Hungarian authorities to grant them asylum.? They have only sawdust briquettes to burn, and blankets and insulating foil to keep warm.?
Many health problems due to cold temperatures have been reported, with refugees reporting very little access to healthcare and medication.?? Respiratory infections, including pneumonia and bronchitis, are common in refugee camps across Serbia.?
A nationwide flu epidemic is ongoing. It has forced the government to close schools until 11 January. It is unknown if refugees are more affected than the local population.?
In the Belgrade warehouses, dire conditions mean health needs are likely, but the refugees there do not have access to healthcare. The materials they burn for warmth can lead to the inhalation of toxic fumes, potentially resulting in respiratory problems.?
Many refugees, especially men, are afraid to register as political asylum seekers in Serbia, as they wish to seek refuge in other countries.? This makes them more likely to seek shelter in unofficial camps. Overall, refugees in Serbia are vulnerable to physical violence, smuggling, trafficking, and exploitation.?
Refugees living near the train station do not have regular access to food. They have received assistance from humanitarian organisations, although in insufficient amount to meet their needs.?
WASH conditions are poor for refugees living in warehouses near Belgrade train station. They do not have access to warm water. Very few hygiene items are available and they do not have access to toilets.??
The Serbian authorities have often prevented the delivery of humanitarian assistance to refugees, particularly in the warehouses near Belgrade’s main train station.?
The snowy conditions make road transport more difficult.? Water traffic has been suspended on the main rivers, the Danube and the Sava.?? This could create a shortage of fuel, which is often transported by boat.? There is a risk of power cuts, which have occurred in other areas in the region where weather conditions are similar.?
Hurricane Matthew, a Category 4 Hurricane, struck the southwest coast of Haiti 0700 local time (1200 GMT) on 4 October. Wind speeds of 230km/h were recorded, and caused widespread damage, flooding and displacement. It continued across the northwest of the country.? The government has issued a Red Alert and officially requested UN assistance.?
ACAPS will produce a Briefing Note in the coming hours.
Hurricane Matthew, a Category 4 Hurricane, struck the southwest coast of Haiti 0700 local time (1200 GMT) on 4 October. Wind speeds of 230km/h were recorded, and caused widespread damage, flooding and displacement. It continued across the northwest of the country.? The government has issued a Red Alert and officially requested UN assistance.?
Flood victims were evacuated in the districts of Port-Salut and Port-a-Piment, Grande Anse department; many of those who remained at home died. At least two people have died in Haiti and four in the Dominican Republic, but the death toll is expected to rise.?
The city of Les Cayes, in Grand Anse, has been totally inundated. 6,000 people were evacuated in the South department.?
A pre-crisis breakdown of the affected population estimated 213,800 to be affected by wind speeds of up to 120km/h, 793,000 by up to 90km/h and 8.8 million by up to 60km/h. The Ouest department is expected to be worst affected, with nearly 91,000 to be impacted by wind speeds up to 120 km/h.?
Haiti has high underlying vulnerability and is suffering the impact of a number of crises: more than 50,000 people are still displaced after the 2010 earthquake; the cholera outbreak persists and this year has seen more cases that in 2015, and the 2015/2016 El Niño has had a devastating impact on agriculture.
ACAPS will publish a longer Briefing Note in the coming hours.
- Both of Haiti’s international airports, in Port-au-Prince and Cap-Haïtien will be closed from at least 3 October until 6 October).?
- A bridge leading to Route Nationale 2, the only access to the South from Port-au-Prince, is out of use.?
- A power cut is reported in Léogâne, in Ouest department.?
- The road to Jacmel, in Sudest department, has reportedly been damaged. There is a reported power outage and telephone service is poor.?
Shelter: Shelters have been reported destroyed.? The total evacuation of people in Port-Salut and Port-a-Piment leaves at least 18,000 with shelter needs, along with 6,000 from the South department.? 234 shelters have been set up across the country, including 186 temporary shelters across the south. More than 10,000 evacuees are currently in temporary shelters.?
Health: Areas affected are currently experiencing other diseases outbreaks including cholera, Zika and dengue, which are likely to be exacerbated by the hurricane and associated heavy rainfall and flooding. A new cholera outbreak in Randel district, Sud department, has been reported.? PAHO/WHO in Haiti has declared an emergency.?
WASH: Water, sanitation, and hygiene support is urgently needed to help prevent the further spread of diseases such as cholera.? The risk is already very high due to poor access to safe drinking water and sanitation in affected regions.?
Food: Existing vulnerabilities, particularly in Les Cayes, Ouest and Sud are likely to be greatly exacerbated by the hurricane.? Livestock have been killed and plantations have been destroyed in Aquin district, Sud department.?
Protection: IDPs are likely to face serious protection issues in the coming weeks; this has been seen in similar past disasters in Haiti. Additionally, Haitian returnees from the Dominican Republic are often missing documentation.
ACAPS supported an assessment of unions in the upazilas of Derai, Dharamapasha and South Sunamganj, all in Sunamganj district, after a windstorm on 27 April 2014.This factsheet covers the numbers of people affected and levels of need.
Hurricane Irma first made landfall on the northeast Caribbean islands during the early hours local time of 6 September. Antigua and Barbuda, Anguilla, Bahamas, British Virgin Islands, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Puerto Rico, St Barthélemy, St. Martin, Sint Maarten, Turks and Caicos, and the US Virgin Islands were all affected. 169,000 people and 75,000 buildings were exposed to wind speeds higher than 252km/h. 5.5 million people lived in areas exposed to winds in excess of 120km/h. At least 37 people have been reported dead.
A new Category 5 Hurricane Maria is moving roughly over the same path as Hurricane Irma. It is expected to affect Dominica, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Puerto Rico, St. Kitts and Nevis, Montserrat and the US and British Virgin Islands. Communities have been advised to take shelter. States of emergency have been declared in number of locations.
On 7 September, an 8.1 magnitude earthquake struck Mexico’s southern Pacific Coast, about 8km southwest of Pijijiapan in Chiapas state. A related 7.6 earthquake occurred in Guatemala the same evening. Aftershocks were still being reported in Mexico as of 10 September. In Mexico, 90 people were killed and at least 200 injured. Chiapas, Oaxaca, and Tabasco states were most affected. Damage to shelter has been reported, with people still sleeping outdoors for fear of more collapses. Health and school infrastructures also suffered damage, mostly in Oaxaca state. There are concerns that food shortages will arise as shops remain closed and road damage restricts movement.
In Guatemala, an estimated 4,500 people were affected. No casualties were reported but two people were injured. Most affected departments were Huehuetenango, Quetzaltenango, Quiché, San Marcos, Suchitepéquez and Totonicapan. Houses were damaged and health and education provision disrupted.
Hurricane Irma made landfall on northeast Caribbean islands during the early hours local time of 6 September, affecting Antigua and Barbuda, Anguilla, Bahamas, British Virgin Islands, Cuba, St Barthélemy, St. Martin, the Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Haiti, US Virgin Islands, and Turks and Caicos. Two million people live in areas exposed to in excess of 120 km/h winds.
28 people have been reported dead. 1.2 million people have been affected by damage to water infrastructure. An estimated 20,000 children have been affected throughout the region and 17,000 people are in immediate need of shelter. 70%-90% of infrastructure has been destroyed in Anguila and Barbuda. Livelihoods, housing and infrastructure in the British Virgin Islands, St. Martin, the US Virgin Islands, and Turks and Caicos have been severely affected. 34,000 people have been displaced in Dominican Republic and Haiti alone.
Hurricane Irma made landfall on northeast Caribbean islands during the early hours local time of 6 September, affecting Antigua and Barbuda, Anguilla, British Virgin Islands, St Barthélemy, St. Martin, the Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Haiti, and other islands in the eastern Caribbean Sea. The hurricane is passing over Turks and Caicos, southern Bahamas, northern Dominican Republic and northern Haiti on 8 September.
Some 270,000 people have fled Rakhine state in Myanmar to Bangladesh following an eruption of violence on 25 August. The Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA), an Islamic insurgent group, launched multiple attacks on government posts in Rakhine state, and Myanmar security forces then launched counter attacks causing mass displacement. An estimated 400,000 Rohingya are still trapped in conflict zones of Rakhine state, where needs are unknown and access virtually impossible. In Bangladesh, the sudden influx, on top of an existing crisis, means needs are high. In addition to the 270,000 who have fled so far, a further 40,000 are stranded in an accessible area near the border after being stopped by border guards.
Due to prolonged rainfall across Nepal from 11-14 August, 31 out of 75 districts have been affected by flooding and landslides. The southern Terai region has been particularly affected with an estimated 450,000 people affected by flooding and landslides. In this region 43 people were killed and an estimated 32,000 houses were damaged. Districts in central and eastern Terai have the highest reported impacts. Currently the impacts from flooding significantly outweigh those of landslides although the risk remains as rains persist and continue to hamper response efforts.
Rains in Freetown started on Sunday 13 August and have continued since. At least 400 people, including at least 60 children, were killed following the collapse of a hillside in the Regent area near the capital, in Greater Freetown early on Monday morning, as many people were asleep. Since 1 July, Freetown has received triple the usual amount of rain. Most affected areas are within an area known as Regent. Three other communities were inundated, at Lumley in the west of Freetown as well as Kissy Brook and Dworzak Farm.
