Short notes

Fiji: Tropical Cyclone Keni
Created: 13/04/2018 +


On 10 April, the category 3 Tropical Cyclone Keni moved towards Fiji. More than 8,900 people are sheltered in evacuation centres across the country. Western Division and Kadavu Island were the most affected areas. People in affected areas are in urgent need of food and water. There are concerns for people living in Kadavu because of the difficulty in accessing the island and because of challenges with communication following the cyclone. Cyclone Keni moved south-east away from Fiji on 11 April. Heavy rains may continue to affect several areas of Fiji.

Rohingya crisis: Diphtheria
Created: 11/12/2017 +


As of 6 December, 110 clinically diagnosed cases of diphtheria, including six deaths have been reported, with most cases in the Balukhali makeshift settlement (BMS), located in the larger Kutupalong–Balukhali expansion site. Other cases have been detected in Jamtoli and Thangkhali settlements. Low vaccination coverage amongst the camp population increases their vulnerability to the disease, which is particularly deadly for children. Congestion in sites, unevenly distributed health facilities and poor WASH infrastructure facilitate the spread of the disease, particularly during winter. An emergency vaccination campaign targeting 250,000 children is to begin on December 10. Difficult terrain and lack of access to some areas in expansion sites are likely to hamper health services provision. Awareness raising will be important to ensure as many children as possible access immunisations.

CAR: Humanitarian access (map)
Created: 21/11/2017 +


Access has been deteriorating throughout CAR in October and November 2017. In particular, access constraints due to violence and restrictions on movement have been reported in Batangafo (Ouham), Bangassou and Pombolo (Mbomou), Kaga-Bandoro (Nana-Grebizi), Zemio (Haut-Mbomou), and Nouffou (Mambere- Kadei). As of early November, over 200 attacks have targeted humanitarian workers, with 13 workers killed since January.

Yemen: Sea, air, and land embargo
Created: 15/11/2017 +


On 6 November the Saudi Arabia-led military coalition announced a temporary closure of all Yemen’s airports, seaports and land crossings, effectively halting access to commercial and humanitarian goods to 27 million people. The blockage was announced after Houthis launched a missile from Yemen targeting Riyadh airport, Saudi-Arabia on 4 November. Yemen is heavily reliant on imports for around 80-90% of its food, fuel and medical needs. On 13 November, Hadi government-controlled ports in Aden, Mokha and Mukalla as well as al Wadea land crossing were reopened. Al Hudeidah and Saleef ports, on Houthi controlled area, which process 80% of commercial and humanitarian imports, remain closed. Government-controlled ports cannot function as substitutes for the country’s main ports due to their limited offload and storage capacity. The location of these ports would require the crossing of conflict frontlines to reach the northern areas most heavily affected by food insecurity and cholera. Prior to the current blockade, the Saudi-led coalition had imposed a naval blockade on Yemen's coast, and restricted travel by air, land, and sea, therefore severely restricting the inflow of commercial and humanitarian cargo for the last two and a half years. This has left the country with critically low stocks of necessary goods, reducing capacity to cope under the current conditions.

Dominica: Population (map)
Created: 19/10/2017 +


Pouplation: 71,200 (2011); 67% of people live in urban areas; growth 0% per annum 1990–2012, due mainly to the emigration of young people; birth rate 16 per 1,000 people (est. 26 in 1970); life expectancy 77 years (The Commonwealth). The population is mostly of African and mixed African/European descent, with European, Syrian and Carib (2.9% in 2001 census) minorities. There is a Carib reserve on part of the east of the island, referred to as the Kalinago Territory

Nigeria: Displacement in Monguno LGA, Borno State
Created: 18/09/2017 +


An estimated 54% of the population in Monguno Local Government Area (LGA) is displaced, and the LGA is among those in Borno with the highest burden of population displacement and needs (along with Mafa, Kukawa. and Dikwa). Over 122,000 people from other LGAs are displaced in Monguno LGA, and another 32,000 IDPs have returned to the LGA. Many returning IDPs are living in secondary displacement and in dire need of food, shelter, access to livelihood opportunities, and healthcare. Insecurity remains a challenge: areas outside Monguno town remain unsafe and sporadic attacks by Boko Haram in surrounding villages and LGAs continue to cause displacement within Monguno and prevent returns beyond the headquarters.

