This traffic lights diagram is based on the result of multisectoral priortrisation tool developed by the Analysis Hub. The tool uses NPM site assessments Round 13 data from four sectors to priortise needs geographically, at majhee block level. The 45 indicators used are selected from the sectors to build up a composite index, and combined to make up Basic Needs Gap Index at majhee block level. Each indicators are evaluated for their inclusion in the priortrisation tool and selected according to the amount of variation it revealed. The Betti-Verma method is used to calculate the weight of each indicator and multiple deprivation tool is used to calculate the index in STATA. Additional explanation can be found in the Rohingya Influx Overview. Camps and sites are too large and diverse to be effective planning devices. The analysis for the Basic Need Gap Index was done at majhee block level because the majority of differences and variations in needs are between majhee blocks; and camp level analysis can hide the pockets of high need area.
The traffic lights diagram above is based on the result of multisectoral priortrisation tool developed by Analysis Hub. The tool uses NPM site assessments Round 12 data from five sectors to priortise needs geographically, at majhee block level. The 32 indicators are selected from the sectors to build up composite index; combine to present basic need gap index at majhee block level. Each indicators are evaluated for their inclusion in the priortrisation tool and selected according to the amount of variation that each indicator revealed. The Bette Verma method is used to calculate the weight of each indicator and multiple deprivation tool is used to calculate the index in STATA. Additional explanation can be found in Rohingya Influx Overview. Camps and sites are tool large and diverse to be effective planning devices. The analysis for basic need gap was done at majhee block level because the majority of differences and variations in needs are between majhee blocks; and camp level analysis can hide the pockets of high need area. To illustrate this, each gap in above diagram is presented at majhee block level.
The traffic lights chart depicts an initial multi-sector overview of needs from Round 11 of the NPM Site Assessment – these results are preliminary and require further analysis. Of the 37 indicators have been used in the construction of the Basic Needs Gap, have already been analysed and included in the previously-documented Prioritisation Index and its component sector sub-indices. This product displays results at both camp and mahji block-level, as pockets of high need and other variations cannot be understood through camp-level analysis alone. The size of each point reflects the number of people in need. Sites and blocks are scaled separately. The percentage of persons with needs in that sector are listed next to each site.
The traffic lights diagram above is based on the results of a multi-sector prioritisation tool developed by the Analysis Hub. The took uses NPM data from five sectors to prioritise needs geographically, at the block level. The 30 indicators which form the prioritisation tool have been weighted and combined into the Basic Needs Gap – it and its component sector gaps, are included in the excel workbook accompanying this one-pager. Indicators were evaluated for their inclusion in the prioritisation tool and selected according to the amount of variation that each indicator revealed. Additional explanation may be found in the Rohingya Influx Overview; and the methodology behind the tool can be found in the technical brief Building a Prioritization Index with NPM Round 9.
This chart contains headline indicators broken down by Sector. This has been done to present a initial overview of the results whilst a more thorough report on Round 9 is developed. The NPM Site Assessment is a regular data collection and analysis exercise.
For Round 9, more than 1,800 respondents (mostly mahjis) were interviewed. The total Rohingya population enumerated is 898,312. This summary includes 38 camps and excludes 15,844 people across 77 blocks out of 1,807, or 2% of the population, whose responses have been anonymised as they are predominantly small settlements in host communities and may be easily identified.
The deepening political and socio-economic crisis in Venezuela has led to one of the biggest mass displacements in the history of South America. Although no consolidated figure for the region is available, all sources indicate that migration from Venezuela to neighbouring countries is drastically increasing. 117,300 Venezuelans filed asylum claims in the first half of 2018 alone, already more than the number of asylum claims reported at the end of 2017 (113,438).
Many Venezuelans in host countries are in urgent need of humanitarian assistance. Food, nutrition, health and WASH needs have been identified. Protection assistance is also crucial, including legal help with documentation in order to access healthcare and employment. Venezuelan migrants also face growing xenophobia from host communities, and are at risk of exploitation, trafficking, and SGBV.
As the crisis inside Venezuela continues to deteriorate, host countries are increasingly struggling to respond to the influx of Venezuelans. The rising number of people entering neighbouring countries is putting a strain on basic services, especially in border areas. Recent measures in several countries deter Venezuelans from entering, such as limiting admission to people with a passport, or enforcing quotas at the border.
Tropical Cyclone Sagar with winds between 110 -115 km/h formed in the Gulf of Aden between Yemen and Somalia on 19 May. It made landfall on the northwest coast of Somaliland as a Tropical Storm with 56 km/h winds, resulting in a year’s worth of heavy rains and flooding. The storm caused extensive destruction, including loss of livestock and crops, destruction of homes and critical infrastructure, and mass displacement. Damage to livelihoods, especially the death of livestock, the key source of income and sustenance for a majority of the pastoral popualtions residing in this region, is likely to aggravate existing food insecurity. Current outbreaks of AWD/Cholera also pose a health risk to affected populations. There is urgent need for WASH, shelter and NFIs, food and health assistance.
Heavy rains and flooding have continued to compound an already fragile humanitarian situation in the southern and central parts of Somalia, worsening conditions for communities who recently endured a long period of drought. The floods have resulted in the destruction of homes, critical infrastructure, latrines, and the loss of livestock and crops. There is need for shelter and NFIs, as well as WASH assistance.
On 10 April, the category 3 Tropical Cyclone Keni moved towards Fiji. More than 8,900 people are sheltered in evacuation centres across the country. Western Division and Kadavu Island were the most affected areas. People in affected areas are in urgent need of food and water. There are concerns for people living in Kadavu because of the difficulty in accessing the island and because of challenges with communication following the cyclone. Cyclone Keni moved south-east away from Fiji on 11 April. Heavy rains may continue to affect several areas of Fiji.
As of 6 December, 110 clinically diagnosed cases of diphtheria, including six deaths have been reported, with most cases in the Balukhali makeshift settlement (BMS), located in the larger Kutupalong–Balukhali expansion site. Other cases have been detected in Jamtoli and Thangkhali settlements. Low vaccination coverage amongst the camp population increases their vulnerability to the disease, which is particularly deadly for children. Congestion in sites, unevenly distributed health facilities and poor WASH infrastructure facilitate the spread of the disease, particularly during winter. An emergency vaccination campaign targeting 250,000 children is to begin on December 10. Difficult terrain and lack of access to some areas in expansion sites are likely to hamper health services provision. Awareness raising will be important to ensure as many children as possible access immunisations.
Access has been deteriorating throughout CAR in October and November 2017. In particular, access constraints due to violence and restrictions on movement have been reported in Batangafo (Ouham), Bangassou and Pombolo (Mbomou), Kaga-Bandoro (Nana-Grebizi), Zemio (Haut-Mbomou), and Nouffou (Mambere- Kadei). As of early November, over 200 attacks have targeted humanitarian workers, with 13 workers killed since January.
On 6 November the Saudi Arabia-led military coalition announced a temporary closure of all Yemen’s airports, seaports and land crossings, effectively halting access to commercial and humanitarian goods to 27 million people. The blockage was announced after Houthis launched a missile from Yemen targeting Riyadh airport, Saudi-Arabia on 4 November. Yemen is heavily reliant on imports for around 80-90% of its food, fuel and medical needs. On 13 November, Hadi government-controlled ports in Aden, Mokha and Mukalla as well as al Wadea land crossing were reopened. Al Hudeidah and Saleef ports, on Houthi controlled area, which process 80% of commercial and humanitarian imports, remain closed. Government-controlled ports cannot function as substitutes for the country’s main ports due to their limited offload and storage capacity. The location of these ports would require the crossing of conflict frontlines to reach the northern areas most heavily affected by food insecurity and cholera. Prior to the current blockade, the Saudi-led coalition had imposed a naval blockade on Yemen's coast, and restricted travel by air, land, and sea, therefore severely restricting the inflow of commercial and humanitarian cargo for the last two and a half years. This has left the country with critically low stocks of necessary goods, reducing capacity to cope under the current conditions.
Pouplation: 71,200 (2011); 67% of people live in urban areas; growth 0% per annum 1990–2012, due mainly to the emigration of young people; birth rate 16 per 1,000 people (est. 26 in 1970); life expectancy 77 years (The Commonwealth). The population is mostly of African and mixed African/European descent, with European, Syrian and Carib (2.9% in 2001 census) minorities. There is a Carib reserve on part of the east of the island, referred to as the Kalinago Territory
An estimated 54% of the population in Monguno Local Government Area (LGA) is displaced, and the LGA is among those in Borno with the highest burden of population displacement and needs (along with Mafa, Kukawa. and Dikwa). Over 122,000 people from other LGAs are displaced in Monguno LGA, and another 32,000 IDPs have returned to the LGA. Many returning IDPs are living in secondary displacement and in dire need of food, shelter, access to livelihood opportunities, and healthcare. Insecurity remains a challenge: areas outside Monguno town remain unsafe and sporadic attacks by Boko Haram in surrounding villages and LGAs continue to cause displacement within Monguno and prevent returns beyond the headquarters.
34 suicide attacks have been reported across Nigeria’s Borno state since January, resulting in over 170 deaths. This is the highest number of attacks over this period in Borno since at least 2013, although the lowest number of fatalities.
In the last week of May, heavy rainfall and flooding were registered across the states of Pernambuco (PE) and Alagoas (AL) in northern Brazil. In Pernambuco, 24 out of 185 municipalities have declared state of emergency: 55,000 have been displaced and up to 2.2 million temporarily affected by damage to WASH infrastructure. In Alagoas, the highest estimates are of 16,000 people (4,000 families) displaced and 27 out of 102 municipalities in state of emergency, including the capital. As of 6 June, localised rains were still expected in Pernambuco but the overall level of rainfall for both states should decrease significantly.
In southeastern Sindh, below-average rainfall during the 2016 monsoon (July to October) resulted in no or substantially less crop production for the third consecutive year and in livestock losses, affecting the two main livelihood sources in the region.
According to ECHO, 27% of the population in Sindh is moderately to acutely food insecure. A lack of access to WASH facilities and medical services exacerbates food security and nutrition conditions. Landless agricultural labourers, pastoralists, and sharecroppers are most vulnerable and the worst hit. Comparable and recent data on food insecurity rates is missing, but according to the latest assessment conducted in 2015, GAM and SAM rates were well above emergency levels.
Since September 2016, response has been limited. According to a report by the UN Country Team in Pakistan published in February 2017, the 2015 findings are still valid and the region is on the verge of a humanitarian crisis.
UPDATE: Results from an IPC Acute Food Insecurity analysis conducted since May and published in August shows that three of the most affected districts (Tharparkar, Jamshoro, and Sanghar) are facing Emergency (IPC Phase 4) food insecurity, while one (Umerkot) is facing Crisis (IPC Phase 3), confirming the analysis of this note published in April and updated in May.?
- WASH: Access to safe drinking water for human and livestock consumption is limited. Communities depend for the most part on unsafe rainwater or groundwater for drinking.
- Health: Due to various waterborne diseases and malnutrition, 99 children have died since January 2017 in Tharparkar district, Sindh. Medicines and health staff are lacking. Health facilities are often far away and transportation costs high.
- Nutrition: GAM rates in the east and southeast of Sindh province were between 29-31% and SAM rates 11-12% during the latest assessment in 2015.
In Tharparkar district and surrounding areas of Sindh province, southeastern Pakistan, the third consecutive year of below-average cereal production, coupled with losses of small animals (in particular sheep and goats) and limited assistance, has caused food insecurity and acute malnutrition.?