A drought that began in October 2016 has been ongoing in Ethiopia, leading to high levels of food insecurity and malnutrition. Somali region is the most affected, where 1.7% of the population are affected by SAM. The Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region (SNNPR), and southern Oromia are also affected. Within the Somali region, the most severely affected areas are Dollo, Korahe, Afder, and Jarar Zones. At least 9.5 million people need food assistance across the country.. As of June, the worst affected households are facing Emergency (IPC Phase 4) food insecurity outcomes. The drought has resulted in significant livestock losses, greatly reduced access to food, and has driven large-scale displacement. The nutritional situation has also been deteriorating rapidly with a caseload of over 376,000 children suffering from SAM - 97,000 of whom are in the Somali region.
This anticipatory briefing note was requested by START Network, with a specific location and timeframe. However, our analysis shows that other areas are experiencing lower impact on floods over the past year.
Therefore, the publication of this report is only for the purpose of knowledged-sharing.
Flooding, mudslides, and landslides occur in Tajikistan every year, mostly between April and June, affecting on average 5,000-10,000 people. The Rasht Valley is often affected, but with lower humanitarian needs reported compared to other districts, such as Panjakent, in Sughd province and Shugnan, in Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast (GBAO). It is likely that in July-August 2017, floods, landslides, and mudslides will be reported, resulting in damage to agricultural land, livestock, shelters and WASH/health facilities. Across Tajikistan, up to 10,000 people may be affected in the next two months. Infrastructure such as roads, bridges and power lines will also be damaged.
Conflict between the government and armed groups in Darfur has been ongoing since 2003. After a brief respite following a ceasefire in October 2016, fighting resumed as of April 2017. The government has renewed the ceasefire on 2 July for a further four months. The armed groups they are clashing with, the JEM and the SLM-MM, also signed a ceasefire agreement on 3 May. Despite these declarations, clashes occurred in both May and June, highlighting a lack of commitment to the ceasefire agreements on both sides.
India’s northeastern state of Assam has been hard-hit by monsoon rains and flooding beginning of July. Flooding worsened in Assam on 2 July, when new areas were submerged by the rising waters of the Brahmaputra River and its tributaries. As of 5 July, official figures show over 390,000 people have been affected in over 850 villages across 15 out of 32 districts.
The Fall Armyworms infestation worsened significantly in June in Ethiopia, with 145,000 hectares of land affected – compared to 53,000 hectares at the end of May. The infestation, which affected at least 16 other African countries and millions of people since late 2016, has spread to at least six states out of 11 in Ethiopia, and is likely to spread further. Three to four million hectares of maize crops are expected to be affected at this rate. The Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples’ State (SNNPS) is the most affected by livelihoods loss, with about 100,000 people (or 20,000 households) affected.
2017 has seen a significant spike in South Sudanese refugees entering Uganda: as of 7 June the total number of south Sudanese refugees in Uganda is over 955,000. Most are in West Nile district in the northern region of Uganda, although some are now being settled in Lamwo district. These refugees are reliant on humanitarian assistance for survival, and response is stretched by limited funding and the high continuous arrival rate. Priority sectors for assistance are food and livelihoods, WASH, and health. Nutrition, protection, education, and shelter needs are also high.
Since fighting broke out on 23 May in Marawi City, Lanao del Sur, displacement has occurred from Marawi City and the neighbouring Marantao municipality. As of 22 June, more than 294,000 people were still displaced, around 16,000 of whom were hosted in evacuation centres (ECs). Ongoing conflict in Marawi City prevents the return of displaced people and has left between 300-500 people trapped in areas controlled by IS-affiliated groups. The government of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) asked for international assistance on 29 May, including from non-governmental partners.
Conflict between the Taliban and Afghan security forces in the northern provinces has intensified in the first week of June, especially in Kunduz province. Since the beginning of 2017 12,000 IDPs have been displaced from Kunduz province, the majority to other provinces across Afghanistan, of which over 7,000 were displaced in May. Since January the newly displaced from Kunduz province represent 10% of the total newly displaced population across Afghanistan. IDPs displaced in May made up 49% of Afghanistan’s total displacement.
Landslides that began on 13 June in Chittagong division have resulted in 160 deaths and 187 injured. 6,000 structures have been destroyed, and other key infrastructure damaged. The area affected is in a region referred to as the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT). Reports indicate that approximately 80,000 people across five districts – Bandarban, Chittagong, Cox’s Bazar, Khagrachari and, Rangamati – are affected.
A cholera outbreak that started in Blue Nile state in August 2016 began to spread rapidly as of April this year. Conservative estimates suggest a minimum of between 15,000-23,000 people infected, with 280-820 deaths. It is currently affecting Gedarif, White Nile, Khartoum, Sennar, River Nile, North Kordofan, and Gezira states. White Nile is host to a large South Sudanese refugee population and has had the highest number of cases so far. A state of emergency has not yet been declared and response has been limited. An underfunded health system and poor WASH facilities have contributed to the spread of infection.
Since the beginning of the operation to recapture Mosul from IS on 17 October 2016, over 806,200 people have been displaced from Mosul as of 4 June. Of these, a total of 630,040 people have fled west Mosul since the start of the operation there on 19 February. From 6 to 7 June, over 25,000 people fled Mosul and surrounding districts.
Approximately 118,000 people are estimated to be trapped in the Old City area and the neighbourhoods immediately north of the Old City as of 4 June. Civilian casualties have been on the rise, since ISF launched an offensive from the northwest of Mosul on 4 May. From 26 May to 8 June, over 231 deaths of civilians attempting to flee west Mosul have been recorded. Food, WASH, and health needs of IDPs and civilians still in west Mosul and IS-held areas are high.
In Syria, opposition forces have launched an offensive to take over IS' stronghold ar Raqqa. For more on the ar Raqqa situation, see the ACAPS briefing note Displacement from ar Raqqa.
The Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) campaign to retake areas of ar Raqqa governorate currently under IS control has been ongoing since November 2016. The operation is supported by airstrikes by the US-led coalition. On 6 June, the SDF entered ar Raqqa city from the eastern neighbourhood of al Mashlab. The campaign has generated considerable, mostly short-term displacement. As of end-May, over 205,000 had been displaced, mostly within ar Raqqa governorate. IDPs residing in organised camps and makeshift settlements have irregular access to food, drinking water, and sanitation facilities, as well as health services. Anecdotal evidence suggests similar needs among those still in IS-held ar Raqqa city.
In the last year, IS has been pushed back both in Iraq and Syria, losing large areas, with the offensive to take over the IS stronghold in Iraq, Mosul, currently entering its last stages. For more information on the situation in Mosul, see the ACAPS briefing note Iraq Displacement from Mosul and Tal-Afar.
Since late September, several armed clashes between government forces and militia Nsilulu, also known as Ninja, have occurred in Pool Department. According to the government, more than 60 fatal attacks have been carried out. According to the latest census in 2007, more than 126,000 people are living in these areas and have been affected by the conflict. At least 23,000 people have been displaced since March 2016. Internally displaced people are in dire need of shelter, food, and clean water. People are living with families, on church grounds, in public buildings or in overcrowded makeshift sites. Following significant sustained fighting early 2017, thousands more people were estimated to be displaced. However, due to security issues and limited access given by the government, no independent confirmation has been possible, leaving uncertainty around the total number of displaced people.
Since 23 May, fighting has erupted in Marawi city, Lanao del Sur on Mindanao island, between armed forces of Philippines and Maute fighters, allegedly supported by elements of the Abu Sayyaf and Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters (BIFF). As of 1 June, over 100,000 IDPs have been registered by the regional authorities since 23 May but up to 90% of the 201,000 residents of Marawi are estimated to have fled. According to the authorities, at least 177 people have been killed, including 19 civilians, 120 Maute and allied group members, and 38 security forces personnel. Use of airstrikes by military forces, along enforcement of martial law increase protection concerns.
Cyclone Mora made landfall near Kutubdia upazila, Cox’s Bazar district, southeast Bangladesh on 30 May. As of 31 May, the Bangladesh Meteorological Department has lowered the danger signal related to the cyclone from 10 to 3, as the storm weakened. Initial assessments estimate that over 280,000 people have been affected. The impact Initial assessments estimate that over 280,000 people have been affected. The impact Chittagong. Vulnerable settlements where refugees and undocumented migrants and refugees, many of whom are Rohingya, reside in Cox’s Bazar have been hit particularly hard. Over 475,000 were evacuated to cyclone shelters before the storm made landfall and people have started to return home.
Heavy rains in southwestern Sri Lanka from 25 May triggered flooding that affected 15 districts, of which Galle, Kalutara, Matara, and Ratnapura were the most severely affected. Over 588,000 people have been affected, 180 killed, and 110 are missing. Landslides and flooding have constrained access to heavily affected areas. An estimated 40% of those in affected areas do not have access to piped water, and are therefore extremely vulnerable to waterborne diseases such as cholera or diarrhoea.