Brazil: Floods in Pernambuco and Alagoas
Created: 08/06/2017 +


In the last week of May, heavy rainfall and flooding were registered across the states of Pernambuco (PE) and Alagoas (AL) in northern Brazil. In Pernambuco, 24 out of 185 municipalities have declared state of emergency: 55,000 have been displaced and up to 2.2 million temporarily affected by damage to WASH infrastructure. In Alagoas, the highest estimates are of 16,000 people (4,000 families) displaced and 27 out of 102 municipalities in state of emergency, including the capital. As of 6 June, localised rains were still expected in Pernambuco but the overall level of rainfall for both states should decrease significantly.

Pakistan: Drought in Sindh province
Created: 19/04/2017 +


In southeastern Sindh, below-average rainfall during the 2016 monsoon (July to October) resulted in no or substantially less crop production for the third consecutive year and in livestock losses, affecting the two main livelihood sources in the region.

According to ECHO, 27% of the population in Sindh is moderately to acutely food insecure. A lack of access to WASH facilities and medical services exacerbates food security and nutrition conditions. Landless agricultural labourers, pastoralists, and sharecroppers are most vulnerable and the worst hit. Comparable and recent data on food insecurity rates is missing, but according to the latest assessment conducted in 2015, GAM and SAM rates were well above emergency levels.

Since September 2016, response has been limited. According to a report by the UN Country Team in Pakistan published in February 2017, the 2015 findings are still valid and the region is on the verge of a humanitarian crisis.

UPDATE: Results from an IPC Acute Food Insecurity analysis conducted since May and published in August shows that three of the most affected districts (Tharparkar, Jamshoro, and Sanghar) are facing Emergency (IPC Phase 4) food insecurity, while one (Umerkot) is facing Crisis (IPC Phase 3), confirming the analysis of this note published in April and updated in May.?

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Burkina Faso: Insecurity in Sahel Region
Created: 24/03/2017 +


Northern Burkina Faso has seen a rapid deterioration of the security situation since January 2017. Various attacks have been carried out in the area ranging from targeted killings, assassination attempts, village and school incursions to complex attacks against army or police position ?. The Ansarul Islam group, which has links to the Ansar Dine movement in Mali, is suspected to be behind most of the recent attacks ??.  The increase in threats and attacks has caused fear across the region and led to the closure of over 600 schools in Oudalan and Soum provinces ?. Insecurity is also impacting access to other social services such as health, food security and protection.

Ansarul Islam is a new armed group, first known in December 2016 when it claimed responsibility for the attack of Nassoumbou military base in Burkina Faso, which resulted in 12 soldiers killed. Since then, it has claimed responsibility or being suspected for most of the recent attacks in the region ?. Ibrahim Malam Dicko is allegedly the leader. He first joined the Macina Liberation Front, an armed group close to Ansar Dine based in Mali, and in 2016 established his militia around Djibo in Burkina Faso and Douna and Selba in Mali ?. The aim of this group seems to re-establish a Fulani kingdom in the Sahel region ?.

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Iraq: Displacement from West Mosul
Created: 22/03/2017 +


As of 16 March 2017, Iraq’s humanitarian coordinator has warned that the pace of displacement during the first weeks of the west Mosul operation is higher than expected, and response capacity will be exhausted if new arrivals continue to increase. On 19 February an offensive towards the western part of Mosul was launched, and on 21 February new arrivals were outpacing returns for the first time in six weeks. Since then camp capacity has been repeatedly reported as severely restricted. 

Brazil Yellow Fever
Created: 01/02/2017 +



Between 1 December 2016 and 31 January 2017 651 suspected cases and 127 confirmed cases of yellow fever have been reported in Brazil. Of all reported cases, 125 have resulted in deaths. This outbreak is the worst to affect the country since 1980.


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Serbia: Winterisation for Refugees
Created: 14/01/2017 +


Temperatures have dropped down to -20°C at night in Serbia since early January 2017 – way below the average low of  -2°C.? Even during the day, temperatures are sometimes below -10°C.?

The refugee and migrant population has been particularly affected by the cold wave, due to poor shelter and NFI conditions, and low access to healthcare. There are at least 7,200 refugees in Serbia, with 80 to 100 arriving daily, and around 100 crossing onwards into other countries every weeK.???

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Haiti: Hurricane Matthew, 5 October 2016, 0930 GMT
Created: 05/10/2016 +


Hurricane Matthew, a Category 4 Hurricane, struck the southwest coast of Haiti 0700 local time (1200 GMT) on 4 October. Wind speeds of 230km/h were recorded, and caused widespread damage, flooding and displacement. It continued across the northwest of the country.? The government has issued a Red Alert and officially requested UN assistance.?