High levels of malnutrition, coupled with limited access to water, sanitation and medical services, have compromised the health and coping capacities of the most vulnerable communities. 99 children have died in Tharparkar district since January 2017 from waterborne diseases and malnutrition.?As a result of a lack of comprehensive assistance, the alarmingly high nutritional and food insecurity trends that were recorded in 2015 are likely to have persisted. According to ECHO, 27% of the population in Sindh is moderately to severely food insecure??
Health and water are the two immediate concerns, according to a UN survey conducted in February 2017. Water, in all aspects, including drinking purposes, for agricultural activities, and for livestock was reported to be the main problem across the communities surveyed. Moreover, support for livestock maintenance, cash grants, and food aid are needed.?
Water scarcity is a critical issue in southeastern Sindh. The main sources of drinking water include wells (protected and unprotected) and rainwater catchments, and fewer communities rely on government water supply schemes.?Water sources are difficult to access. Households have to travel 2–15km, often using camels or donkey carts, to collect drinking water.?
Very few communities use cloth filtration and boiling to improve the quality of drinking water. ?No treatment is given to water consumed by livestock. ?Over 70% of water samples in Sindh are unfit for human consumption. More than half of the water samples collected from reverse osmosis plants installed in Tharparkar were found unsafe due to bacterial contamination and high total dissolved solids concentration. ? Manchar Lake, Sindh's largest source of fresh water, is polluted with arsenic, mercury, magnesium, and cadmium. ?
99 children have died in Tharparkar district since January 2017 from waterborne diseases and malnutrition.?As most deaths occur within the community rather than at medical facilities, the reported number of deaths may be far lower than the actual number of deaths. In 2016, 476 deaths were reported in official figures, although the actual number may have been over 600.?
Between September 2016 and February 2017, 20–35% of children were ill. The most common health concerns were pneumonia, fever/flu/coughing, diarrhoea, meningitis, and cholera, according to a UN survey. Most women are anaemic and newborns are underweight at birth due to malnourished mothers. There is a lack of medicines and health staff, especially female doctors. Roads are poor, few transport options are available, and costs are high. Health facilities are located 35-60km away. ?
GAM rates in the east and southeast of Sindh province were between 29-31%, and SAM rates 11-12% in 2015. These rates are well above the emergency threshold for both GAM (15%) and SAM (5%). The numbers refer to the latest drought needs assessment conducted in the last quarter of 2015. ? These rates are likely to persist to date due to a lack of comprehensive assistance and the continued effects of drought. Maternal malnutrition, with a Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) below the emergency threshold of 21cm, is also estimated to be very high at 20.8%. ?The consumption of unsafe drinking water exacerbates malnutrition.
Less rain, less cultivation, low crop yields, and deaths of livestock are the main contributing factors in the reduction in household income.
The affected areas are in arid mono-cropping zones where agricultural activities are totally dependent on the monsoon rainfall from July to September. ?
Since August 2016, major livestock losses have been reported due to disease and low availability of water and fodder. Goats and sheep are the main ruminants kept, and losses of 20%–40% of goats are reported, as well as 35%-50% of sheep. Livestock prices in February were much lower than in normal times. ?
According to ECHO, 27% of the population in Sindh is moderately to severely food insecure. ?Most households have already consumed the cereal stock from previous harvests as a result of limited production in 2016.?Analysis of variance showed that Badin and Tharparkar districts were categorised in Crisis (IPC Phase 3).? Although children and adults consume three and two meals a day, respectively, the portions are small and nutritional content is limited. ?
The nearest accessible markets to the population for purchasing food and non-food items are the ones located in the main cities, normally at a distance of 35–50km.?
Female headed households are more likely to resort to distress sales. 68% of female-headed households surveyed at the end of 2015 were either landless or sharecroppers, which are the livelihood groups most vulnerable to the impact of drought. 41% are landless agricultural labourers or pastoralists, and 27% are sharecroppers. ? These livelihood patterns and vulnerabilities are likely to persist to date (Anonymous source, UNICEF Pakistan).
Landless households, sharecroppers and smallholders have significantly lower food consumption scores than medium or largeholders or households with skilled or stable employment.? Sharecroppers, together with landless agricultural labourers, make up the poorest segment of the population. According to UNDP, 75.5% of the population in rural Sindh lives under the poverty line, with peaks of 87% and 84.7% in Tharparkar and Umerkot, respectively.?
Complementarity between cropping and livestock indicates that households that rely exclusively or heavily on livestock are more insecure in their livelihoods and nutrition. The less diverse the productive assets of a household are, the more those households must rely on seasonal casual and agricultural labour for income. Moreover, they rely on weather conditions to support sufficient natural forage for their livestock. ?
Recurrent floods during the monsoon season from July to October exacerbate drought effects in some districts of southeastern Sindh, such as Umerkot, including a lack of safe drinking water, and the loss of livestock and produce.
Poverty and feudalistic rural economy
Agriculture is a key driver of the economy of Sindh province. Land is owned by a few large landowners who rent out land to sharecroppers. Agro-pastoralist tenant farmers live in perpetual debt to landowners, vendors, and others.?
National and international response capacity
Affected areas received very limited assistance between September 2016 and February 2017, which is not sufficiently covering needs. The current nutritional response by the government is not fully operational. ?
The Livestock Department, supported by FAO, is running out of routine vaccination for small and large animals in Tharparkar and Umerkot districts. WFP is implementing a conditional cash assistance project, which covers around 15-20% of households eligible for the Benazir Income Support Programme (BISP), a government poverty reduction scheme. Moreover, community-based management of acute malnutrition is ongoing. ?
In 2016, ECHO’s contributions for projects in Pakistan amounted to EUR 25.5 million. A significant part of this funding was directed to Sindh province.?
Selling livestock is an immediate coping mechanism to meet needs. In Tharparkar district, droughts often result in the migration of families in search of pastures for their livestock, disrupting children’s basic schooling.?
While the “No Objection Certificate”, which allows INGOs to implement projects in restricted areas in Pakistan, is not needed for humanitarian projects in Sindh, ?the government has severely limited nutrition assistance in the area since September 2016 and replaced it with its own nutrition support programme (Anonymous source, UNICEF Pakistan).
Information gaps and needs
No recent data is available on food security and nutrition. However, the Nutrition Cell of the Government of Sindh conducted a SMART and IYCF KAP assessment (Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices on Infant and Young Child Feeding) through Action against Hunger, funded by ECHO, in Tharparkar district in 2016. The report is being finalised (Anonymous source, UNICEF Pakistan).
The mortality rate among children under five has been reported as a percentage of children within a community instead of number of deaths per 1,000 live births, making comparisons difficult.
There is a lack of information on how feudalism constrains humanitarian assistance.
In April 2017, district health officials in Tharparkar have declared that they will stop sharing information about children's deaths with media, citing a "misuse" as the reason.? This development is likely to widen the current information gap.
The outlook for the next few months suggests that food insecurity may rise if there are no or limited rains in the coming monsoon (July to October) and if response remains limited. The situation could deteriorate into a humanitarian emergency. ?Depleted seed stocks means sowing next year is likely to be reduced.
Northern Burkina Faso has seen a rapid deterioration of the security situation since January 2017. Various attacks have been carried out in the area ranging from targeted killings, assassination attempts, village and school incursions to complex attacks against army or police position ?. The Ansarul Islam group, which has links to the Ansar Dine movement in Mali, is suspected to be behind most of the recent attacks ??. The increase in threats and attacks has caused fear across the region and led to the closure of over 600 schools in Oudalan and Soum provinces ?. Insecurity is also impacting access to other social services such as health, food security and protection.
Ansarul Islam is a new armed group, first known in December 2016 when it claimed responsibility for the attack of Nassoumbou military base in Burkina Faso, which resulted in 12 soldiers killed. Since then, it has claimed responsibility or being suspected for most of the recent attacks in the region ?. Ibrahim Malam Dicko is allegedly the leader. He first joined the Macina Liberation Front, an armed group close to Ansar Dine based in Mali, and in 2016 established his militia around Djibo in Burkina Faso and Douna and Selba in Mali ?. The aim of this group seems to re-establish a Fulani kingdom in the Sahel region ?.
- Education: School closures have interrupted education for an estimated 72,000 children.
- Health: Various attacks have resulted in the disruption of health service provision, as health centres closed and people are scared to travel.
- Food security will worsen in the area. Households are expected to face Stressed outcomes (IPC Phase 2) between April and September.
- WASH: Scheduled repairs or constructions of wells and latrines are being delayed because of rising insecurity.
Overall the security situation remain tense in these provinces, limiting programmes and activities in the region. Delays are expected to occur as the security measures would adapt to the volatile context.
Severe acute malnutrition was reported as 3.6% in Burkina Faso’s Sahel region in February, exceeding the emergency threshold ?. According to the 2010 Demographic Health Survey, infant mortality rate was 119 deaths per 1,000 live births, compared to 69.7 at national level in 2010 ??. 90% of Sahel inhabitants have faced at least one significant barrier to access health services in case of a disease, related to lack of financial means and distance of the nearest health centre?.
Health and nutrition
After an attack on a military base on 16 December, Nassoumbou health centre was closed for more than a week, obliging more than 6,700 people – including 1,300 children under 5 years old – to walk over 15km to reach medical assistance??.
In March 2017, Diguel, Tongomayel and Gasseltepaoua health centres in Soum province are closed, leaving about 39,000 people without access to basic health services, including 7,300 children under 5 and 2,200 pregnant women. In Gorgadji rural district, in Seno province, a health centre was closed due to its proximity to a police station, a usual target by the armed groups?.
Teachers are being threatened and personally targeted by jihadists in the region, leading most of the educational facilities in the region to close. In January, armed individuals threatened teachers in Soum province, ordering them to teach Koranic education instead of using French ?. Early March, the Ansar-al-Islam group shot three people in Kourfayel, including a school director?. Many teachers have temporarily fled to other regions or Ouagadougou ?. Schools are increasingly being burned down or attacked?.
As of 16 March, in Oudalan province 190 primary, seven middle, and 15 high schools are closed, representing about 70% of educational facilities in the area, affecting close to 55,000 children. In Soum province, almost all schools are closed, notably 380 primary, 17 middle, and 15 high schools – affecting close to 18,000 children??. According to the last Demographic Health Survey, school enrolment rate was already very low in the Sahel region, 19% at primary level and only 4% for secondary?.
Insecurity is jeopardising constructions or repair of wells or latrines in schools, villages, and health centres, particularly in Soum province. In particular, constructions of wells for schools in Baraboule and Koutougou and school latrines in Nassoumbou and Baraboule are likely to be delayed ?.
The recurrent attacks are driving down the prices of livestock on markets in the Sahel and reducing household purchasing power, particularly that of the poorest households?. In January, white maize prices were about 10% higher than in the same period last year?. In the coming months, households that are normally already highly market-dependent, as food stocks are usually depleted at this time of the year, will be even more so, but weak purchasing power will curtail their food access and reduce household food consumption. As a result, they will be facing Stressed food security outcomes (IPC Phase 2) between April and September, instead of current Minimal (IPC Phase 1)?.
Most likely estimated food security outcomes for February-May and June-September 2017?
Tighter security measures have been put in place such as increased border patrols?. A curfew has been established at the border, in Markoye-Oursi, Tin Akoff-Nassoumbou, Koutoubou-Baraboule areas, prohibiting motorcycles between 1700 and 0600, as these are the vehicles generally used by assailants?.
A joint mission in Soum province is organising a rapid assessment this week?.
At the request of the Ministry of Education, UNICEF is preparing a rapid response in education?.
Areas affected by Ansarul Islam attacks in Sahel and Central-Nord regions, Burkina Faso, December 2016 - March 2017?