Update: Fighting in and around the Kasai regions continues to cause displacement. So far, approximately 1.3 million people have fled violence in eight provinces. Between April and 22 May, over 23,500 people arrived in Angola. By mid-April 2017, at least 400 deaths had been recorded, including many civilians, but the number is likely higher. Armed clashes began between militia loyal to a local chief, Kamuina Nsapu, and FARDC in Kasai in August 2016. Since then, fighting has occurred between different militia groups in Kasai-Central, Kasai Oriental, Kasai, Lomami, and Sankuru. Violence is also now partly driven by ethnic tensions.
Floods during the rainy season from June until at least October will affect about 200,000 people, mostly in southern Sudan. Particularly vulnerable are the displaced in southern Sudan, where there are 2.3 million IDPs and about 400,000 South Sudanese, 110,000 of whom arrived in 2017. Floods will damage key WASH infrastructure and increase the caseload of diseases including cholera and malaria. Houses will be destroyed and flooding will damage crops and isolate some localities, driving up food prices.
A spike in fighting over resources occurred in Alindao, Basse-Kotto over 7–9 May, with at least 56 people killed and over 11,000 displaced. In nearby Bangassou, Mbomou prefecture, armed groups killed at least 26 people, with at least 3,000 displaced in CAR, 2,750 fleeing to DRC and 25,000 in need of humanitarian assistance. Government response is lacking and there is no evidence of humanitarian assistance reaching affected populations, excluding emergency healthcare.
A cholera outbreak was reported in Yemen on 27 April. Since then, the number of acute watery diarrhoea (AWD) or suspected cholera cases has increased to reach over 17,200, including 209 deaths, and the infection rate is rising quickly. The outbreak has affected 18 districts: Sana’a City (Amanat al Asemah) is the most heavily affected area, with over 4,000 suspected cases. A state of emergency has been declared in the governorate.
Import restrictions from the economic crisis that escalated in 2014 are resulting in severe food shortages and escalating malnutrition rates. A recent assessment of 526 children in several states found GAM rates of 8.9% and SAM of 3.2%. Severe medicine shortages combined with poor hospital services facilitate the spread of diseases such as malaria and diphtheria. Maternal mortality increased by 65% between 2015 and 2016 according to some government data. Approximately one million children do not go to school due to insecurity, food shortages in schools, and teachers’ absenteeism. Protection concerns are widespread as Venezuela recorded increasing violence with one of the highest homicide rates in the world in 2016.
Between 9 January and 25 April, a total of 164 cases of hepatitis E, including 25 deaths (CFR: 15.2%) have been reported in Diffa region, where there is a population of 673,146. The outbreak was declared by the Nigerien authorities in mid-April. All the deaths occurred among pregnant mothers. Over 76% of reported cases were among females. As of 28 April, five of the six health districts in Diffa region had been affected, with Diffa and N’Guigmi districts accounting for 96% of all cases reported.
Timor-Leste has been experiencing a severe drought due to the El Niño phenomenon since the end of 2015. The latest rainy season, which takes place from November 2016 to May 2017, has been insufficient and erratic, maintaining drought conditions on most of the island. In the next three months, rains are expected to remain insufficient with the onset of the dry season in June. Food security continued deteriorating in the November–February lean season. With the start of the dry season in June, expectations of a poor harvest make it likely that people will continue to rely on livestock for food. Food intake reduction and a lack of diet diversity is likely to escalate malnutrition rates. National and international response is underway, but the government has not declared an emergency.
Since August 2016, armed clashes between militia loyal to Kamuina Nsapu (KN) and the Armed Forces of DRC (FARDC) have occurred in Kasai-Central, Kasai Oriental, Kasai, Lomami, and Sankuru. As of mid-April 2017, at least 400 deaths have been recorded, including many civilians, but the number is likely higher. As of 27 April, at least 1.17 million people had been internally displaced due to clashes since August 2016, of whom 140,000 since mid-April. An additional 9,000 people have crossed the border into Angola in April, where there is now over 11,000 refugees. Figures are likely underestimated due to lack of access.
Many rural areas of Sindh are currently experiencing daily highs above 40°C, which are forecast to continue until early May. Average annual temperatures are in the mid-thirties at this time and increase to reach their peak in May and June, when urban areas including Karachi will be severely affected by the heatwave. Heatwaves in the past have caused considerable health impacts including dehydration, sunburn, and heatstroke. Impacts on WASH lead to additional health risks such as waterborne diseases. Increased power needs might lead to blackouts, affecting hospitals, transport, and communication.
Years of insurgency and counterinsurgency operations have resulted in the displacement of approximately 1.9 million people and created a food and nutrition crisis in Nigeria’s northeast. The worst-affected local government areas of northeast Nigeria are facing Emergency (IPC Phase 4) food security conditions and Global Acute Malnutrition (GAM) levels above emergency threshold.
Areas of Borno with limited access, such as Konduga, Bama, KalaBalge, Mafa, Ngala, Dikwa, and Marte, have between 39,000 and 250,000 people in Crisis (IPC Phase 3) to Famine (IPC Phase 5) food security conditions, according to the Cadre Harmonisé (Cadre Harmonisé 10/03/2017). Agricultural production has fallen, and raids and suicide bombings have destroyed vital infrastructure.
Security measures impacting food security include a ban on the cultivation of tall crops, road closures, controls on fertiliser and fuels, and curfews. The scale of population movement is worsening food security: returning refugees and IDPs are adding to the strain on both camps and host communities.
3,959 cases of meningitis, 181 laboratory confirmed, resulting in 438 deaths have been reported as of 5 April. While 19 states have reported outbreaks, 97% of reported cases are in six states: Katsina, Kebbi, Niger, Sokoto, Yobe, and Zamfara. Meningitis serotype C, or NmC, is responsible for 83% of laboratory confirmed cases and is severely undervaccinated in the affected areas. Additionally, vaccines for NmC is very costly at USD 50 per dose. Both this cost and local health capacity has limited response thus far.
130mm of rain fell in the city of Mocoa in southwest Colombia between 23:00 on 31 March and 01:00 on 1 April local time (between 05:00 and 07:00 GMT), causing the flooding of the Mocoa, Mulato, and Sangoyaco Rivers, and several mudslides throughout Mocoa (Sky News 02/04/2017).
At least 254 people have died, 200 were injured, 200 remain missing, and around 1,200 have been affected by the floods (Floodlist 02/04/2017 ; ABC 02/04/2017). 17 neighbourhoods of Mocoa have been affected (in the area shown on the map below). Areas in southern Mocoa have been the hardest hit: San Miguel (which may have been completely destroyed), Los Laureles, San Fernando, and El Progreso (Colombia Reports 01/04/2017).
Although the flow of returnees to Afghanistan has slowed since its peak in mid-2016, more than 60,000 people have returned from Iran (54,000) and Pakistan (almost 10,000) this year. They are in need of livelihoods and shelter as well as protection assistance.
Returnees from Pakistan go through Torkham border in Nangarhar province and Spin Boldak border in Kandarhar. Undocumented returnees make up around 40% of a total of 620,000 Afghans who returned from Pakistan in 2016. Returnees from Iran go through Islam Qala border in Herat province and Milak border in Nimroz province. More than 248,000 people returned from Pakistan in 2016, and more than 443,000 from Iran.
The increase is a result of worsening relations between the Afghanistan and Pakistan governments, prompting increasing pressure to return. The increase in returns from Iran is primarily due to the perceived pressure by the Iranian government that Afghan undocumented migrants put on the Iranian economy.
671 cholera cases have been reported in Awerial county, Lakes, since June 2016, of which at least 117 are new cases since 6 March. Most new cases have been reported in Mingkaman IDP camp. The case fatality rate (CFR) is 1.49% - or ten deaths. A lack of WASH facilities has been reported, further spreading the outbreak. The upcoming rainy season, from May/June onwards, will also likely further deteriorate the WASH situation and result in an increased number of cholera cases. Neighbouring Yirol East county has also experienced an increase of cholera cases, as reported below. Movement of population between the two counties may trigger a wider spread of the outbreak.
Famine was declared in Unity state in February 2017 after months of a deteriorating food security situation across South Sudan. An estimated 100,000 people are facing Famine (IPC Phase 5) food security outcomes in Unity state, and 4.9 million people are currently food insecure (IPC Phases 3 to 5) across South Sudan – an increase of 1.5 million since the beginning of 2016. The north of the country – where conflict was initially concentrated – has been the most affected by the severe food insecurity situation, but the situation in the south has rapidly deteriorated since fighting erupted in Juba in mid-2016, and spread to the Equatorias.
The UN has warned that Yemen is at risk of falling into famine if the international community does not take immediate steps to address the severe food and nutrition crisis. 6.8 million people (25% of the population) are facing Emergency (IPC Phase 4) levels of food insecurity, only one phase before the declaration of famine. A further 10.2 million (38% of the population) are facing Crisis (IPC Phase 3). The population in Crisis and Emergency has increased by 20% compared to June 2016.
Since December 2016, above-average rains have caused flooding and landslides in 24 of the 25 regions of Peru. Over 99,000 people have suffered losses and over 600,000 people have been affected. 12 regions have declared a state of emergency. Piura and Lambayeque in the northwest, and Ica and Arequipa in the southwest are most affected. Piura, Lambayeque, Lima, Ica and Arequipa are particularly affected by infrastructure damage such as road and bridge collapse, damage to sewage and drainage systems, and health concerns.