Over 1.24 million people are affected in the departments of Grand Anse (468,000 people) and Sud (775,000), including 522,000 chldren.? 350,000 are presently estimated to be in need of assistance.?

ACAPS will produce a Briefing Note in the coming hours.

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Briefing notes

DRC: Ebola outbreak
Created: 14/05/2018 +


Equateur province in DRC has been affected by an outbreak of the Ebola virus disease (EVD). The outbreak is believed to have begun in early April and was officially declared on 8 May. Since 3 May, 39 suspected cases have been reported, two of which have been laboratory confirmed. The full scale of the outbreak is still being determined as poor infrastructure and the remote location constrain response to the outbreak.

Somalia: Floods Update I
Created: 09/05/2018 +


Since the publication of ACAPS Somalia Floods Briefing Note on 3 May 18, significant rainfall has continued in southern and central Somalia. The Juba and Shabelle rivers have burst their banks in several locations, leading to rising flood waters in riverine areas. New incidents of flash flooding have also been reported, notably in Muldug region. In total over 700,000 people have been affected by flooding, including over 228,000 people who have been displaced since mid April. 

Kenya: Floods
Created: 04/05/2018 +


Significantly above-average rainfall since the beginning of the Long Rains rainy season in March have led to flooding across the country. Between 244,000 and 260,000 people are estimated to have been displaced. Rains are expected to continue in the following weeks, meaning further flooding is likely and recovery will take time. Among the displaced population, there are needs for shelter, food, WASH, and health assistance. Active cholera outbreaks are ongoing in Garissa, Turkana, Meru, West Pokot, Isiolo, and Nairobi, and there is a risk of further spread or new outbreaks in flood-affected areas. Response is ongoing but capacity is stretched.

Somalia: floods
Created: 03/05/2018 +


Increased rainfall since the beginning of April has resulted in a sharp rise in the Shabelle and Juba rivers, leading to severe flooding in southern and central Somalia. Almost 700,000 people have been affected by flooding in riverine and flood-prone areas, including over 214,200 people who have been displaced. Beledweyne district (Hiraan region) has been particularly affected, with 150,000 people displaced in Beledweyne town. Middle and Lower Shabelle, Bay, Jubaland, Galgaduud, and Banaadir regions have also been affected. In Bay, Banaadir, and Galgaduud regions flash flooding has affected IDP settlements, worsening the already vulnerable conditions of IDPs. Urgent needs include WASH, health, shelter, and food. There are concerns that the severe flooding will trigger a cholera outbreak.

Kenya: Displacement from Ethiopia
Created: 22/03/2018 +


Following security operations in Moyale, Ethiopia, some 10,000 people have been displaced to Moyale in Marsabit county, Kenya, since 10 March. The displaced population is currently staying in makeshift camps around Moyale. 80% of the displaced people are women and children, including 600 pregnant women and 1,500 children under five. Multisectoral assistance is urgently needed.

DRC: Displacement in Ituri
Created: 16/03/2018 +


Intercommunal violence between Lendu and Hema communities since December has internally displaced over 300,000 people and led to a severe humanitarian crisis. In a conflict where civilians are being directly targeted, protection of the affected population is a major concern. Thousands of houses have been burned down and livelihood activities, including agriculture, have been disrupted, resulting in significant needs for shelter and food assistance.

Papua New Guinea: Highlands Earthquake
Created: 01/03/2018 +


On 25 February an earthquake of magnitude 7.5 hit Papua New Guinea (PNG) affecting mainly Southern Highlands, Hela, Western Highlands, Western Province, and Enga provinces. The affected area is mountainous and remote, although impact has been reported in Mendi city, almost 100km away. An estimated 274,600 people are within 50km of the epicentre. Approximately 326,000 people are estimated to be very strongly impacted, according to the Modified Mercalli Scale. Initial reports are limited but there are indications of urgent needs, including for health, shelter and WASH assistance. Various impact, including damage, casualties and landslides, has been reported in at least seven locations: Hides, Porgera, Mendi, Nipa-Kutubu, Tari-Pori, and Huilya.