As of 16 March 2017, Iraq’s humanitarian coordinator has warned that the pace of displacement during the first weeks of the west Mosul operation is higher than expected, and response capacity will be exhausted if new arrivals continue to increase. On 19 February an offensive towards the western part of Mosul was launched, and on 21 February new arrivals were outpacing returns for the first time in six weeks. Since then camp capacity has been repeatedly reported as severely restricted.
Suicide attacks and attempts in northeast Nigeria between September 2016 and January 2017
Between 1 December 2016 and 31 January 2017 651 suspected cases and 127 confirmed cases of yellow fever have been reported in Brazil. Of all reported cases, 125 have resulted in deaths. This outbreak is the worst to affect the country since 1980.
Between 1 December 2016 and 31 January 2017, 651 suspected cases and 127 confirmed cases of yellow fever have been reported in Brazil. Of all reported cases, 125 have resulted in deaths.? Case fatality rate was last reported at 55% among confirmed cases and 14% among suspected cases.? Case fatality rates for reported cases generally vary between 15-50%.?
221 suspected cases and 10 confirmed cases were reported between 30 and 31 January alone.?? Only six of all confirmed cases were reported in 2016: three in the state of Goias, two in Sao Paulo and one in Amazonas. The case fatality rate among the 2016 cases was 71%.? The current outbreak is the worst to affect the country since 1980, with 20 times more confirmed cases between 2016 and 2017.????
So far cases have been largely reported among farmers. However, affected areas are close to major urban centres in Brazil, including Sao Paulo, which has nearly 12 million inhabitants in its urban area.? Yellow fever has not been reported in urban centres in Brazil since 1942.?
Vaccination is available in the public health system. However, it is only recommended in areas with risk of transmission, generally near rural areas, and to people traveling to high risk areas abroad, despite the ongoing outbreak of the disease.? ? The Ministry of Health offers a list of municipalities where vaccination is recommended. With the exception of Belo Horizonte, the capital of Minas Gerais and Palmas, the capital of Tocantins, none of the major urban centres in the states currently reporting cases of the disease are included on the list.?? The introduction of the virus into urban areas may severely impact the system’s ability to provide vaccination for the affected population, despite the high numbers of vaccine produced in the country.?
Additionally, Brazil does not require travellers coming into the country to present an international certificate of yellow fever vaccination. People currently travelling in forest or rural areas in Brazil are at risk of contracting the virus, which may cause the disease to spread to other countries, including those in regions where national vaccine stocks are low or inexistent.?
Only 48% of people living in rural areas have access to improved sanitation facilities.? The accumulation of water favours the proliferation of mosquitoes, which is likely to impact on the government’s ability to contain the disease outbreak. Should the disease reach urban centres, populations living in slums and suburban areas, where access to safe drinking water and sanitation is limited, will be especially vulnerable.
Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), located in Rio de Janeiro, is the world’s largest producer of yellow fever vaccine and has broken its production record, with nine million doses of the vaccine in January.? Private clinics may however not be able to keep up with demand, despite Oswaldo Cruz’s production: Sao Paulo reported a four-fold increase in demand for the yellow fever vaccine in January.? On 31 January, stocks of the vaccine in all 371 private hospitals and clinics were declared exhausted.?
Cause, symptoms, and treatment
Yellow fever is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease transmitted by infected mosquitoes, and is endemic in South America. The "yellow" in the name refers to the jaundice that affects some patients.? Symptoms also include fever, headache, muscle pain, nausea, vomiting and fatigue. Roughly 15% of cases progress to develop into a more severe form of the disease and approximately half of those die within 7 to 10 days.??
- The jungle (sylvatic) cycle of yellow fever involves transmission of the virus between non-human primates, typically monkeys, and mosquito species found in the forest. The virus is then transmitted by mosquitoes to humans when humans are visiting or working in the jungle.?
- The urban cycle of yellow fever involves transmission of the virus between humans and urban mosquitoes, primarily Aedes aegypti. The virus is usually brought to the urban setting by a human infected in the jungle (or savannah).?
- No specific anti-viral drug for yellow fever is available. However, specific care to treat dehydration, liver and kidney failure, and fever generally improves outcomes?Associated bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics.?
A highly effective vaccine against yellow fever is available and is recommended for preventing outbreaks. The vaccine is safe and affordable. A single dose of yellow fever vaccine is sufficient to provide life-long immunity.?
Infants aged under nine months are usually excluded from vaccination. An exception can be made for infants in areas with high risk of infection. The same rule applies to pregnant women. Also excluded from vaccination are people with severe allergies to egg protein or erythromycin, a type of antibiotic, people with severe immunodeficiency (e.g. due to HIV/AIDS), including patients with autoimmune diseases, such as disorders associated with the thymus organ.??
- In 2015, nine cases of jungle yellow fever were confirmed in three Brazilian states: Goias (six), Para (two), and Mato Grosso do Sul (one). The case fatality rate among these cases was 55.5%.?
- The urban yellow fever vector, Aedes aegypti, is highly present in Brazil and is also responsible for the transmission of other diseases such as dengue, Zika and chikungunya. By 5 November 2016, 1,496,282 suspected cases of Dengue had been reported, compared to 1,677,013 for the same period in 2015. For Chikungunya 2016 suspected figures stood at 265,554 by 5 November, compared to 38,240, showing an increase of approximately 600%. The Zika outbreak was declared in Brazil in 2016. By 5 November, 214,193 suspected cases had been reported.?
- The current yellow fever outbreak is taking place in an area with relatively low vaccination coverage, which could favour the rapid spread of the disease. Despite the state of Espirito Santo and the south of Bahia having favourable ecosystems in rural areas for the transmission of yellow fever, the urban areas of these states were previously considered to be at low risk of transmission and, consequently, vaccination was not recommended. The introduction of the virus in these areas could potentially trigger large epidemics of yellow fever.?
- The incidence diseases transmitted by the aedes aegypti mosquito, also responsible for the urban transmission of yellow fever, typically occurs between January and April. Should yellow fever cases transition from jungle to urban within this period, cases could spike significantly.?
The refugee and migrant population has been particularly affected by the cold wave, due to poor shelter and NFI conditions, and low access to healthcare. There are at least 7,200 refugees in Serbia, with 80 to 100 arriving daily, and around 100 crossing onwards into other countries every weeK.???
2,000 refugees living in warehouses and abandoned houses near the main train station of Belgrade are the most affected by the cold. They are at high risk, especially children.? Another 5,000–6,000 refugees are living in government camps. Most refugees arrived in Serbia in 2016. Conditions in the camps are better, with greater access to NFIs, among other things. However these refugees are still vulnerable, particularly to cold-related health issues.? Many live in unheated tents.?
The cold wave has impacted populations across eastern Europe. At least three refugees in Bulgaria and one in Greece have died.?
More than half of the 7,000 to 8,000 refugees in Serbia are in need of shelter.
Up to 2,000 refugees are living in warehouses in Belgrade. They are sleeping on frozen ground. They have limited access to electricity, largely insufficient for their heating needs. They try to keep warm by burning wood.??
MSF estimates that only around 3,140 refugees live in facilities adapted for winter.? This means that about 2,000 to 3,000 refugees in Serbia live in unheated tents in camps.? Furthermore, the camps are overcrowded, forcing some refugees to sleep outside.?
For refugees near Belgrade’s main train station, the power generator for heating and blankets provided by humanitarian organisations are insufficient. Refugees resort to burning items such as plastic garbage and wooden parts of railway trucks, which are treated with toxic chemicals.??
Around 130 people are stranded on the Hungary–Serbia border, waiting on Hungarian authorities to grant them asylum.? They have only sawdust briquettes to burn, and blankets and insulating foil to keep warm.?
Many health problems due to cold temperatures have been reported, with refugees reporting very little access to healthcare and medication.?? Respiratory infections, including pneumonia and bronchitis, are common in refugee camps across Serbia.?
A nationwide flu epidemic is ongoing. It has forced the government to close schools until 11 January. It is unknown if refugees are more affected than the local population.?
In the Belgrade warehouses, dire conditions mean health needs are likely, but the refugees there do not have access to healthcare. The materials they burn for warmth can lead to the inhalation of toxic fumes, potentially resulting in respiratory problems.?
Many refugees, especially men, are afraid to register as political asylum seekers in Serbia, as they wish to seek refuge in other countries.? This makes them more likely to seek shelter in unofficial camps. Overall, refugees in Serbia are vulnerable to physical violence, smuggling, trafficking, and exploitation.?
Refugees living near the train station do not have regular access to food. They have received assistance from humanitarian organisations, although in insufficient amount to meet their needs.?
WASH conditions are poor for refugees living in warehouses near Belgrade train station. They do not have access to warm water. Very few hygiene items are available and they do not have access to toilets.??
The Serbian authorities have often prevented the delivery of humanitarian assistance to refugees, particularly in the warehouses near Belgrade’s main train station.?
The snowy conditions make road transport more difficult.? Water traffic has been suspended on the main rivers, the Danube and the Sava.?? This could create a shortage of fuel, which is often transported by boat.? There is a risk of power cuts, which have occurred in other areas in the region where weather conditions are similar.?
Hurricane Matthew, a Category 4 Hurricane, struck the southwest coast of Haiti 0700 local time (1200 GMT) on 4 October. Wind speeds of 230km/h were recorded, and caused widespread damage, flooding and displacement. It continued across the northwest of the country.? The government has issued a Red Alert and officially requested UN assistance.?
ACAPS will produce a Briefing Note in the coming hours.
Hurricane Matthew, a Category 4 Hurricane, struck the southwest coast of Haiti 0700 local time (1200 GMT) on 4 October. Wind speeds of 230km/h were recorded, and caused widespread damage, flooding and displacement. It continued across the northwest of the country.? The government has issued a Red Alert and officially requested UN assistance.?
Flood victims were evacuated in the districts of Port-Salut and Port-a-Piment, Grande Anse department; many of those who remained at home died. At least two people have died in Haiti and four in the Dominican Republic, but the death toll is expected to rise.?
The city of Les Cayes, in Grand Anse, has been totally inundated. 6,000 people were evacuated in the South department.?
A pre-crisis breakdown of the affected population estimated 213,800 to be affected by wind speeds of up to 120km/h, 793,000 by up to 90km/h and 8.8 million by up to 60km/h. The Ouest department is expected to be worst affected, with nearly 91,000 to be impacted by wind speeds up to 120 km/h.?
Haiti has high underlying vulnerability and is suffering the impact of a number of crises: more than 50,000 people are still displaced after the 2010 earthquake; the cholera outbreak persists and this year has seen more cases that in 2015, and the 2015/2016 El Niño has had a devastating impact on agriculture.
ACAPS will publish a longer Briefing Note in the coming hours.
- Both of Haiti’s international airports, in Port-au-Prince and Cap-Haïtien will be closed from at least 3 October until 6 October).?
- A bridge leading to Route Nationale 2, the only access to the South from Port-au-Prince, is out of use.?
- A power cut is reported in Léogâne, in Ouest department.?
- The road to Jacmel, in Sudest department, has reportedly been damaged. There is a reported power outage and telephone service is poor.?
Shelter: Shelters have been reported destroyed.? The total evacuation of people in Port-Salut and Port-a-Piment leaves at least 18,000 with shelter needs, along with 6,000 from the South department.? 234 shelters have been set up across the country, including 186 temporary shelters across the south. More than 10,000 evacuees are currently in temporary shelters.?
Health: Areas affected are currently experiencing other diseases outbreaks including cholera, Zika and dengue, which are likely to be exacerbated by the hurricane and associated heavy rainfall and flooding. A new cholera outbreak in Randel district, Sud department, has been reported.? PAHO/WHO in Haiti has declared an emergency.?