Tropical Cyclone Enawo, equivalent to a Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale, made landfall over Antalaha district, in the northeastern coast of Madagascar, on 7 March at around 10:30am local time. Wind speeds of 220–230 km/h were recorded, along with heavy rains. The storm traversed nearly the length of the island over two days, affecting communities from north to south across Madagascar’s eastern and central regions. On 7 and 8 March, approximately 131mm of rain was recorded in Antananarivo (OCHA 09/03/2017). On 8 March, the cyclone weakened to a ‘moderate’ tropical storm, with an average speed of 80km/h, and the storm exited the country on 10 March.
As of 13 March, at least 100,000 people have been directly affected by the cyclone, approximately half of whom are in Antalaha district. At least 50 people have been killed, and 183 wounded, mainly in Analanjirofo and Sava regions. Over 110,000 people have been displaced by flooding and storm waters, particularly in Antalaha and Maroantsetra districts.
Continuous heavy rainfall since February has caused severe flooding in Khashrod and Chakhansur districts in Nimroz province. As of 23 February several homes had been destroyed or swept away by flood waters, and over 20,000 hectares of arable land had been submerged in flood water. An estimated 3,000 people have been affected and displaced by flooding in both Chakhansur and Khashrod districts. Affected populations are in dire need of humanitarian assistance. Some of the affected were already vulnerable prior to the flooding. Many were either internally displaced or returnees from Iran.
Severe drought conditions are rapidly deteriorating food security, nutrition, and health levels across Somalia. A pre-famine warning was declared in January, and there is currently a larger population at risk than in the 2011 famine. Below average gu (April-June) rainfall is predicted in most of the country, with famine conditions likely in localised areas if humanitarian assistance cannot reach all populations in need. Due to continued insecurity, this scenario is a distinct possibility.
Seventeen out of 21 aimags (provinces) across Mongolia have been affected by a dzud, a phenomenon characterised by harsh winter conditions that result in extremely high numbers of livestock deaths. Around 157,000 herders are at risk of losing livestock and livelihoods, with the lean season expected to last until May. A previously rare phenomenon occurring once a decade, this is the second consecutive year with dzud conditions in Mongolia, limiting herders’ abilities to cope. Bulgan, Khuvsgul, and Zavkhan are among the aimags affected by the dzud. Seven out of 36 priority soums (districts) in Mongolia identified on 22 December 2016 were in Khuvsgul, with another priority soum in Bulgan. The situation across Mongolia is expected to worsen, as the heaviest snowfalls are expected to coincide with the beginning of the spring birthing season.
Since the beginning of January 2017, heavy seasonal rains have been affecting central and southern provinces in Mozambique. 44 people have died and 79,000 have been affected. The Mozambican authorities issued an orange alert for the provinces of Maputo, Gaza, Inhambane and Nampula, yet areas of Tete and Sofala provinces have also been affected. The orange alert means that government institutions are planning for an impending disaster. Continued rainfall has been forecasted for the first quarter of 2017. [This report has been republished after a correction]
Since August 2016, armed clashes between militia loyal to tribal leader Kamuina Nsapu and Armed Forces of DRC (FARDC) have taken place in Kasai and Kasai-Central. Fighting intensified in mid-December. As of mid-January, over 600 deaths have been reported. 216,000 people – 36,000 households – have been displaced by fighting in the region since August 2016. The majority of these people have reportedly fled to villages in Kasai Oriental and nearby forests. Their needs include food, shelter and NFIs, and protection. So far, the exact number of returnees, and their needs, have not been reported.
Somalia is currently experiencing a drought that started in 2015. The whole country is affected, with northeastern areas of Puntland and Somaliland the worst affected. Humanitarian conditions in the southcentral areas of Bay, Bakool, and Gedo have deteriorated rapidly since November, with poor rainfall affecting crops and livestock. Poor and rural households are atypically market dependent heading into the Jilaal lean season and many require humanitarian assistance to meet basic needs.
The Nigerian government has recently engaged in military operations in areas previously held by Boko Haram (BH). As a result, some parts within ten Local Government Areas (LGAs), namely Bama, Damboa, Dikwa, Gwoza, Konduga, Kukawa, Magumeri, Monguno, Ngala and Shani, have become more accessible as of mid-December 2016.
At least 279,758 IDPs out of the 579,000 present in these areas are now reachable. This newly gained accessibility is revealing the dire needs of people who had been cut off from all essential services for almost two years. High malnutrition rates and suspicion of famine levels are among the main humanitarian issues. Poor health and wash conditions exacerbate the needs of the affected population. Protection issues are also widely reported among IDPs.
However, even if access has recently improved, in most cases it is limited to the LGA headquarters. At least six LGAs remain completely inaccessible in northern and central Borno, leaving between 400,000-800,000 people cut off from humanitarian aid.
Political uncertainty in the Gambia, due to former President Yahya Jammeh’s refusal to accept the results of the 1 December presidential election, drove thousands of Gambians to flee the country into Senegal and Guinea-Bissau. As of 22 January, over 76,000 people have reportedly sought shelter in Senegal since early January. An estimated 3,500 Gambians have sought safety in Guinea-Bissau since mid-January. Although some people have already begun to return, an estimated 50,000 Gambians remained in Senegal and Guinea-Bissau as of 24 January. Additionally, an estimated 150,000 people are internally displaced.
Three border posts along the Myanmar–Bangladesh border were attacked on 9 October by Harakah al-Yaqin, a resurgent group in Rakhine state which has supposed links to the Rohingya. In response, the Myanmar Army has deployed more troops into the northern Rakhine area, mainly in Maungdaw, and has conducted a security operation. At least 130 people have since been killed in raids and skirmishes. A state of emergency has been declared.
Typhoon Nock-Ten (locally known as Nina) made eight landfalls on the Philippines between 25 and 26 December, with winds of up to 235 km/h and gusts of up to 285 km/h. Nearly 2 million people have been affected in Bicol region (Region V), Mimaropa, Calabarzon and Eastern Visayas (Region VIII). At least three people were killed.
1.4 million of the affected are in Cantanduanes, Albay, and Camerines Sur, in Bicol region. More than 70% of the 250,000 damaged homes are in Bicol. As of 2 January, nearly 60% (153,861 people) of Cantanduanes’s population was affected and more than 20,000 people were still in evacuation centres. Albay and Camarines Sur provinces, in the same region, are also severely affected.
150,000 people are expected to leave China in December to escape the smog, which has caused tens of thousands to be displaced, schools to shut down, impacts on health, and restrictions on transport. The government has declared a pollution red alert.
More than 173,500 refugees and migrants have reached Italy so far in 2016, around 29,000 more than in the same period last year. While the vast majority still use Libya as the departure point to Europe, more are using Egypt and Algeria. The nationality of arrivals is evolving, with fewer Eritreans and more Egyptians.
Protection is a primary concern. The estimated number of deaths on the Central Mediterranean route has grown to over 4,200 people this year, compared to less than 2,900 at the same point in 2015. Many people die on the journey over land to north Africa, but this number is not known. Migrants and refugees also face detention, sexual exploitation, and forced labour. The number of unaccompanied minors arriving in Italy is growing.
On 7 October, armed violence broke out between forces from Galmudug and Puntland, in Gaalkacyo, the capital of the north-central Mudug region, leaving 11 people killed and dozens injured. As of 13 October, an estimated 50,000 – 70,000 people have been displaced, at least 60% of whom are IDPs facing secondary displacement. The violence erupted in the outskirts of Gaalkacyo at a site where the Puntland government is building a livestock market. A ceasefire was initially agreed on 9 October, but failed to hold. A new ceasefire was agreed on 19 October.
Early on 20 October 2016, typhoon Haima/Lawin is due to hit the Philippines. Winds up to 185 km/h are expected, and rainfall of 100-200 mm throughout the next two days with local amounts over 300 mm, thus exacerbating the risk of mudslides, especially in higher elevations.
11.6 million people could be affected, mostly in northern Luzon – including 2.8 million in the Cagayun and Isabela provinces, where it will hit the hardest.
- Three border posts on the Myanmar-Bangladesh border were attacked by unknown assailants on 9 October
- In response, the Myanmar Army conducted security operations in northern Rakhine
- 26 people have been killed in ensuing raids and skirmishes
Key updates since 12 October:
- Trust between people in need and aid workers has been hampered by several security incidents. Blockades and attacks on aid workers are reported in Jérémie, Les Cayes, Carrefour Charles, Chambellon, and Torbeck as people try to access aid. Road access has improved throughout Grand’Anse and Sud.
- 510 cases of cholera now reported throughout Haiti; 60,000 are in need of emergency health services.
- The damage to schools and numbers of affected children reported so far refer only to public schools, which comprise only 20% of schools in Haiti, meaning figures are likely much higher.
• A Rift Valley Fever (RVF) outbreak was declared on 20 September in the districts of Tchintabaraden, Tassara, and Abalak in the Tahoua region of Niger.
• As of 10 October, 90 cases have been reported among humans, including 28 deaths, with a case fatality rate (CFR) of 31.1%.
• Movement of the animal and human population is likely to further increase the risk of the outbreak spreading. The population at risk is estimated at 125,000.