Tonga: Cyclone Gita
Created: 15/02/2018 +


On 12 February, Cyclone Gita passed over the Kingdom of Tonga, mainly affecting the islands of ‘Eua (pop. 4,950) and Tongatapu (pop. 74,679). Ha’apai (pop.6,144) was also impacted to a lesser extent. The Category Four cyclone brought heavy rain, strong winds of 230 km/h and storm surge. As the cyclone hit at low tide, the storm surge did not have a major impact. The cyclone caused extensive damage to homes and public buildings, along with the water supply, agricultural fields, and transport and communication infrastructure. Initial assessments suggest some 50,000 people are affected. Some 40 people are injured and at least 3,900 are in evacuation centres in Tongatapu.

Burundi: Displacement from DRC
Created: 02/02/2018 +


Escalation of fighting between the armed forces of the DRC (FARDC) and armed groups in South Kivu province, DRC, have caused large population movements in January both internally and across Lake Tanganyika to Burundi. About 7,000 people arrived in Burundi between 24 and 29 January and new arrivals have been reported daily since then. Poor underlying conditions in affected areas of Burundi, including Rumonge and Makamba provinces, exacerbate acute shelter, food, WASH, health, and protection needs. Transit centres and refugee camps in the country are overstretched.

Syria: Displacement in the Northwest
Created: 22/01/2018 +


Conflict between the Government of Syria (GoS) and armed opposition groups has intensified since November 2017 in northern Hama governorate, southern Idleb governorate, and southern Aleppo governorate, causing a wave of displacement. Some 212,000 people have been displaced since 15 December, the majority into central and northern Idleb. The humanitarian situation in the affected governorates is deteriorating, with ongoing clashes, airstrikes, and shelling. The majority of IDPs live in makeshift settlements and report acute multi-sectoral needs.

Afghanistan: Forced returnees to Nangarhar, Kandahar, Kabul
Created: 17/01/2018 +


Anticipatory report - On 3 January 2018, Pakistan granted Afghan refugees in Pakistan a residence extension until the end of January. This is the shortest extension ever given to Afghan refugees in Pakistan and raises concerns of imminent large-scale forced returns. Some 1.39 million Afghan refugees are registered in Pakistan, as well as an estimated one million unregistered Afghans. If returns are enforced, it is likely to have a major impact on shelter, protection, and food needs. However, previous deadlines have been threatened but not enforced, reducing the probability of the risk.

Philippines: Tropical Storm Tembin
Created: 28/12/2017 +


On 22 December tropical storm Tembin hit Mindanao island in the Philippines, affecting more than 715,000 people. More than 138,000 people remain displaced. Lanao del Norte and Lanao del Sur provinces in Mindanao were severely impacted with 41,000 and 59,000 affected people respectively. Shelter and NFI needs are high, with at least 1,600 houses destroyed across the entire affected area. There are elevated protection concerns in areas affected by the Marawi conflict (May–October 2017), which led to the estimated displacement of more than 353,000 people.

Yemen: Diphtheria outbreak
Created: 22/12/2017 +


312 suspected cases of diphtheria have been reported in Yemen between mid-August and 20 December. The outbreak has resulted in 35 deaths reported. At 11%, the case fatality rate (CFR) is high. 18 out of Yemen’s 22 governorates are affected, with Ibb having the majority of cases. Children aged 5-14 account for around 50% of suspected cases. About 90% of fatalities were reported in children aged less than 15.

Afghanistan: Displacement in Sar-i Pul province
Created: 19/12/2017 +


In the Afghan province of Sar-i Pul recent clashes over territorial control between the Taliban and the Afghan National Defence and Security Forces have caused internal displacement. Over 7,000 people have been displaced since the beginning of December and are likely in need of protection, shelter, food, and health assistance. The newly displaced are in addition to an estimated 9,600 people displaced between January and November of this year.

Rohingya Crisis: situation analysis
Created: 22/11/2017 +


As of 21 November, an estimated 622,000 Rohingya refugees fled Myanmar to Bangladesh. The influx began on 25 August, after the Myanmar Army launched security operations in northern Rakhine state. In September, an average of approximately 14,500 people arrived daily. This dropped to an approximate average of 3,100 arrivals per day in October. The estimated number of people in need was 1.2 million in the latest Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) of October 2017. This number was comprised of the pre-existing caseload of Rohingya in Bangladesh (government estimates of 300,000), the new influx since 25 August (at 509,000 on 3 October), people in host communities (300,000), and a contingency for a further 91,000 people. 