WASH: Water, sanitation, and hygiene support is urgently needed to help prevent the further spread of diseases such as cholera.? The risk is already very high due to poor access to safe drinking water and sanitation in affected regions.?
Food: Existing vulnerabilities, particularly in Les Cayes, Ouest and Sud are likely to be greatly exacerbated by the hurricane.? Livestock have been killed and plantations have been destroyed in Aquin district, Sud department.?
Protection: IDPs are likely to face serious protection issues in the coming weeks; this has been seen in similar past disasters in Haiti. Additionally, Haitian returnees from the Dominican Republic are often missing documentation.
ACAPS supported an assessment of unions in the upazilas of Derai, Dharamapasha and South Sunamganj, all in Sunamganj district, after a windstorm on 27 April 2014.This factsheet covers the numbers of people affected and levels of need.
Heavy rains, strong winds and cold temperatures caused by storm Norma, which hit Lebanon on 8 January, have
s severely affected over 11,300 Syrian refugees, including 6,000 children, in more than 360 settlements sites. The makeshift housing arrangements are not adequate to deal with the harsh conditions. At least 700 Syrian refugees have been evacuated and 900 Syrian refugees are displaced by the impact of the storm. Akkar, Baalbek-Hermel and Bekaa governorates are worst hit by heavy snowfall and flooding. Priority needs are shelter, winterisation kits including blankets, warm clothes, and heating fuel as well as health, WASH and food assistance.
Over 22,370 migrants have passed through Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) since the beginning of 2018, compared to 1,166 in 2017. Migrants are living in sub-standard conditions ahead of freezing winter temperatures. Shelter and NFIs are the most urgent needs.
Moroccan authorities have dismantled shelters and arrested over 6,500 migrants between July and September 2018, forcing thousands of migrants to increasingly move to cities, and away from makeshift shelters in forests near Tangier and Nador, where they waited to cross the Mediterranean sea to reach Europe. There are various informal urban camps that are likely to have an increasing number of migrants in Morocco. The informal camp in Ouled Ziane, Casablanca is one such camps with an increasing number of migrants reported since the beginning of December 2018.
The 16 February 2019 elections are likely to be a close race between President Buhari, from the All Progressive Congress (APC), primarily supported by herding communities, and Abubakar, from the opposition People’s Democratic Party (PDP), primarily supported by farming communities. There is a risk that the tense political climate during the pre-election period will worsen ongoing intercommunal tensions in Nigeria’s Middle Belt between farming and herder communities, who are largely dissatisfied with the federal and state governments’ responses to the farmer-herder violence in 2018. Affected areas are likely to include Taraba, Benue, Kaduna, Plateau, Nasarawa, Adamawa, Zamfara, Rivers, Ekiti, Enugu, Ogun, and Bayelsa states.
Tensions are likely to increase into more violence as militias become more organised, government responses provoke violence, and attacks become more frequent during the dry season, from November to March. The impact of violence is likely to be felt by civilians, many of whom flee in fear of attacks and retribution. This is likely to displace hundreds of thousands of people, aggravate food insecurity, and continue to put women and girls at risk of sexual and gender-based violence.
Protests against the reform of the social security system that began in April 2018 were instantly met by violent repression from Nicaraguan authorities, prompting a period of large-scale civil unrest characterised by protests, demonstrations, and strikes. Reports of violence, arbitrary detentions, harassment tactics, intimidation campaigns, and incidents of torture against opposition protesters and human rights defenders have increased and are likely to continue, with no political resolution in sight. The political crisis has led to economic turmoil and a severe economic recession, that is likely to continue in 2019, creating more unemployment and impacting service delivery in the long term. The arrival of an El Niño episode coupled with the economic recession will continue limiting food access and availability, with food security and rural livelihoods within the country likely to deteriorate further.
Torrential rainfall on 22 and 23 November caused severe flooding across Iraq. Ninewa and Salah al-Din are the most affected governorates with bridges and roads damaged and villages inundated with water. In total, at least 22,000 people in Ninewa governorate and 10,000 people in Salah al-Din governorate are affected, including people still displaced from conflict. Thousands of civilians are newly displaced due to the floods. Displaced households need urgent shelter assistance. NFIs, WASH, food security and livelihoods, education and health assistance are also needed. The government is responding and international aid actors are present in the country.
An IDP settlement in Alindao town was attacked on 15 November after tensions rose between Union for Peace in Central African Republic (UPC) fighters and anti-Balaka militias in the area. At least 60 people were killed and more than 18,000 people fled the city to find safety in other parts of town or in the bush. The IDP camp burned down, leaving the camp population in urgent need of shelter and NFI support.
Since 13 October, several thousand migrants have left Honduras, El Salvador and Guatemala to form two large caravans and multiple smaller groups travelling by foot towards the United States border. At least 9,000 people have entered Mexican territory since 19 October. Protection concerns as well as urgent food, water, health and shelter needs have been reported. In the lead-up to the US mid-term congressional elections the caravan has become a highly politicised issue, which put pressure on the Mexican state to prevent migrants entering the US and to create incentives for migrants to apply for asylum in Mexico.
Since 13 October, several thousand migrants have left Honduras, El Salvador and Guatemala to form two large caravans and multiple smaller groups travelling by foot towards the United States border. Protection concerns, as well as, urgent food, water and shelter needs, have been reported. Guatemalan and Mexican authorities are attempting to block migrants’ progress or return them to their countries of origin. The caravan has become a politicised issue. The caravan’s intention to continue, combined with the determination of the US to stop migrants, is likely to create negative outcomes and conditions for migrants.
12,000 people have been affected by flooding and landslides in Bukalasi and Buwali sub-counties in Bududa district since 11 October. The Bududa landslide disaster followed three days of consistent and heavy rainfall in the areas around Mount Elgon National Park in Bukalasi. 858 people have been displaced. 51 deaths have been reported. Reported humanitarian needs are shelter, food, healthcare and NFIs.
Over 257,800 people have returned from northeastern Angola to the greater Kasai region of DRC since 1 October. During displacement, DRC nationals have experienced violence and human rights abuses, and many have arrived with almost nothing. Food, medical, protection and shelter interventions are required, as the host communities in greater Kasai were themselves already facing severe food insecurity and a cholera outbreak.
On 7 October, presidential elections in Cameroon were accompanied by electoral related violence in the anglophone regions of Northwest and Southwest. The new violence is likely to have displaced more people, which would add to the estimated number of 246,000 that were displaced as of August 2018 since the beginning of the crisis in 2017. The newly displaced are likely to be in need of food, shelter, health and wash assistance.
Tropical cyclone Titli made landfall on the south-west coast of Gopalpur in Andhra Pradesh in the early morning of 11 October, before moving north-west, crossing north Andhra Pradesh and south Odisha with maximum winds of approximately 165 kmph. Some 360,000 people, particularly from low-lying and coastal areas, were evacuated prior to the cyclone, but only 9,000 were still in relief centres as of 16 October. Strong winds have damaged approximately 29,000 houses and disrupted roads, communication and electricity supply across Odisha state and Andhra Pradesh states. The most severely affected areas are Ganjam, Gajapati and Rayagada districts in Odisha and Srikakulam, Vizianagaram districts in Andhra Pradesh.
Over 100,000 people fleeing ethnic violence have been displaced in Benishangul-Gumuz (mainly in Kamashi Zone) and Oromia regions (mainly East Wollega and West Wollega zones). There are indications that displacement is rising, though the size of the displaced population is not clear. Urgent humanitarian needs are reported, including food, shelter, NFI and health.
A magnitude 5.9 earthquake struck Haiti on 6 October, and was followed by a magnitude 5.2 aftershock on 7 October and a magnitude 4.2 aftershock on 8 October. The departments affected by seismic activity were Artibonite, North and North-West.
So far, 17 people have died and at least 421 have been injured. The earthquakes destroyed 353 houses and damaged 7,430. An estimated 31,132 people were affected, although needs assessments are still being completed.
Considering the presence of UN agencies, the scale of pre-positioned aid and the reported response by the government as well as national and external relief actors, the need for international assistance and the impact are estimated at low to moderate.
Heavy rains that started on 4 October in Honduras have caused flooding and landslides across the country. Most damage has been reported in Francisco Morazán, Valle, and Choluteca departments, where a red alert was issued by the government. 12,076 people have been affected by the floods. 963 homes were damaged, including 169 flooded, and nine completely destroyed. Among them, 7,234 people have been evacuated, and 6,789 moved to 78 temporary shelters.
Several earthquakes struck Central Sulawesi province from 28–29 September. The strongest had a magnitude of 7.5 and triggered a tsunami that hit land at a speed of 800km per hour with waves of up to 6m. Land liquefaction caused by the earthquake also had serious humanitarian consequences as the fate of two villages with approximately 5,000 residents remains uncertain. At least 74,000 people have been displaced and 2,010 people have died, and these numbers continue to rise. At least 616,000 people have been affected.
Since the publication of ACAPS Nigeria Floods Update I Briefing Note on 26 September, rains have continued although Niger and Benue river levels have dropped slightly. As of 26 September the flooding of the Niger and Benue rivers is affecting 826,400 people and displacing 176,300 people across 12 states. Assessments are ongoing, and numbers are likely to increase. Since 26 September, some 200 deaths and 1,035 injuries have been reported. Assessments indicate that around 17,800 homes were damaged or destroyed across all affected states as of late August. Shelter, food, NFIs, and medical assistance continue to be key needs for the affected population. There is no available data from Adamawa and Taraba states.
Several earthquakes struck Central Sulawesi province from 28–29 September. The strongest earthquake had a magnitude of 7.5 and triggered a tsunami that hit land at a speed of 800 kph with waves of up to 6m. Around 42,000 people have been displaced and 1,200 people killed, with these numbers expected to continue rising rapidly. At least, 300,000 people were exposed to category 5-8 shaking, while up to 1.5 million people who live in the area may be affected.
In the northern state of Sinaloa, more than 150,000 people were affected by the passage of tropical depression 19-E near the eastern coast of Mexico from 18–21 September. Around 3,500 people were evacuated to temporary shelters and flooding damaged more than 19,000 houses. The agricultural sector reported significant damage and loss of livelihoods.
Since the publication of ACAPS Nigeria Floods Briefing Note on 21 September, river levels in most of the 12 affected states remain high due to flooding, which has affected 441,251 people, and displaced 141,369 people between late August and 24 September. A total of 108 deaths and 192 injuries have been reported as of late August. Rainfall is expected to continue for the next week. Rivers and Bayelsa states are estimated to be amongst the worst affected states where water levels continue to rise. Initial assessments indicate that 13,031 homes were damaged or destroyed across all affected states as of late August. Shelter, food, NFIs and medical assistance continue to be key needs for the affected population.
Heavy rainfall has caused the Niger and Benue rivers to overflow, displacing thousands across 12 states as of late August. The National Emergency Management Agency has declared an emergency in Kogi, Niger, Delta and Anambra states, and is monitoring eight other states in central and southern Nigeria. In addition to river flooding, flash floods have occurred in central and northern Nigeria since July, affecting Katsina, Kano, Jigawa and Sokoto states. Thousands of houses have been destroyed across all affected states and the affected population has lost household and personal belongings. The floods have caused considerable damage to farmland across Nigeria. There is an urgent need for shelter, NFI, food and livelihood assistance.