- According to the latest government figures, 1,410,900 people, including 592,600 children, are in need of humanitarian aid, of which 750,000, including 315,000, are severely in need. So far, at least 1,000 people have been reported dead. More than 200,000 houses have been severely damaged or destroyed.
- At least 175,500 have been evacuated or displaced and housed in 224 temporary shelters. However, this figure does not include displaced people living in host families or informal settlements. The overall scale of displacement is therefore underestimated.
- At least 356 new cholera cases have already been reported. There is a very high risk of a significant increase in cholera as a result of damage to weak WASH infrastructure. High food shortages and extensive damages to plantations have been reported across the affected areas.
- Road access is improving in coastal areas but interior mountainous areas have still not be reached. Growing insecurity are of concern and likely to impact response.
Au moins 20% du territoire d’Haïti a été touché par l’ouragan Matthew. Un grand nombre de glissements de terrain et d’inondations ont été rapportés dans toutes les régions côtières, de même qu’à l’intérieur des départements touchés. Les départements les plus touchés sont: Sud, Grand’Anse et Nippes. Au total, 2 128 700 personnes, soit 12 % de la population d’Haïti, ont été touchées, dont 894 100 enfants.
Fighting has been ongoing in Kunduz city since 3 October, when the Taliban attacked. Government troops backed by Afghan special forces and US airstrikes are still conducting ‘clearing operations’ and have yet to recapture the city. At least three civilians had been killed and more than 290 wounded by 6 October. As of 10 October, approximately 33,000 people have reportedly fled Kunduz to neighbouring provinces. On 6 October, 10,000 IDPs have reportedly arrived in Kabul, Mazar-i-Sharif (Balkh province), Taloqan (Takhar province), and in Baghlan province. Protection, health and food needs are priorities.
- According to the latest government figures, 1.4 million people are in need of humanitarian aid, including 750,000 targeted to address serious needs.
- At least 61,537 have been evacuated or displaced and are housed in 192 temporary shelters.
- So far, at least 1,000 people have been reported dead but the death toll is still expected to rise as the worst-affected areas are accessed.
- New cholera cases have already been reported, and enormous water infrastructure damage. Preliminary assessment indicates food shortages in worst-affected areas of Sud and Grand'Anse departments.
- Flooding, landslides, and debris have cut road access throughout affected areas, although a temporary bridge has replaced the collapsed La Digue bridge, enabling vehicle access to southern departments.
- The floods that began on 11 July brought heavy and above average rain and have so far affected some 9,500–15,000 people across Mali, including the regions of Sikasso, Koulikoro, Segou, Mopti, Timbuktu, Gao, and Kidal.
- 13 people have died. The total population of these areas is roughly 10,000,000
- Based on experiences from floods in 2012 and 2013 that were less serious than this year’s predictions, up to 30,000 people are likely to be affected, though a precise prediction is impossible to make at this point. The capital, Bamako, is at risk of flooding.
- At least 25% of Haiti’s territory has been impacted by Hurricane Matthew: Sud, Sud-Est, Grande'Anse, Nippes, Nord-Ouest, and Ouest departments are the most affected.
- So far, 300 people have been reported dead, and 350,000 people are estimated to be in need of assistance. At least 15,623 people have been displaced and over 21,000 have been evacuated.
- Some populations in the south are still inaccessible; a greater humanitarian response will likely be necessary to prevent dire long-term consequences, especially given the ongoing cholera epidemic.
Category 4 Hurricane Matthew struck the southwest coast of Haiti at 0700 local time (1200 GMT) on 4 October. Wind speeds of 230km/h were recorded, and caused widespread damage, flooding, and displacement. It continued across the northwest of the country.
350,000 people require humanitarian assistance, and 14,530 have been displaced. Reported death toll is currently six.
Sud, Sud-Est, Grande'Anse, Nippes, Nord-Ouest, and Ouest departments are the most affected.
It is expected that flooding will exacerbate pre-existing epidemics such as cholera, dengue fever, and Zika.
Since mid-July over 15,000 South Sudanese refugees have arrived in the territories of Faradge and Aru in Haut-Uele and Ituri provinces following a resurgence of violence in South Sudan. DRC has been experiencing an influx of refugees into Aru territory in Ituri, close to the border with South Sudan, since October 2015. There is now a total of 27,250 registered South Sudanese refugees in the territories of Faradge and Aru in Haut-Uele and Ituri provinces. The new arrivals have received little humanitarian assistance. Lack of food, shelter, and medicine has been reported in Ituri.
Critical levels of malnutrition and food insecurity persist in Nigeria’s Borno, Yobe, and Adamawa states. 4.5 million people are severely food insecure, and at least 65,000 people are experiencing Famine (IPC Phase 5). Health is emerging as a major need, as most health centres across Borno are either only partially functional or not functional at all and cases of communicable diseases are being reported, including polio, measles, and acute watery diarrhoea (AWD). The humanitarian situation is thought to be worse in northern Borno, which is still inaccessible.
Major flooding in northeastern DPRK, primarily in North Hamgyong province, has affected 600,000 people, left 140,000 in urgent need of assistance, and displaced 107,000. 395 people are missing, and 133 have died. Considerable damage to vital health, water, and transport infrastructure leaves much of the affected population without shelter and vulnerable to waterborne diseases and food insecurity.
As of July, 1.2 million people in Kenya acutely need food assistance, an increase of 500,000 from February. Most food insecure people are in Garissa, Tana River, and Isiolo counties, in the centre-east. Such levels of food insecurity are typical for Kenya and do not represent any major deterioration.
This briefing note focuses on four counties in the pastoral northwest and northeast (Mandera, Marsabit, Turkana, West Pokot), and on two counties in southeast and coastal areas (Kilifi, Tana River). Tana River, Marsabit. and Kilifi are worst affected. Global acute malnutrition (GAM) and severe acute malnutrition (SAM) rates are reported to be above the emergency threshold in West Pokot and Turkana, where malnutrition rates are often very high.
Over 101,000 undocumented refugees are estimated to have returned from Pakistan in 2016, and the rate of returns increased significantly in July and the first two weeks of August. Most are returning to Nangarhar, where conflict is ongoing. The undocumented returnees' needs are considered to be high as their status means they are not eligible for assistance, and insecurity hampers access.
166 cholera cases and 19 deaths have been recorded in CAR as of 21 August. The government declared an outbreak on 10 August, although cholera was first detected on 27 July in Mourou-Fleuve village, Ndjoukou subprefecture of Kemo, located along the Oubangui River, 100km from the capital Bangui. The outbreak has since spread to Damara subprefecture (Ombella Mpoko) and to at least four arrondissements in Bangui.
Most of the affected are located along the Oubangui River, which serves as the borer with DRC. Road access to these communities is very limited due to the rainy season.
On 24 July, high amounts of rainfall (between 100-200mm at various locations) caused heavy flooding in some parts of Senegal. The districts Kaffrine and Kolda (central and south Senegal) have reportedly been the heaviest affected, with Kaolack and Matam also receiving above average rainfall. Throughout Kaffrine district some 1,500 houses have been destroyed and 7,500 people affected. Because no independent assessment has been carried out yet the actual amount of damage and sectoral needs are not yet known.
The number of people potentially at risk throughout the 2016 flood season is estimated at 210,000.
Newly accessible areas of Borno and Yobe states and areas with active military operations face severely limited access to food. Levels of malnutrition are critical and populations face a substantially increased risk of mortality. The crude mortality rate (CMR) has surpassed the threshold of 2/10,000/day – used when classifying Famine (IPC Phase 5) – in several areas since June 2016.
Drought has been ongoing since October 2015, but has recently deteriorated dramatically. The drought has now impacted seven departments and 106 municipalities. Over 160,000 people as well as 90,000 hectares of agriculture and over 121,000 cattle have been affected. 104 municipalities have declared a state of emergency, with losses in agricultural production reported at USD 35 million among small farmers of the Pailon municipality alone.
The northeastern state of Assam has been particularly hard-hit by monsoon rains and flooding this season. Rainfall this year has been 20% above average in some areas of India, including in Assam.
Flooding worsened in Assam on 22 July, when new areas were submerged by the rising waters of the Brahmaputra River and its tributaries. As of 1 August, official figures show over 1.1 million people and over 3,300 villages across 21 out of 32 districts are affected. At least 32 people have died, most since 22 July.
Heavier than usual monsoon rains have caused floods in Bangladesh since 20 July. Some 3,200,000 people have been affected and up to 42 have died as of 3 August. Up to 300,000 people have been displaced in 16 different districts, mostly in the Northern and Central provinces (including Bogra, Faridpur, Gaibandha, Jamalpur, Kurigram, Kustia, Lalmonirhat, Madaripur, Manikganj, Nilphamary, Rajbari, Rangpur, Sariatpur, Sirajgonj, Sunamgonj, and Tangail). Most urgent needs are food provisions, WASH, and Emergency Shelter.
Following the escalation of conflict in Juba on 7-11 July the situation across South Sudan has remained tense and clashes have been reported across the country. Immediately after the events in Juba a notable increase in violence was reported in Magwi and Torit counties in Eastern Equatoria. Clashes are likely ongoing. People are fleeing the area in anticipation of more heavy fighting. It is expected that the ceasefire in place since 11 July will not hold and violence will continue to spread. Between 7-27 July more than 37,500 people fled to Uganda, at a rate of 2,000 – 4,000 people per day. If clashes are ongoing it is also likely that thousands of people are currently internally displaced in Eastern Equatoria.