Typhoon Mangkhut made landfall on Luzon island in the northern Philippines on 15 September, affecting more than 890,000 people in Ilocos region, Cagayan Valley, Central Luzon, National Capital Region (NCR) as well as Calabarzon, Mimaropa and Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR). As of 18 September, over 236,000 people are displaced, of whom 160,000 are staying in evacuation centres while around 73,600 are staying outside evacuation centres. The storm killed at least 65 people and damaged at least 1,477 houses. Shelter repair materials and NFIs are urgently needed. Strong winds and heavy rain caused significant damage to food crops, increasing livelihood and food needs.
Since mid-September, conflict has escalated between the Afghan National Defence and Security Forces and the Taliban in Sar-e-Pul, Jawzjan and Balkh provinces. Parliamentary elections will be held on 20 October and violence will likely continue in the runup to the vote. An unknown number of people have been displaced in the affected provinces. More people will probably be displaced as fighting can be expected to continue in the coming weeks. Continued insecurity will also mean that people are unlikely to be able to return home quickly and will be in need of humanitarian assistance. Lack of security in Sar-e-Pul and Jawzjan provinces will prevent IDPs and host communities from accessing basic services.
An outbreak of cholera declared on 6 September has killed at least 30 people and infected at least 5,460. The most severely affected areas are the two epicentres of the outbreaks in the suburbs of Glenview and Budiriro in western Harare. The outbreak has spread from Harare to Chitungwiza, and west to Gokwe and Bulawayo. Cholera is reportedly spreading to different areas of the country. Poor WASH and health infrastructure are facilitating the rapid spread of the disease. High WASH needs, including clean drinking water, hygiene promotion and temporary sanitation facilities, have been reported.
On 29 August, damage to Swar Chaung dam in Myanmar’s Bago Region led to flooding across four townships: Yedashe, Taungoo, Oktwin and Kyaut Gyi. Flooding affected at least 85 villages and by 7 September, some 78,500 people from the four townships had to leave their homes. Hundreds of houses were damaged or destroyed, and more than 60,000 acres of farmland were flooded. As of 6 September, flooding had led to the closure of 325 schools, as infrastructure and materials were damaged.
Manam Volcano, on an island off the coast of Madang province in northern Papua New Guinea, erupted early in the morning of 25 August. Lava and ash are affecting nine of 13 villages on the island, which has a population of about 7,000 people. As of 28 August, two of these villages, Dangale (239 people) and Kolang (143 people), have been evacuated to unaffected locations on the island.
Manam is one of PNG’s most active volcanoes. In 2004, a series of eruptions resulted in the evacuation of more than 9,000 people to care centres on the mainland. Unresolved issues around their resettlement from the 2004 displacement make people who have already experienced displacement and chosen to return reluctant to leave the island and go back to living in care centres on the mainland.
The volcano is active and continues to emit light to moderate ash. Further significant eruptions are possible. Accurate monitoring of the volcano is not possible at the moment because the equipment of the Rabaul Volcanological Observatory is undergoing maintenance. Heavy ash fall has also affected nearby Boisa Island, home to 872 people.
Heavy rain that began in late July 2018 has caused flooding in several parts of the country. As of late August, more than 18,000 people were affected, 3,200 houses destroyed, and some 1,800 head of cattle killed. The affected populations are in need of shelter, NFI, and WASH assistance. Longer-term livelihoods assistance is highly likely to be needed in the aftermath of the floods.
Intercommunal conflict in the Somali and Oromia border regions that escalated on 4 August has led to the internal displacement of more than 141,000 people. Shelter and health assistance are among the most urgent needs for the IDPs. The areas most affected by the conflict are Jijiga in Somali region and East Hararghe area in Oromia, where fatalities among the population were reported. With the exception of a reported influx of around 2,000 displaced people into Mekelle Town of Tigray region, there is no other information regarding the impact of the August events on Tigray.
1,489 cholera cases (including 26 deaths) have been reported in Maradi region since 15 July. After showing signs of improvement in early August, the outbreak intensified after 10 August. More than 930 cases, including at least 19 deaths, have been reported since 11 August. The outbreak was initially contained in Madarounfa department but has now spread to the heavily populated city of Maradi, the capital of Maradi region. Heavy rainfall and floods in the area have affected more than 20,000 people and are exacerbating the risk of contamination.
On 17 August, a fire broke out in the Nyalukemba neighbourhood of Ibanda Municipality in the city of Bukavu, Sud Kivu, only a few days after two fires affected the neighbouring municipality of Kadutu. 289 houses were damaged, and between 2,500 and 3,000 people were left homeless in the aftermath of the fire. They are yet to receive any shelter and NFI assistance. Parts of the only health clinic in Nyalukemba were destroyed, along with medicine and medical equipment stored in a pharmacy. WASH and food needs have also been reported.
As of 18 August, 91 cases of Ebola and 50 deaths (CFR 54.9%) have been reported in Ituri and Nord Kivu provinces of DRC. Conflict and insecurity in both areas are aggravating the crisis and increasing the risk the disease will spread further. Conflict is hampering humanitarian access of health workers to the local population, as well as driving displacement across the border to Uganda. Around 99,400 refugees from DRC have arrived in Uganda since January 2018, and the number of new refugees in Uganda from the two Ebola-affected provinces rose in July to 250 a day from 170 a day. The Ebola outbreak itself is also a cause for cross-border migration, as people try to leave the affected areas.
Heavy rainfall from 23–25 July caused flooding in El Nuhud town, West Kordofan state. An inter-agency rapid assessment concluded on 2 August estimated that more than 23,000 people had been affected in El Nuhud alone. Shelters and WASH infrastructure have been significantly damaged. The ongoing humanitarian response has been insufficient to meet the needs in El Nuhud. At 13 August, at least 4,000 people are reported to remain in need of humanitarian assistance, particularly emergency shelter and WASH assistance. Other areas are affected but beyond the scope of this note.
The southwestern state of Kerala has been facing the worst monsoon season since 1924, causing severe flooding and landslides especially in the northern part of the state, where eight districts remain on red alert. As of 14 August, over 60,000 people have been evacuated to some 500 relief camps across the state, and 39 deaths have been reported. Beginning 8 August and as 14 August, this is the second major flood in Kerala this monsoon season, and the impact is greater than in July, when over 34,000 people were displaced in 265 relief camps. The affected population is in need of food, shelter, NFI, WASH, and health assistance. Emergency national and international response has been prompt and coordinated; however, longer-term assistance is likely to be needed in the aftermath of the floods.
On 5 August, a 7.0 magnitude earthquake struck the island of Lombok in Indonesia, with its epicentre located inland in North Lombok. The area had already been impacted by a 6.4 magnitude earthquake on 29 July, with its epicentre in East Lombok. On 9 August, the island was again hit by a 6.2 magnitude earthquake, creating panic among the population and further hindering the rescue efforts. The three earthquakes were followed by a number of strong aftershocks causing widespread structural damage to shelter and public infrastructure, injuring some 2,000 people and killing at least 279 people. Data regarding displacement is ongoing but preliminary reports indicate that over 270,168 displaced people are in need of food, water, shelter, and health assistance. At least 64,534 houses have been damaged.
On 1 August, a new Ebola Virus outbreak was declared in Mabalako health zone, Beni territory, Nord Kivu, when four samples collected from patients suffering from an ‘unknown disease’ tested positive for the virus. So far, 33 cases including 20 deaths (CFR: 60.6%) have been reported, though the latest official press release states 26 cases and 20 deaths as of 28 July. The declaration of this outbreak followed detection of a significant cluster of suspected viral haemorrhagic fever in July in Nord Kivu. Investigations found that sporadic deaths in May in the affected communities may have been related. A strike affecting the health sector in Nord Kivu is one factor why the detection and response to the virus has been impeded.
Following days of heavy rainfall due to the passage of Son-Tinh tropical storm over the country, a hydro-power dam under construction overflowed in Attapeu province, releasing 5 billion cubic metres of water. 16,256 people living in eight downstream villages of Sanamxay District were affected. Around 223 houses were partially damaged and at least 20 are completely damaged. 26 people are confirmed dead and more than 130 people are missing. These events took place while the monsoon season is ongoing which could exacerbate the situation and hamper the recovery of the affected communities.
On 23 June Fulani herdsmen attacked Berom farmers in Plateau state, triggering displacement in Barkin Ladi local government area (LGA), Jos South LGA, Riyom LGA, Bokkos LGA and Mangu LGA. As of 9 July, most reports state that over 38,000 people are displaced in 31 camps, though some estimates are much higher. The camps are overcrowded and needs include urgent shelter, wash, health and food assistance. The violence since June is the latest spike in tensions between Fulani herdsmen and local farmers in the Nigerian Middle Belt region, which have been growing since January 2018.
Escalation of hostilities between the Government of Syria and armed opposition groups have been ongoing since 17 June in Dar’a governorate, driving displacement within Dar’a and into neighbouring governorates. As of 2 July, over 270,000 people have been displaced, including at least 164,000 to Quneitra and 60,000 to the areas near Jordanian border. Urgent humanitarian needs, including shelter, food, WASH, and health, are reported, particularly in the areas bordering Jordan and Golan Heights. Fighting has resulted in casualties, disruption of services, and very limited humanitarian access.
1,149 cholera cases (including 92 deaths) have been reported in Kasai Oriental, Sankuru, and Lomami provinces since February, with the outbreak intensifying since June, with over 270 cases reported. This is the second cholera outbreak in Greater Kasai region since the crisis first erupted in August 2016. Kasai was cholera-free since 2004, and these outbreaks are a significant indication of a deteriorating humanitarian situation. Poor WASH and health infrastructure within the context of on going insecurity and displacement is exacerbating the fairly quick spread of the disease.
Around 400,000 people have been newly displaced on both sides of the regional borders of Gedeo (SNNP region) and Guji (Oromia region) zones since 1 June. In total, some 700,000 people have been displaced since a new wave of violence between the Gedeo and Guji communities started on 13 April. Insecurity continues to prevent IDPs from returning to their areas or origin. IDPs are staying in shelters in public buildings and spontaneous IDP sites. Host communities have a limited capacity to absorb the new arrivals, with high levels of food insecurity and acute malnutrition already affecting some of the local population. Needs identified include shelter/NFIs, food, WASH, and healthcare.
Heavy rainfall recorded in northeastern Bangladesh since 12 June exacerbated by a sudden increase of river water levels due to upstream flooding in India resulted in severe flooding in Moulvibazar and Sylhet districts. Flooding affected the majority of upazilas in both districts, leading to severe infrastructure damage and acute needs. Over 2,000,000 people live in the most affected upazilas. At least 250,000 of them have been affected, and over 12,000 reside in temporary shelters in Moulvibazar. An estimated 570,000 people have also been affected in Sylhet.
Fuego Volcano, the most active volcano in Guatemala erupted on 3 June generating a column of ash, lava, and pyroclastic flows up to 10km from the crater. The eruption affected over 1.7 million people in Sacatepéquez, Escuintla, and Chimaltenango departments. On 5 June a new violent descent of pyroclastic lava flow led to new evacuations and casualties. A new lahar (volcanic mudflow) formed on 7 June and is descending through the valleys of Santa Teresa, Mineral, and Taniluya. Some 12,407 people have been evacuated and over 4,000 are living in emergency shelters. Urgent shelter, health, food, and WASH needs have been identified.
A tropical cyclone developed on 16 May in the Gulf of Aden, between Yemen and Somalia, known as Cyclone Sagar. It hit Djibouti on 19 May causing heavy rains and flash floods. The areas most affected by flash floods are Djibouti City and the suburb of Balbala. 25-50,000 people have been affected by flash floods and likely displaced, and two deaths have been reported. Two sectors of Obock town, in Obock Region, are also flooded. Damages to shelters by heavy rains have been reported in Ali Addeh refugee settlement. No needs have been reported for the population in Ali Addeh and Obock town.