As of 16 July, an estimated 12,800 people remain displaced after fighting erupted in Juba over 7–11 July. They are at UN House (6,838), UNMISS Tongping (3,300), Don Bosco Gumbo (1,800), Rajaf village (500), St Joseph Parish Church (100), SSRC Compound (109), and San Francis Pitia school (150): see map page 6 (CCCM 16/07/2016).. Humanitarian agencies currently have access, but this is not stable as the ceasefire is fragile and the situation remains tense. Main needs include water, food, health, and protection.
A disagreement at a checkpoint between soldiers of the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) and Sudan People’s Liberation Army in Opposition (SPLA-IO) prompted the fighting across Juba. An estimated 36,000–42,000 people were initially displaced.
Newly accessible areas of Borno and Yobe states are revealing extremely high rates of severe acute malnutrition, especially among 275,000 IDPs reported to live in 15 camps in Borno state. Information from recent rapid assessments, although limited, raises the possibility of Famine (IPC Phase 5) in the worst affected and least accessible areas of Borno. The Minister of Health has declared a nutrition emergency in Borno state. 613,000 children have been reported with SAM.
Poor quality and lack of food, inadequate WASH, as well as the insurgency, are among the main causes. Most affected areas are those adjacent to Sambisa Forest and those in northern Borno. Although only limited information is available, there are concerns that conditions among other IDP populations in the area could be similarly dire. The crude mortality rate (CMR) may have surpassed 2/10,000/day in June.
- As of 19 June, 1,106 suspected and 68 confirmed cases of yellow fever have been reported in DRC and 75 people have died. Cases have been reported in Kinshasa, Kongo-Central, and Kwango.
- There is a high risk that the outbreak will spread into other provinces that share the border with Angola: Kasai, Kasai-Central, and Lualaba.
- The porous border between Angola and DRC and uncontrollable movement of people and mosquitoes across the border hamper the response.
Boko Haram attacks in Yebi and Bosso, two towns in the east of Niger’s Diffa region, have displaced an estimated 50,000–75,000 people since 19 May. Most of the displaced population first sought safety in the town of Toumour, 25–30km west of Bosso town, but have since moved westwards and northwards, fearing further BH attacks.
Newly displaced populations are being reported among host communities and in spontaneous sites along the national highway that connects Diffa and N’guigmi departments. Others are heading to Kablewa, an official camp that is already nearing capacity. The new arrivals will have severe humanitarian needs after travelling up to 100km to reach safety, with little food, water or shelter. The capacity of host communities to cope with the newly displaced is low, and humanitarian agencies, while present, are already stretched to meet the needs of the 241,000 existing displaced.
Access in Bosso town is limited. Reports suggest most civilians have left, but this is yet to be confirmed and those who remain likely face high protection and humanitarian needs.
Over 45,000 people have been displaced since 27 May in the opposition-controlled area between the Bab Al Salam crossing on the Turkey–Syria border and the town of Azaz in Aleppo governorate, due to an ongoing IS offensive. Another 8,000 IDPs, fleeing an offensive on Ar Raqqa in the past week, have also arrived in the area.
Over 100,000 displaced had already fled to this zone since February, and the humanitarian situation is now critical: over 165,000 people trapped in the border strip face difficulties accessing medical care, food, water, and safety.
On 21 May, around midday local time (0600 GMT), Tropical Cyclone Roanu made landfall along the southern coastal districts of Bangladesh, bringing heavy rain, winds of up to 88km/h, and storm surges of up to 2m (AFP 21/05/2016).
At least 24 people have been killed (BDNews24 22/05/2016). Some 85,000 structures, including homes and shops, have been destroyed or damaged (NDTV 23/05/2016; (AFP 22/05/2016). At least 15 districts are affected, with Chittagong, Cox’s Bazar, Noakhali, Lakshimpur, Bhola, Barguna and Patuakhali among the worst affected (Newsnext 22/05/2016). 500,000 people were evacuated ahead of the cyclone (AFP 21/05/2016). Returns had already reportedly begun on 21 May (AFP 21/05/2016; 22/05/2016). As of the evening of 22 May, some media reports cited disaster management officials as saying that 150,000 people were in evacuation shelters or open areas. (Newsnext 22/05/2016). The current number of evacuees is not clear, nor is the number of people in need of aid.
Since 14 May, heavy rain has been affecting almost all provinces, causing severe floods and landslides. 19 out of 25 districts have been affected, and over 350,000 people according to official figures, including 200,000 people who have been evacuated to temporary shelters. Over 2,400 homes have been damaged or destroyed. Almost 40 people have been killed, including 35 people killed by a landslide in Kegalle, close to Colombo, on 18 May. As relief operations continue the death toll is expected to rise (Government 18/05/2016; ECHO 17/05/2016; Sri Lanka Red Cross 17/05/2016; Washington Post 18/05/2016).
Increased rainfall since the beginning of May has led to a sharp rise in the Shabelle River and flooding. Heavy rainfall, river breakages, and flash floods have displaced 1,800 people and affected 16,500 in Beledweyne district, in Hiraan region in south-central Somalia.
The number of acute watery diarrhoea cases continues to rise in south-central Somalia, as the increasing scarcity of water in the central regions combined with flooding in the south leads to use of contaminated water sources (UNICEF 29/02/2016). As of 23 April, at least 12 people have died of cholera, and over 60 others are suffering from diarrhoea in towns of Middle Juba in southern Somalia. 11 people have died in Sakow, and one in Bu'ale in Middle Juba (Xinhuanet 23/04/2016; allAfrica 24/04/2016).
Since April 2016, heavy spring/belg rains have caused floods and landslides, resulting in 100 deaths as of 12 May. Up to 120,000 people have been displaced in six regions. The most affected regions are Somali, Oromia, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples (SNNP), Afar, Amhara, and Harari – already severely affected by the El Niño drought.
Cambodia is facing its worst drought in 50 years, and 18 out of the country’s 25 provinces are currently experiencing water shortages.
A severe heatwave is expected to strike Pakistan, in particular the southern province of Sindh and its capital Karachi, from the beginning of May up to the first week of June, coinciding with the first week of Ramadan. Karachi has already been affected by a moderate heatwave during the last 10 days of April, which caused two deaths.
Last year, a heatwave affected Sindh throughout June and during Ramadan, the month during which practising Muslims do not drink or eat between sunrise and sunset. Between 1,300 and 2,000 people died in Karachi, with the impact of the heatwave exacerbated by fasting, despite calls of local clerics to suspend fasting if necessary. Additional factors explaining the severity of last year’s heatwave included a delay in emergency warning, widespread power cuts, and a general lack of preparedness by the authorities and other responding agencies.
Following two consecutive below-average monsoon seasons, 330 million people are affected by drought across 10 of India’s 29 states, according to the government. Water shortages are severe. People are facing food shortages and livelihoods have been severely damaged.
The focus of this report will be Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, particularly the Bundelkhand region that covers 13 districts across the two states, as well as Maharashtra state. These areas are particularly affected after suffering from three consecutive years of drought and successive crop failures. Over the past year these regions have received less than 50% of what is considered the normal amount of rainfall. Over 150 million people are estimated to be affected in these three states.
Elsewhere, 17 million people are affected in Telangana state. A further 30 million people are affected in Karnataka, where up to 40,000 people are reported to have migrated in recent months (Business insider 25/03/2016). To the east, 16 million people are affected in Orissa and 23 million people are affected in Andhra Pradesh. Over the past month, the situation has also started to significantly worsen in Gujarat and Haryana to the northwest (New India Express 25/04/2016).
The situation has intensified as parts of the country have also been severely affected by a heatwave since the end of March. Temperatures reached unusual highs of above 45ºC in the first week of April.
The death toll from the 16 April earthquake stands at 655, while 48 people are missing. 4,600 people have been injured.
Around 29,000 people have been displaced and some 350,000 people have been affected
Manabí and Esmeraldas provinces the most affected.
WASH and shelter are priority needs.
Category five Tropical Cyclone Pam hit Vanuatu in the evening of 13 March 2015, with winds of more than 250km/hr and has affected the entire country, but particularly in the central and southern provinces. On 13 March, the Government issued a ‘red alert’ to all six provinces, advising people to seek shelter immediately.
According to GDACS, more than 48,000 people out of the total 245,000 people are affected and humanitarian needs are high. More than 10,000 are reportedly homeless in the capital and largest city Port Vila; more than 33,000 people are affected in the outlying southernmost islands. This number is in fact likely to be much higher, as more information becomes available.
Unconfirmed reports said that 44 people had died in the northeastern province of Penama, according to OCHA. Only six are confirmed dead.
A 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Ecuador at 18:58 local time on 16 April (GMT 00:58 on 17 April). The death toll stands at 272 and is expected to rise as search efforts continue (Reuters 18/04/2016). No definite figures are available on the number of people affected, but tens of thousands of people have been affected.
Fallujah, located 50km west of Baghdad in Anbar governorate, has been under Islamic State (IS) control for more than two years. Since January 2016, the Iraqi Security Forces (ISF) have surrounded the city. The military siege, which has tightened in the past three months, is preventing any food and medical supplies from reaching between 30,000 and 60,000 Iraqi civilians trapped in Fallujah. Military operations are ongoing in surrounding areas, but it is unconfirmed whether an attack on the city itself is imminent.
As of 30 April, 1400 local time, at least 5,630 people have died and more than 11,000 have been injured. The situation is still unclear in remote areas, which remain cut off or hard to access.
As of 28 April, 21:30 local time, at least 5,057 people have died and more than 8,317 have been injured. The situation is still unclear in remote areas, which remain cut off or hard to access. 39 districts have been affected in the Western and Central Regions.
As of 27 April, 21:30 local time, at least 3,904 people have died and more than 7,180 have been injured. The situation is still unclear in remote areas, which remain cut off or hard to access.
As of 27 April, aftershocks are still being felt. At least 44 aftershocks have occurred since 25 April. Magnitudes aftershocks have ranged from 4.1–6.7.
On 25 April, 11:41 local time, an earthquake with of 7.8 magnitude and a depth of 2 km, hit Nepal near the capital city of Kathmandu. The epicentre is located 77km northwest of Kathmandu, and 68km east from Pokhara. Tremors have also caused damage outside Nepal.
The government has reported that a total of 30 districts have been affected in the Western and Central Regions, including Kathmandu Valley districts. There is no total figure of affected population yet WHO has estimated that over 5 million people are affected.
On 25 April, 11:41 local time, an earthquake with of 7.8 magnitude and a depth of 2 km, hit Nepal near the capital city of Kathmandu. The epicentre is located 77km northwest of Kathmandu, and 68km east from Pokhara. Tremors have also caused damage outside Nepal.
As of 26 April, 15:30 local time, at least 2,200 people have died and around 4,600 more have been injured. The situation is still unclear in remote areas, which remain cut off or hard to access.
As of 26 April, aftershocks are still being felt. At least 18 aftershocks occurred on 25 April. Magnitudes aftershocks have ranged from 5–6.7.
On 25 April, 11:41 local time, an earthquake with of 7.8 magnitude and a depth of 2 km, hit Nepal near the capital city of Kathmandu. The epicentre is located 81km northwest of Kathmandu, and 68km east from Pokhara. Quake tremors were felt from between 30 seconds and two minutes.
As of 20:20 local time, 25 April, at least 876 people have died, 242 of them in Kathmandu. At least 2,000 people have been injured. The number of casualties is expected to increase dramatically as information is collected.
As of 17:55 local time, 25 April, at least 18 aftershocks have been felt. Magnitudes of some aftershocks have ranged from 5–6.6.
Hospitals are overwhelmed, and as aftershocks continue, victims are being treated in the streets. Reports suggest people are still trapped under the rubble, and some affected areas have still to be reached.
On 20 November, a new Ebola virus disease case was confirmed in Monrovia, capital of Liberia. The latest case, depending on sources either a 10-year or 15-year-old boy, who lives in the eastern Paynesville district of the city, was admitted to a treatment centre in the outskirts of Monrovia on 19 November. Two direct family members tested positive as well on 20 November. As of 20 November, at least four other people, of whom two relatives, had been admitted to the Ebola treatment centre (ETC). At least 153 contacts have been identified and are being monitored. Food and water were delivered on 21 November to high risk contacts.
The boy was at school, the Living in Christ International Ministry School, and appears to have shown symptoms before being admitted to hospital, according to health officials. At least seven healthcare workers may have treated him without the protective equipment essential for Ebola cases (New York Times, 21/11/2015). According to media sources, the child’s family and school will be put into quarantine.
These are the first new Ebola cases in Liberia, since the country was declared free from the disease a second time on 3 September 2015.
Le nombre cumulé de cas d'Ebola signalés en Guinée, au Libéria et en Sierra Leone est de 23 694. Au 22 février, 9 589 personnes avaient succombé à la maladie. Il s'agit donc de la plus grande flambée d'Ebola de l'histoire. Depuis janvier 2015, le taux d'incidence de la maladie s'est stabilisé dans les trois pays et les opérations devraient progressivement céder la place aux activités de relèvement.
Le grand nombre de cas d’Ebola a ébranlé les systèmes de santé fragilisés et défaillants des trois pays les plus touchés. Les ressources (humaines et financières) limitées ont été redirigées vers les programmes de lutte contre Ebola et les établissements de santé ont soit fermé leurs portes pour une durée indéterminée, soit réduit leurs activités.
La défaillance des systèmes de suivi et de surveillance des maladies autres qu'Ebola ont entraîné d'importantes lacunes en matière d'information. Peu de données sont disponibles en ce qui concerne les autres problèmes de santé, y compris les flambées potentielles de maladies, l'accès au traitement contre le VIH/sida ou la tuberculose, l'incidence du paludisme et l'accès aux services de santé maternelle, aux campagnes d'immunisation et aux médicaments.
De nombreuses personnes hésitent à se faire soigner dans les établissements de santé de peur d'être contaminées et en raison d'une certaine méfiance à l'égard du système de santé, ce qui entraîne d'autres répercussions sur le secteur de la santé et risque d'augmenter les taux de mortalité et de morbidité liées à des maladies pourtant guérissables.
The reported cumulative number of Ebola cases across Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone is 23,694, including 9,589 deaths as of 22 February, making it the largest EVD outbreak ever recorded. Incidence has been stabilising in all three countries since January 2015, and the response is moving towards early recovery.
The large number of Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases has overwhelmed the weak and under-resourced health systems in the three most affected countries. Scarce resources have been diverted to the Ebola response, and health facilities have been temporarily closed or reduced operations.
The lack of monitoring and surveillance for diseases other than Ebola has led to big gaps in information. Little information is available on other health problems, including potential disease outbreaks, access to treatment for HIV/AIDS or tuberculosis, the burden of malaria, and access to maternal health services, immunisations and medication.
Fear of contracting EVD and mistrust of the health system has made people reluctant to seek treatment from health facilities, further impacting the health sector and increasing the risk of mortality and morbidity from otherwise treatable diseases.
Around 22 million people are estimated to live in the three countries most affected by the Ebola epidemic, Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. As of 3-4 November, the estimated cumulative number of confirmed Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases reported by WHO in the three most affected countries is 13,241 including 4,950 deaths. However, the numbers of registered cases and deaths seem to underestimate the real magnitude of the outbreak.
If not addressed in the coming weeks, the consequences of the outbreak will lead to long-lasting impacts on farmers' food livelihoods and household economies, resulting in a major food security crisis by March 2015. The most affected areas within each country are also the most agriculturally productive. Reduced food trade and rising prices, as well as expected reductions in domestic harvests, are all undermining a fragile food security situation.
Control measures implemented to contain the outbreak, such as border closures, quarantine, movement restrictions, curfews, have curtailed the movement and availability of food, goods, and services in the region, leading to panic buying, food shortages and increased basic food and commodity prices. Higher food prices and the loss of purchasing power mean an increasing number of vulnerable households are resorting to negative coping strategies in order to access food.
Food insecurity and lack of access to markets have been increasing community tensions. Lack of food in quarantined areas has led to violence.
A multidimensional and multi-sector approach is required to contain the outbreak and stabilise affected areas while safeguarding against a long-term food security crisis.
UN and national officials are warning of the serious threat Ebola is posing to the safety of the countries. In a statement to the UN Security Council on 9 September, the Liberia’s Defence Minister warned its national existence was "seriously threatened" by the Ebola virus.
The Governments’ poor management of the epidemic has generated deep frustration among the three countries’ societies, and the security situation, particularly in Liberia, is gradually deteriorating. The Ebola crisis has exposed citizens’ lack of trust in their governments and exacerbated social tensions, increasing the possibility of profound unrest in these fragile countries. The lack of a prompt, robust, and efficient response from the international community contributes to the mistrust.
Children and women have been deeply affected by the EVD outbreak. Children related to people with EVD have been abandoned. Children are extremely vulnerable and in critical situations in the three most-affected countries due to the loss of a parent.
As of 21 September, the estimated cumulative number of confirmed Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases reported by WHO in the three most affected countries (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) is 6,242, including 2,909 deaths. The ‘hidden caseload’, however, is unprecedentedly large, and these figures are believed to include only a fraction of all cases in this rapidly spreading epidemic.
According to a WHO projection, the aggregate caseload of EVD could exceed 20,000 by early November. Other agencies project the possibility of more than ten times as many cases, use different assumptions such as transmission to other countries, and evolution of the virus towards easier transmission between people.
The humanitarian community is already overwhelmed with the management of the epidemic and is greatly challenged in facing all the implications of this unprecedented and complex regional crisis. The current outbreak in West Africa is by far the largest ever recorded, and already numbers more cases than all past Ebola epidemics combined. 26 million people are estimated to live in the three most-affected countries. The epidemic started in Guinea in December 2013 but was only identified in March, and spread to Liberia, Sierra Leone, Senegal and Nigeria.