On 19 May, Tropical Cyclone Sagar made landfall in North-western Somaliland bearing winds in excess of 120 km/h and an entire year’s worth of rain (200-300mm) affecting approximately 700,000 people and widespread destruction of property, infrastructure and the loss of livestock. The cyclone led to flooding that impacted populations previously devastated by droughts and that had not yet recovered, further worsening existing food insecurity. Urgent needs include food, shelter, WASH, and health.
On 5 January, volcanic activity on Kadovar Island, one of the six Schouten Islands of Papua New Guinea, prompted all 591 residents to evacuate. The islanders have been relocated to the Dandan Care centre, located in Turubu LLG (East Sepik Province). The 3.5 hectare site is located on a narrow strip of land physically bound by steep hills on the inland side and the sea. The ground is low-lying and sandy. It is prone to flooding during heavy rains as two running creeks (flowing from inland) flow through either side of the site as they flow out to sea. Access to the main planned resettlement site (of approximately 40 hectares) remains an outstanding issue.
Equateur province in DRC has been affected by an outbreak of the Ebola virus disease (EVD). The outbreak is believed to have begun in early April and was officially declared on 8 May. Since 3 May, 39 suspected cases have been reported, two of which have been laboratory confirmed. The full scale of the outbreak is still being determined as poor infrastructure and the remote location constrain response to the outbreak.
Since the publication of ACAPS Somalia Floods Briefing Note on 3 May 18, significant rainfall has continued in southern and central Somalia. The Juba and Shabelle rivers have burst their banks in several locations, leading to rising flood waters in riverine areas. New incidents of flash flooding have also been reported, notably in Muldug region. In total over 700,000 people have been affected by flooding, including over 228,000 people who have been displaced since mid April.
Escalation of conflict in Kachin state between the Kachin Independence Army (KIA) and the Myanmar Army has resulted in over 5,000 people being internally displaced since the beginning of April. High levels of cross-sectoral needs are reported among those newly displaced and protection of the civilian population in conflict-affected areas is of major concern, due to ongoing violence and reports of indiscriminate shelling. Over 2,000 IDPs are stranded in the forest, unable to access assistance.
Significantly above-average rainfall since the beginning of the Long Rains rainy season in March have led to flooding across the country. Between 244,000 and 260,000 people are estimated to have been displaced. Rains are expected to continue in the following weeks, meaning further flooding is likely and recovery will take time. Among the displaced population, there are needs for shelter, food, WASH, and health assistance. Active cholera outbreaks are ongoing in Garissa, Turkana, Meru, West Pokot, Isiolo, and Nairobi, and there is a risk of further spread or new outbreaks in flood-affected areas. Response is ongoing but capacity is stretched.
Increased rainfall since the beginning of April has resulted in a sharp rise in the Shabelle and Juba rivers, leading to severe flooding in southern and central Somalia. Almost 700,000 people have been affected by flooding in riverine and flood-prone areas, including over 214,200 people who have been displaced. Beledweyne district (Hiraan region) has been particularly affected, with 150,000 people displaced in Beledweyne town. Middle and Lower Shabelle, Bay, Jubaland, Galgaduud, and Banaadir regions have also been affected. In Bay, Banaadir, and Galgaduud regions flash flooding has affected IDP settlements, worsening the already vulnerable conditions of IDPs. Urgent needs include WASH, health, shelter, and food. There are concerns that the severe flooding will trigger a cholera outbreak.
Following security operations in Moyale, Ethiopia, some 10,000 people have been displaced to Moyale in Marsabit county, Kenya, since 10 March. The displaced population is currently staying in makeshift camps around Moyale. 80% of the displaced people are women and children, including 600 pregnant women and 1,500 children under five. Multisectoral assistance is urgently needed.
Intercommunal violence between Lendu and Hema communities since December has internally displaced over 300,000 people and led to a severe humanitarian crisis. In a conflict where civilians are being directly targeted, protection of the affected population is a major concern. Thousands of houses have been burned down and livelihood activities, including agriculture, have been disrupted, resulting in significant needs for shelter and food assistance.
On 25 February an earthquake of magnitude 7.5 hit Papua New Guinea (PNG) affecting mainly Southern Highlands, Hela, Western Highlands, Western Province, and Enga provinces. The affected area is mountainous and remote, although impact has been reported in Mendi city, almost 100km away. An estimated 274,600 people are within 50km of the epicentre. Approximately 326,000 people are estimated to be very strongly impacted, according to the Modified Mercalli Scale. Initial reports are limited but there are indications of urgent needs, including for health, shelter and WASH assistance. Various impact, including damage, casualties and landslides, has been reported in at least seven locations: Hides, Porgera, Mendi, Nipa-Kutubu, Tari-Pori, and Huilya.
On 12 February, Cyclone Gita passed over the Kingdom of Tonga, mainly affecting the islands of ‘Eua (pop. 4,950) and Tongatapu (pop. 74,679). Ha’apai (pop.6,144) was also impacted to a lesser extent. The Category Four cyclone brought heavy rain, strong winds of 230 km/h and storm surge. As the cyclone hit at low tide, the storm surge did not have a major impact. The cyclone caused extensive damage to homes and public buildings, along with the water supply, agricultural fields, and transport and communication infrastructure. Initial assessments suggest some 50,000 people are affected. Some 40 people are injured and at least 3,900 are in evacuation centres in Tongatapu.
Escalation of fighting between the armed forces of the DRC (FARDC) and armed groups in South Kivu province, DRC, have caused large population movements in January both internally and across Lake Tanganyika to Burundi. About 7,000 people arrived in Burundi between 24 and 29 January and new arrivals have been reported daily since then. Poor underlying conditions in affected areas of Burundi, including Rumonge and Makamba provinces, exacerbate acute shelter, food, WASH, health, and protection needs. Transit centres and refugee camps in the country are overstretched.
Conflict between the Government of Syria (GoS) and armed opposition groups has intensified since November 2017 in northern Hama governorate, southern Idleb governorate, and southern Aleppo governorate, causing a wave of displacement. Some 212,000 people have been displaced since 15 December, the majority into central and northern Idleb. The humanitarian situation in the affected governorates is deteriorating, with ongoing clashes, airstrikes, and shelling. The majority of IDPs live in makeshift settlements and report acute multi-sectoral needs.
Anticipatory report - On 3 January 2018, Pakistan granted Afghan refugees in Pakistan a residence extension until the end of January. This is the shortest extension ever given to Afghan refugees in Pakistan and raises concerns of imminent large-scale forced returns. Some 1.39 million Afghan refugees are registered in Pakistan, as well as an estimated one million unregistered Afghans. If returns are enforced, it is likely to have a major impact on shelter, protection, and food needs. However, previous deadlines have been threatened but not enforced, reducing the probability of the risk.
On 18 December 2017 violence escalated in Ituri and Nord Kivu provinces of north-east Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), causing displacement and an increased refugee influx into Uganda. At least 7,185 refugees have crossed into west and southwest Uganda. Refugees are being relocated to Kyangwali settlement and the Malembo C site in Hoima district, and Kyaka II settlement in Kyegegwa district. Cross-sectoral response must be strengthened as humanitarian resources and capacities are strained due to the increase in arrivals.
On 22 December tropical storm Tembin hit Mindanao island in the Philippines, affecting more than 715,000 people. More than 138,000 people remain displaced. Lanao del Norte and Lanao del Sur provinces in Mindanao were severely impacted with 41,000 and 59,000 affected people respectively. Shelter and NFI needs are high, with at least 1,600 houses destroyed across the entire affected area. There are elevated protection concerns in areas affected by the Marawi conflict (May–October 2017), which led to the estimated displacement of more than 353,000 people.
312 suspected cases of diphtheria have been reported in Yemen between mid-August and 20 December. The outbreak has resulted in 35 deaths reported. At 11%, the case fatality rate (CFR) is high. 18 out of Yemen’s 22 governorates are affected, with Ibb having the majority of cases. Children aged 5-14 account for around 50% of suspected cases. About 90% of fatalities were reported in children aged less than 15.
In the Afghan province of Sar-i Pul recent clashes over territorial control between the Taliban and the Afghan National Defence and Security Forces have caused internal displacement. Over 7,000 people have been displaced since the beginning of December and are likely in need of protection, shelter, food, and health assistance. The newly displaced are in addition to an estimated 9,600 people displaced between January and November of this year.
As of 21 November, an estimated 622,000 Rohingya refugees fled Myanmar to Bangladesh. The influx began on 25 August, after the Myanmar Army launched security operations in northern Rakhine state. In September, an average of approximately 14,500 people arrived daily. This dropped to an approximate average of 3,100 arrivals per day in October. The estimated number of people in need was 1.2 million in the latest Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) of October 2017. This number was comprised of the pre-existing caseload of Rohingya in Bangladesh (government estimates of 300,000), the new influx since 25 August (at 509,000 on 3 October), people in host communities (300,000), and a contingency for a further 91,000 people.
Approximately 426,000 people living in besieged Eastern Ghouta are affected by protracted conflict and recent deterioration of access restraints. Despite the area being the part of the de-escalation agreement, the government forces renewed their airstrikes and shelling as of the end of September, which resulted in damage and loss of civilian infrastructure, hospitals, and schools. Clashes between armed groups controlling different parts of the territory compound the situation. The highest level of besiegement is reported in majority of the communities as of November, which results in severe shortages of food and medicine, leading to increasing cases of acute malnutrition.
On the evening of 12 November, a 7.3 magnitude earthquake occurred in Kermanshah province with widespread damage reported across the province. Sar pol-e Zahab and Qasr-e Shirin are reported hardest hit. Early estimates indicate that over 400 lives have been lost and over 6,600 people were injured. Reports indicate that an estimated 70,000 people are in need of emergency shelter.
Tropical Storm (Category 4) Damrey made landfall in Vietnam on the morning of 4 November along the south-central coastal region, particularly affecting Khanh Hoa province. 48 deaths have been reported, with an additional 11 people missing. Over 1,300 homes have been destroyed and over 122,000 partially damaged. An estimated 500,000 people have been affected in these provinces and 24,000 remain displaced in evacuation centres. Over 12,000 hectares of agricultural land have been flooded and extensive damage to marine based livelihoods has also been reported. All five south-central provinces are reporting flooded roads and as a result limited access to some areas. One of the five provinces (Phu Yen) has had power restored while the other provinces are still partially without power. Three reservoirs have reported to be operating flood discharge due to high water levels.
As of 5 November, some 609,000 people have fled northern Rakhine state in Myanmar to Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh following an eruption of violence on 25 August. A large number have likely also been internally displaced within Rakhine state, but data is not available on this. The Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA), an insurgent group, launched multiple attacks on government posts in Rakhine state, to which the Myanmar military responded with heavy force. However, it has been reported that military clearance operations targeting Rohingya may have begun prior to the ARSA attack. There are high levels of need among Rohingya both in Cox’s Bazar and also likely among IDPs in northern Rakhine. Rohingya in central Rakhine have also been affected to a lesser extent.
Tropical Storm Maria formed in the central Atlantic Ocean and is the tenth most intense on record. At its peak, the hurricane caused catastrophic damage and numerous fatalities across the north-eastern Caribbean, and is considered to be the worst natural disaster on record in Dominica. It also caused catastrophic damage in Puerto Rico.
As of 19 September, hundreds of people were evacuated in Guadeloupe, Dominica and Martinique. Mandatory evacuation orders were issued for more than 11,900 people in Puerto Rico (ECHO 19/09/2017). Maria made landfall in Dominica on September 19 and in Puerto Rico on 20 September. As of October 10, at least 96 people are confirmed to have been killed: 51 in Puerto Rico, 30 in Dominica, five in the Dominican Republic, four in the contiguous United States, three in Haiti, two in Guadeloupe, and one in the US Virgin Islands. 39,000 children are in need of assistance in countries affected by hurricanes Irma and Maria, more than a quarter of them are under five.
The Commonwealth of Dominica is a sovereign island country, part of the Windward Islands in the Lesser Antilles archipelago in the Caribbean Sea. Dominica is vulnerable to a wide range of natural hazards. The most common and historically most significant are tropical storms and hurricanes. This country profile expands on background information such as the society, the history, economy, infrastructure, and the politics, as well as baseline sectoral information.
Over 3,360 refugees from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) fled into Zambia between 30 August and 3 October 2017. The refugees have been fleeing inter-ethnic conflicts as well as clashes between government forces and armed militias in Haut-Katanga province. Several of them have reported extreme brutality committed by all parties against civilians. The total number of refugees from Zambia in 2017 is estimated at 60,000. Given the current security situation in the southeast of DRC, flows of refugees across the border are expected to continue. The refugees are reliant on humanitarian assistance. Priority sectors for assistance are emergency shelter, health, and WASH. Other needs include food and relief materials.
As of 22 September, an estimated 429,000 Rohingya people have arrived in Bangladesh since 25 August (IOM 22/09/2017). Rohingya started fleeing northern Rakhine, Myanmar as the Myanmar Army is carrying out crackdown operations in the area. Operations, which have killed at least 400 people, started after the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA) carried out attacks against police- and border posts (Thomson Reuters Foundation 03/09/2017). The Myanmar Army has been accused of extrajudicial killings, torture, rape, burning of shelters, and arbitrary arrests of the minority Rohingya population. Rohingya people are entering Bangladesh at six points across the Naikonchari border: Gundum, Tombru, Jolpaitoli, Reju Aamtali, Baishpari, and Kolabagan (The Daily Star 29/08/2017). An unknown number could still be stranded at the border.
Hurricane Irma first made landfall on the northeast Caribbean islands during the early hours local time of 6 September. Antigua and Barbuda, Anguilla, Bahamas, British Virgin Islands, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Puerto Rico, St Barthélemy, St. Martin, Sint Maarten, Turks and Caicos, and the US Virgin Islands were all affected. 169,000 people and 75,000 buildings were exposed to wind speeds higher than 252km/h. 5.5 million people lived in areas exposed to winds in excess of 120km/h. At least 37 people have been reported dead.
A new Category 5 Hurricane Maria is moving roughly over the same path as Hurricane Irma. It is expected to affect Dominica, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Puerto Rico, St. Kitts and Nevis, Montserrat and the US and British Virgin Islands. Communities have been advised to take shelter. States of emergency have been declared in number of locations.
On 7 September, an 8.1 magnitude earthquake struck Mexico’s southern Pacific Coast, about 8km southwest of Pijijiapan in Chiapas state. A related 7.6 earthquake occurred in Guatemala the same evening. Aftershocks were still being reported in Mexico as of 10 September. In Mexico, 90 people were killed and at least 200 injured. Chiapas, Oaxaca, and Tabasco states were most affected. Damage to shelter has been reported, with people still sleeping outdoors for fear of more collapses. Health and school infrastructures also suffered damage, mostly in Oaxaca state. There are concerns that food shortages will arise as shops remain closed and road damage restricts movement.
In Guatemala, an estimated 4,500 people were affected. No casualties were reported but two people were injured. Most affected departments were Huehuetenango, Quetzaltenango, Quiché, San Marcos, Suchitepéquez and Totonicapan. Houses were damaged and health and education provision disrupted.
Hurricane Irma made landfall on northeast Caribbean islands during the early hours local time of 6 September, affecting Antigua and Barbuda, Anguilla, Bahamas, British Virgin Islands, Cuba, St Barthélemy, St. Martin, the Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Haiti, US Virgin Islands, and Turks and Caicos. Two million people live in areas exposed to in excess of 120 km/h winds.
28 people have been reported dead. 1.2 million people have been affected by damage to water infrastructure. An estimated 20,000 children have been affected throughout the region and 17,000 people are in immediate need of shelter. 70%-90% of infrastructure has been destroyed in Anguila and Barbuda. Livelihoods, housing and infrastructure in the British Virgin Islands, St. Martin, the US Virgin Islands, and Turks and Caicos have been severely affected. 34,000 people have been displaced in Dominican Republic and Haiti alone.
Hurricane Irma made landfall on northeast Caribbean islands during the early hours local time of 6 September, affecting Antigua and Barbuda, Anguilla, British Virgin Islands, St Barthélemy, St. Martin, the Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Haiti, and other islands in the eastern Caribbean Sea. The hurricane is passing over Turks and Caicos, southern Bahamas, northern Dominican Republic and northern Haiti on 8 September.
Some 270,000 people have fled Rakhine state in Myanmar to Bangladesh following an eruption of violence on 25 August. The Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA), an Islamic insurgent group, launched multiple attacks on government posts in Rakhine state, and Myanmar security forces then launched counter attacks causing mass displacement. An estimated 400,000 Rohingya are still trapped in conflict zones of Rakhine state, where needs are unknown and access virtually impossible. In Bangladesh, the sudden influx, on top of an existing crisis, means needs are high. In addition to the 270,000 who have fled so far, a further 40,000 are stranded in an accessible area near the border after being stopped by border guards.
Due to prolonged rainfall across Nepal from 11-14 August, 31 out of 75 districts have been affected by flooding and landslides. The southern Terai region has been particularly affected with an estimated 450,000 people affected by flooding and landslides. In this region 43 people were killed and an estimated 32,000 houses were damaged. Districts in central and eastern Terai have the highest reported impacts. Currently the impacts from flooding significantly outweigh those of landslides although the risk remains as rains persist and continue to hamper response efforts.
Rains in Freetown started on Sunday 13 August and have continued since. At least 400 people, including at least 60 children, were killed following the collapse of a hillside in the Regent area near the capital, in Greater Freetown early on Monday morning, as many people were asleep. Since 1 July, Freetown has received triple the usual amount of rain. Most affected areas are within an area known as Regent. Three other communities were inundated, at Lumley in the west of Freetown as well as Kissy Brook and Dworzak Farm.
A drought that began in October 2016 has been ongoing in Ethiopia, leading to high levels of food insecurity and malnutrition. Somali region is the most affected, where 1.7% of the population are affected by SAM. The Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region (SNNPR), and southern Oromia are also affected. Within the Somali region, the most severely affected areas are Dollo, Korahe, Afder, and Jarar Zones. At least 9.5 million people need food assistance across the country.. As of June, the worst affected households are facing Emergency (IPC Phase 4) food insecurity outcomes. The drought has resulted in significant livestock losses, greatly reduced access to food, and has driven large-scale displacement. The nutritional situation has also been deteriorating rapidly with a caseload of over 376,000 children suffering from SAM - 97,000 of whom are in the Somali region.
This anticipatory briefing note was requested by START Network, with a specific location and timeframe. However, our analysis shows that other areas are experiencing lower impact on floods over the past year.
Therefore, the publication of this report is only for the purpose of knowledged-sharing.
Flooding, mudslides, and landslides occur in Tajikistan every year, mostly between April and June, affecting on average 5,000-10,000 people. The Rasht Valley is often affected, but with lower humanitarian needs reported compared to other districts, such as Panjakent, in Sughd province and Shugnan, in Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast (GBAO). It is likely that in July-August 2017, floods, landslides, and mudslides will be reported, resulting in damage to agricultural land, livestock, shelters and WASH/health facilities. Across Tajikistan, up to 10,000 people may be affected in the next two months. Infrastructure such as roads, bridges and power lines will also be damaged.
Conflict between the government and armed groups in Darfur has been ongoing since 2003. After a brief respite following a ceasefire in October 2016, fighting resumed as of April 2017. The government has renewed the ceasefire on 2 July for a further four months. The armed groups they are clashing with, the JEM and the SLM-MM, also signed a ceasefire agreement on 3 May. Despite these declarations, clashes occurred in both May and June, highlighting a lack of commitment to the ceasefire agreements on both sides.
India’s northeastern state of Assam has been hard-hit by monsoon rains and flooding beginning of July. Flooding worsened in Assam on 2 July, when new areas were submerged by the rising waters of the Brahmaputra River and its tributaries. As of 5 July, official figures show over 390,000 people have been affected in over 850 villages across 15 out of 32 districts.
The Fall Armyworms infestation worsened significantly in June in Ethiopia, with 145,000 hectares of land affected – compared to 53,000 hectares at the end of May. The infestation, which affected at least 16 other African countries and millions of people since late 2016, has spread to at least six states out of 11 in Ethiopia, and is likely to spread further. Three to four million hectares of maize crops are expected to be affected at this rate. The Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples’ State (SNNPS) is the most affected by livelihoods loss, with about 100,000 people (or 20,000 households) affected.
2017 has seen a significant spike in South Sudanese refugees entering Uganda: as of 7 June the total number of south Sudanese refugees in Uganda is over 955,000. Most are in West Nile district in the northern region of Uganda, although some are now being settled in Lamwo district. These refugees are reliant on humanitarian assistance for survival, and response is stretched by limited funding and the high continuous arrival rate. Priority sectors for assistance are food and livelihoods, WASH, and health. Nutrition, protection, education, and shelter needs are also high.
Since fighting broke out on 23 May in Marawi City, Lanao del Sur, displacement has occurred from Marawi City and the neighbouring Marantao municipality. As of 22 June, more than 294,000 people were still displaced, around 16,000 of whom were hosted in evacuation centres (ECs). Ongoing conflict in Marawi City prevents the return of displaced people and has left between 300-500 people trapped in areas controlled by IS-affiliated groups. The government of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) asked for international assistance on 29 May, including from non-governmental partners.
Conflict between the Taliban and Afghan security forces in the northern provinces has intensified in the first week of June, especially in Kunduz province. Since the beginning of 2017 12,000 IDPs have been displaced from Kunduz province, the majority to other provinces across Afghanistan, of which over 7,000 were displaced in May. Since January the newly displaced from Kunduz province represent 10% of the total newly displaced population across Afghanistan. IDPs displaced in May made up 49% of Afghanistan’s total displacement.
Landslides that began on 13 June in Chittagong division have resulted in 160 deaths and 187 injured. 6,000 structures have been destroyed, and other key infrastructure damaged. The area affected is in a region referred to as the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT). Reports indicate that approximately 80,000 people across five districts – Bandarban, Chittagong, Cox’s Bazar, Khagrachari and, Rangamati – are affected.
A cholera outbreak that started in Blue Nile state in August 2016 began to spread rapidly as of April this year. Conservative estimates suggest a minimum of between 15,000-23,000 people infected, with 280-820 deaths. It is currently affecting Gedarif, White Nile, Khartoum, Sennar, River Nile, North Kordofan, and Gezira states. White Nile is host to a large South Sudanese refugee population and has had the highest number of cases so far. A state of emergency has not yet been declared and response has been limited. An underfunded health system and poor WASH facilities have contributed to the spread of infection.
Since the beginning of the operation to recapture Mosul from IS on 17 October 2016, over 806,200 people have been displaced from Mosul as of 4 June. Of these, a total of 630,040 people have fled west Mosul since the start of the operation there on 19 February. From 6 to 7 June, over 25,000 people fled Mosul and surrounding districts.