Since 13 August continuous rainfall in north and northeastern Bangladesh, together with the onrush of water from upstream, have caused flash floods in low-lying and densely populated areas. More than 800,000 people have been affected, including 500,000 displaced. As of 25 August, humanitarian actors on the ground report nine deaths. The most affected districts include Nilphamari, Lalmonirhat, Kurigram, Rangpur, Gaibandha, Jamalpur, Sirajganj, Sunamjong and Sylhet.
400,000 people – around one third of Timor-Leste’s population – are estimated to be severely affected by El Niño-induced drought. Over 100,000 people currently face Stressed (IPC Phase 2) food security outcomes, and are likely to move into Crisis levels of food insecurity as the impacts of a poor harvest accrue. Reports of failed staple crops, including maize and rice, due to delayed, erratic or insufficient rains are widespread. Livestock sickness and losses have been reported as water and food supplies run low. WASH conditions are worsening. Food and water shortages are hampering school feeding programmes and the incidence of diarrhoea is increasing.
While mountainous areas report better crop prospects after improved rainfall since January, southern, eastern and northern coastal areas, including in Lautem, Viqueque, Covalima and Oecusse, remain severely affected by drought. In these areas, the May dry season is expected to set in early, reducing the likelihood of late season improvements in crop growth and harvest yields. With 41% of Timor-Leste’s population below the poverty line and over 70% reliant on subsistence agriculture, high levels of vulnerability exacerbate the impact of the drought. Negative coping mechanisms, including eating less, changing to less safe water sources, and selling of assets are reported.
The Philippines has been affected by a strong El Niño-related dry spell since December 2015, which has hit food production. El Niño peaked between December and February, and drought affected 40% of the country, and is expected to persist in 2016.
The most drought-affected area is the island of Mindanao in the south, which is the country's poorest area and where more than half of the population is reliant on agriculture. According to the Department of Social Welfare and Development, 676,465 people have been affected by drought in the following areas of Mindanao: Cotabato, South Cotabato, and Sultan Kudarat in Soccsksargenand Maguindanao in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM). The Zamboanga peninsula in Mindanao has been facing severe water shortages.
A surge of violence since midJanuary, including battle for the city of Debaltseve in midFebruary, has caused a wave of new displacement into government-controlled areas.
Food security and protection continue to be major concerns for people in non-governmentcontrolled areas who are cut off from supplies, especially older people who did not register as IDPs before the 1 February deadline, and other vulnerable groups. Food security is further constrained by rising food prices.
The local currency (hryvnia) has been devalued by 50%, contributing to a reduction in households’ purchasing power.
In Luhansk region, the shortage of medicines and essential supplies, including food, is even more acute, and the humanitarian situation is particularly alarming.
Violence between government forces and the Sudan Liberation Movement led by Abdel Wahid Al Nur (SLM-AW) has persisted in Darfur’s Jebel Marra region since 15 January 2016. At least 100,000 people have been displaced. Over 60,000 people have arrived at three locations in North Darfur including the UNAMID base in Sortoni, IDP sites in Tawila locality and Kebkabiya. An unknown number of people have been displaced to villages and towns in Central Darfur, where severe access restrictions have prevented verification. Displaced people are also hiding in the mountains and at risk of ongoing fighting. Women and children comprise 90% of the displaced. Civilians have been indiscriminately targeted. IDPs are in critical need of humanitarian assistance across all sectors.
On 22 October, IPC released a report stating that 30,000 people are estimated to be experiencing Catastrophe (IPC Phase 5) food security outcomes in Unity state’s Leer, Guit, Koch and Mayendit counties. The people who fled to the bush during the intensification of violence between April–June are most affected. 3.9 million people are estimated to be experiencing Crisis (IPC Phase 3), Emergency (IPC Phase 4) and Catastrophe (IPC Phase 5) food security outcomes across South Sudan. Jonglei, Upper Nile, and Unity states are the most affected.
Civil unrest erupted in Burundi following the announcement on 26 April that Burundian President Nkurunziza, would be seeking a third term in power. Situation in Burundi is of concern
Refugees started arriving in Rwanda in mid-April 2015, at around 200–300 per day. After the announcement, the rate increased to 3,000 per day, with 20,400 refugees arrived in Rwanda as of 26 April. This can be considered as preventive measures taken by fleeing population.
Reception centres in Bugesera and Nyanza districts are overwhelmed. The Rwandan Government and UNHCR plans to relocate 16,000 refugees to Mahama refugee camp, Kirehe district, by 1 May.
On 26 October, at 9:09 UTC time, a 7.5 magnitude earthquake struck northeast Afghanistan, north Pakistan and some areas of Indian-controlled Kashmir. The earthquake occurred at a depth of 212.5km, with the epicentre near Jurm, in the Badakhshan province of Afghanistan. The affected areas of Pakistan, more densely populated than those of Afghanistan, registered major damage, and casualties. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, in northern Pakistan, was the most affected, with at least 221 dead, and 1,664 injured. The national toll is 268 dead, and 1,864 injured. Around 13,771 houses were damaged or destroyed.
A suspected outbreak of Lassa viral hemorrhagic fever was announced in Nigeria on 8 January. The Lassa virus is carried by the multimammate rat. It is transmitted to humans through physical contact with objects; eating contaminated food; or infected bodily fluid. On 14 January, official records states at least 140 suspected cases and 30 confirmed cases, including 53 deaths, in 14 states indicating a case fatality rate (CFR) of 37.9%. As of 20 January, local media has reported as many as 212 suspected cases and 63 deaths in 17 states.
Over July, Cameroon has repatriated an estimated 3,500 undocumented Nigerian asylum seekers towards Adamawa state. Another 12,000 are stranded at the Nigeria/Cameroon border in Adamawa state. They can be expected to be repatriated throughout August and are in urgent need of further assistance. Cameroon’s decision follows a series of Boko Haram attacks in Cameroon; Cameroonian authorities claim the militants have entered the country disguised as refugees. Significant shelter and WASH needs have been reported for returnees in Adamawa and Borno states. The current level of response is reportedly not covering basic needs and should be scaled up ahead of the expected additional arrivals.
74 people have died, over 39,500 displaced households (197,500 individuals) and over 330,000 people have been affected in 12 out of Myanmar’s 14 states and regions after over a week of torrential rains which began 26 July, linked to Cyclone Komen. The numbers of dead and affected continue to rise.
On 31 July, Rakhine state, Chin state, Sagaing region and Magway region were declared natural disaster zones.
Access has been severely restricted as floods and landslides have destroyed or damaged vital infrastructure.
The needs of those affected is yet to be assessed. Myanmar’s large displaced population, particularly the 130,000–140,000 Rohingya are particularly vulnerable
Sixteen of 21 provinces in Mongolia, mainly in the northeast, have been affected by a dzud, a phenomenon characterised by harsh winter conditions that result in extremely high numbers of livestock deaths. Around 400,000 people in the northern and western part of the country are at risk of losing livestock and livelihoods in the coming weeks. As of the beginning of March, over 200,000 livestock, out of an estimated 52 million, have died. The situation is expected to worsen, as the heaviest snowfalls are expected to coincide with the beginning of the spring birthing season.
- Herders who lose their livestock usually move to towns and search for casual labour. They live in the ‘ger district’, which is a slum area of traditional Mongolian tents known as gers or yurts (British Red Cross 05/02/2016).
- The last dzud occurred in 2010, and killed over 7 million livestock (over 16% of all livestock). The 2000 dzud wiped out a third of the national livestock and pushed tens of thousands of families to the outskirts of Ulaanbaatar and Darkhan (UN 15/02/2016; Financial Times 01/03/2016).
- The dzud has devastating social and economic consequences, mainly loss of livelihoods, for rural communities. The effects are usually most apparent during March, April and May (Reuters 03/03/2016; UN 15/02/2016).
- The numbers of people in need or people affected are not available. The only published figure is the number of people at risk.
- Information on the accessibility of roads is very general. No concrete areas or roads are said to be inaccessible.
- It is possible that more than 16 provinces have been affected, given the most recent information comes from 20 January.
Local and national response capacity
The government has limited resources and capacities to meet the essential survival needs of herders. At the end of February, the government filed a ‘dzud appeal’ requesting foreign assistance for the first time since 2010 (The Diplomat 29/02/2016). The current winter has not been declared a natural disaster yet (Reuters 03/03/2016). Before the beginning of winter, the government cut wheat and meat exports to shore up domestic supplies and ensure feed for livestock (The Diplomat 29/02/2016). The national body responsible for disaster response is called the National Emergency Agency of Mongolia (NEMA). It is actively cooperating with IFRC and the Mongolian Red Cross. NEMA holds limited stocks of hay from the state reserve. As of now, it focuses on maintaining the functioning of the infrastructure, the delivery of hay and fodder to the most affected areas, and evacuation of severely affected herders (IFRC 15/01/2016).
International response capacity
The Asian Development Bank granted 3 million dollars to help shore up livestock shelters. IFRC and national Red Cross societies also pledged financial aid (The Diplomat 29/02/2016; IFRC 29/02/2016).
Population coping mechanisms
Herders are trying to sell animals while they are still alive, but the oversupply of livestock has resulted in low market prices. Herders who have lost the majority of their livestock are migrating to the outskirts of big cities, mainly Ulaanbaatar and Darkhan. They usually live in extreme poverty in slums (Emergency Live 04/03/2016).