Approximately 118,000 people are estimated to be trapped in the Old City area and the neighbourhoods immediately north of the Old City as of 4 June. Civilian casualties have been on the rise, since ISF launched an offensive from the northwest of Mosul on 4 May. From 26 May to 8 June, over 231 deaths of civilians attempting to flee west Mosul have been recorded. Food, WASH, and health needs of IDPs and civilians still in west Mosul and IS-held areas are high.
In Syria, opposition forces have launched an offensive to take over IS' stronghold ar Raqqa. For more on the ar Raqqa situation, see the ACAPS briefing note Displacement from ar Raqqa.
The Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) campaign to retake areas of ar Raqqa governorate currently under IS control has been ongoing since November 2016. The operation is supported by airstrikes by the US-led coalition. On 6 June, the SDF entered ar Raqqa city from the eastern neighbourhood of al Mashlab. The campaign has generated considerable, mostly short-term displacement. As of end-May, over 205,000 had been displaced, mostly within ar Raqqa governorate. IDPs residing in organised camps and makeshift settlements have irregular access to food, drinking water, and sanitation facilities, as well as health services. Anecdotal evidence suggests similar needs among those still in IS-held ar Raqqa city.
In the last year, IS has been pushed back both in Iraq and Syria, losing large areas, with the offensive to take over the IS stronghold in Iraq, Mosul, currently entering its last stages. For more information on the situation in Mosul, see the ACAPS briefing note Iraq Displacement from Mosul and Tal-Afar.
Since late September, several armed clashes between government forces and militia Nsilulu, also known as Ninja, have occurred in Pool Department. According to the government, more than 60 fatal attacks have been carried out. According to the latest census in 2007, more than 126,000 people are living in these areas and have been affected by the conflict. At least 23,000 people have been displaced since March 2016. Internally displaced people are in dire need of shelter, food, and clean water. People are living with families, on church grounds, in public buildings or in overcrowded makeshift sites. Following significant sustained fighting early 2017, thousands more people were estimated to be displaced. However, due to security issues and limited access given by the government, no independent confirmation has been possible, leaving uncertainty around the total number of displaced people.
Since 23 May, fighting has erupted in Marawi city, Lanao del Sur on Mindanao island, between armed forces of Philippines and Maute fighters, allegedly supported by elements of the Abu Sayyaf and Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters (BIFF). As of 1 June, over 100,000 IDPs have been registered by the regional authorities since 23 May but up to 90% of the 201,000 residents of Marawi are estimated to have fled. According to the authorities, at least 177 people have been killed, including 19 civilians, 120 Maute and allied group members, and 38 security forces personnel. Use of airstrikes by military forces, along enforcement of martial law increase protection concerns.
Cyclone Mora made landfall near Kutubdia upazila, Cox’s Bazar district, southeast Bangladesh on 30 May. As of 31 May, the Bangladesh Meteorological Department has lowered the danger signal related to the cyclone from 10 to 3, as the storm weakened. Initial assessments estimate that over 280,000 people have been affected. The impact Initial assessments estimate that over 280,000 people have been affected. The impact Chittagong. Vulnerable settlements where refugees and undocumented migrants and refugees, many of whom are Rohingya, reside in Cox’s Bazar have been hit particularly hard. Over 475,000 were evacuated to cyclone shelters before the storm made landfall and people have started to return home.
Heavy rains in southwestern Sri Lanka from 25 May triggered flooding that affected 15 districts, of which Galle, Kalutara, Matara, and Ratnapura were the most severely affected. Over 588,000 people have been affected, 180 killed, and 110 are missing. Landslides and flooding have constrained access to heavily affected areas. An estimated 40% of those in affected areas do not have access to piped water, and are therefore extremely vulnerable to waterborne diseases such as cholera or diarrhoea.
Update: Fighting in and around the Kasai regions continues to cause displacement. So far, approximately 1.3 million people have fled violence in eight provinces. Between April and 22 May, over 23,500 people arrived in Angola. By mid-April 2017, at least 400 deaths had been recorded, including many civilians, but the number is likely higher. Armed clashes began between militia loyal to a local chief, Kamuina Nsapu, and FARDC in Kasai in August 2016. Since then, fighting has occurred between different militia groups in Kasai-Central, Kasai Oriental, Kasai, Lomami, and Sankuru. Violence is also now partly driven by ethnic tensions.
Floods during the rainy season from June until at least October will affect about 200,000 people, mostly in southern Sudan. Particularly vulnerable are the displaced in southern Sudan, where there are 2.3 million IDPs and about 400,000 South Sudanese, 110,000 of whom arrived in 2017. Floods will damage key WASH infrastructure and increase the caseload of diseases including cholera and malaria. Houses will be destroyed and flooding will damage crops and isolate some localities, driving up food prices.
A spike in fighting over resources occurred in Alindao, Basse-Kotto over 7–9 May, with at least 56 people killed and over 11,000 displaced. In nearby Bangassou, Mbomou prefecture, armed groups killed at least 26 people, with at least 3,000 displaced in CAR, 2,750 fleeing to DRC and 25,000 in need of humanitarian assistance. Government response is lacking and there is no evidence of humanitarian assistance reaching affected populations, excluding emergency healthcare.
A cholera outbreak was reported in Yemen on 27 April. Since then, the number of acute watery diarrhoea (AWD) or suspected cholera cases has increased to reach over 17,200, including 209 deaths, and the infection rate is rising quickly. The outbreak has affected 18 districts: Sana’a City (Amanat al Asemah) is the most heavily affected area, with over 4,000 suspected cases. A state of emergency has been declared in the governorate.
Import restrictions from the economic crisis that escalated in 2014 are resulting in severe food shortages and escalating malnutrition rates. A recent assessment of 526 children in several states found GAM rates of 8.9% and SAM of 3.2%. Severe medicine shortages combined with poor hospital services facilitate the spread of diseases such as malaria and diphtheria. Maternal mortality increased by 65% between 2015 and 2016 according to some government data. Approximately one million children do not go to school due to insecurity, food shortages in schools, and teachers’ absenteeism. Protection concerns are widespread as Venezuela recorded increasing violence with one of the highest homicide rates in the world in 2016.
Between 9 January and 25 April, a total of 164 cases of hepatitis E, including 25 deaths (CFR: 15.2%) have been reported in Diffa region, where there is a population of 673,146. The outbreak was declared by the Nigerien authorities in mid-April. All the deaths occurred among pregnant mothers. Over 76% of reported cases were among females. As of 28 April, five of the six health districts in Diffa region had been affected, with Diffa and N’Guigmi districts accounting for 96% of all cases reported.
Timor-Leste has been experiencing a severe drought due to the El Niño phenomenon since the end of 2015. The latest rainy season, which takes place from November 2016 to May 2017, has been insufficient and erratic, maintaining drought conditions on most of the island. In the next three months, rains are expected to remain insufficient with the onset of the dry season in June. Food security continued deteriorating in the November–February lean season. With the start of the dry season in June, expectations of a poor harvest make it likely that people will continue to rely on livestock for food. Food intake reduction and a lack of diet diversity is likely to escalate malnutrition rates. National and international response is underway, but the government has not declared an emergency.
Since August 2016, armed clashes between militia loyal to Kamuina Nsapu (KN) and the Armed Forces of DRC (FARDC) have occurred in Kasai-Central, Kasai Oriental, Kasai, Lomami, and Sankuru. As of mid-April 2017, at least 400 deaths have been recorded, including many civilians, but the number is likely higher. As of 27 April, at least 1.17 million people had been internally displaced due to clashes since August 2016, of whom 140,000 since mid-April. An additional 9,000 people have crossed the border into Angola in April, where there is now over 11,000 refugees. Figures are likely underestimated due to lack of access.
Many rural areas of Sindh are currently experiencing daily highs above 40°C, which are forecast to continue until early May. Average annual temperatures are in the mid-thirties at this time and increase to reach their peak in May and June, when urban areas including Karachi will be severely affected by the heatwave. Heatwaves in the past have caused considerable health impacts including dehydration, sunburn, and heatstroke. Impacts on WASH lead to additional health risks such as waterborne diseases. Increased power needs might lead to blackouts, affecting hospitals, transport, and communication.
Years of insurgency and counterinsurgency operations have resulted in the displacement of approximately 1.9 million people and created a food and nutrition crisis in Nigeria’s northeast. The worst-affected local government areas of northeast Nigeria are facing Emergency (IPC Phase 4) food security conditions and Global Acute Malnutrition (GAM) levels above emergency threshold.
Areas of Borno with limited access, such as Konduga, Bama, KalaBalge, Mafa, Ngala, Dikwa, and Marte, have between 39,000 and 250,000 people in Crisis (IPC Phase 3) to Famine (IPC Phase 5) food security conditions, according to the Cadre Harmonisé (Cadre Harmonisé 10/03/2017). Agricultural production has fallen, and raids and suicide bombings have destroyed vital infrastructure.
Security measures impacting food security include a ban on the cultivation of tall crops, road closures, controls on fertiliser and fuels, and curfews. The scale of population movement is worsening food security: returning refugees and IDPs are adding to the strain on both camps and host communities.
3,959 cases of meningitis, 181 laboratory confirmed, resulting in 438 deaths have been reported as of 5 April. While 19 states have reported outbreaks, 97% of reported cases are in six states: Katsina, Kebbi, Niger, Sokoto, Yobe, and Zamfara. Meningitis serotype C, or NmC, is responsible for 83% of laboratory confirmed cases and is severely undervaccinated in the affected areas. Additionally, vaccines for NmC is very costly at USD 50 per dose. Both this cost and local health capacity has limited response thus far.
130mm of rain fell in the city of Mocoa in southwest Colombia between 23:00 on 31 March and 01:00 on 1 April local time (between 05:00 and 07:00 GMT), causing the flooding of the Mocoa, Mulato, and Sangoyaco Rivers, and several mudslides throughout Mocoa (Sky News 02/04/2017).
At least 254 people have died, 200 were injured, 200 remain missing, and around 1,200 have been affected by the floods (Floodlist 02/04/2017 ; ABC 02/04/2017). 17 neighbourhoods of Mocoa have been affected (in the area shown on the map below). Areas in southern Mocoa have been the hardest hit: San Miguel (which may have been completely destroyed), Los Laureles, San Fernando, and El Progreso (Colombia Reports 01/04/2017).
Although the flow of returnees to Afghanistan has slowed since its peak in mid-2016, more than 60,000 people have returned from Iran (54,000) and Pakistan (almost 10,000) this year. They are in need of livelihoods and shelter as well as protection assistance.
Returnees from Pakistan go through Torkham border in Nangarhar province and Spin Boldak border in Kandarhar. Undocumented returnees make up around 40% of a total of 620,000 Afghans who returned from Pakistan in 2016. Returnees from Iran go through Islam Qala border in Herat province and Milak border in Nimroz province. More than 248,000 people returned from Pakistan in 2016, and more than 443,000 from Iran.
The increase is a result of worsening relations between the Afghanistan and Pakistan governments, prompting increasing pressure to return. The increase in returns from Iran is primarily due to the perceived pressure by the Iranian government that Afghan undocumented migrants put on the Iranian economy.
671 cholera cases have been reported in Awerial county, Lakes, since June 2016, of which at least 117 are new cases since 6 March. Most new cases have been reported in Mingkaman IDP camp. The case fatality rate (CFR) is 1.49% - or ten deaths. A lack of WASH facilities has been reported, further spreading the outbreak. The upcoming rainy season, from May/June onwards, will also likely further deteriorate the WASH situation and result in an increased number of cholera cases. Neighbouring Yirol East county has also experienced an increase of cholera cases, as reported below. Movement of population between the two counties may trigger a wider spread of the outbreak.