Syria: Conflict in Eastern Ghouta
Created: 15/11/2017 +


Approximately 426,000 people living in besieged Eastern Ghouta are affected by protracted conflict and recent deterioration of access restraints. Despite the area being the part of the de-escalation agreement, the government forces renewed their airstrikes and shelling as of the end of September, which resulted in damage and loss of civilian infrastructure, hospitals, and schools. Clashes between armed groups controlling different parts of the territory compound the situation. The highest level of besiegement is reported in majority of the communities as of November, which results in severe shortages of food and medicine, leading to increasing cases of acute malnutrition. 

Iran: Earthquake in Kermanshah
Created: 14/11/2017 +


On the evening of 12 November, a 7.3 magnitude earthquake occurred in Kermanshah province with widespread damage reported across the province. Sar pol-e Zahab and Qasr-e Shirin are reported hardest hit. Early estimates indicate that over 400 lives have been lost and over 6,600 people were injured. Reports indicate that an estimated 70,000 people are in need of emergency shelter.

Vietnam: Tropical Storm Damrey
Created: 09/11/2017 +


Tropical Storm (Category 4) Damrey made landfall in Vietnam on the morning of 4 November along the south-central coastal region, particularly affecting Khanh Hoa province. 48 deaths have been reported, with an additional 11 people missing. Over 1,300 homes have been destroyed and over 122,000 partially damaged. An estimated 500,000 people have been affected in these provinces and 24,000 remain displaced in evacuation centres. Over 12,000 hectares of agricultural land have been flooded and extensive damage to marine based livelihoods has also been reported. All five south-central provinces are reporting flooded roads and as a result limited access to some areas. One of the five provinces (Phu Yen) has had power restored while the other provinces are still partially without power. Three reservoirs have reported to be operating flood discharge due to high water levels.

Myanmar and Bangladesh: Rohingya Displacement
Created: 07/11/2017 +


As of 5 November, some 609,000 people have fled northern Rakhine state in Myanmar to Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh following an eruption of violence on 25 August. A large number have likely also been internally displaced within Rakhine state, but data is not available on this. The Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA), an insurgent group, launched multiple attacks on government posts in Rakhine state, to which the Myanmar military responded with heavy force. However, it has been reported that military clearance operations targeting Rohingya may have begun prior to the ARSA attack. There are high levels of need among Rohingya both in Cox’s Bazar and also likely among IDPs in northern Rakhine. Rohingya in central Rakhine have also been affected to a lesser extent.

Caribbean: Hurricane Maria
Created: 02/11/2017 +


Tropical Storm Maria formed in the central Atlantic Ocean and is the tenth most intense on record. At its peak, the hurricane caused catastrophic damage and numerous fatalities across the north-eastern Caribbean, and is considered to be the worst natural disaster on record in Dominica. It also caused catastrophic damage in Puerto Rico.

As of 19 September, hundreds of people were evacuated in Guadeloupe, Dominica and Martinique. Mandatory evacuation orders were issued for more than 11,900 people in Puerto Rico (ECHO 19/09/2017). Maria made landfall in Dominica on September 19 and in Puerto Rico on 20 September. As of October 10, at least 96 people are confirmed to have been killed: 51 in Puerto Rico, 30 in Dominica, five in the Dominican Republic, four in the contiguous United States, three in Haiti, two in Guadeloupe, and one in the US Virgin Islands. 39,000 children are in need of assistance in countries affected by hurricanes Irma and Maria, more than a quarter of them are under five.

Dominica: Country Profile
Created: 19/10/2017 +


The Commonwealth of Dominica is a sovereign island country, part of the Windward Islands in the Lesser Antilles archipelago in the Caribbean Sea. Dominica is vulnerable to a wide range of natural hazards. The most common and historically most significant are tropical storms and hurricanes. This country profile expands on background information such as the society, the history, economy, infrastructure, and the politics, as well as baseline sectoral information.

Zambia:Influx of refugees from DRC
Created: 13/10/2017 +


Over 3,360 refugees from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) fled into Zambia between 30 August and 3 October 2017. The refugees have been fleeing inter-ethnic conflicts as well as clashes between government forces and armed militias in Haut-Katanga province. Several of them have reported extreme brutality committed by all parties against civilians. The total number of refugees from Zambia in 2017 is estimated at 60,000. Given the current security situation in the southeast of DRC, flows of refugees across the border are expected to continue. The refugees are reliant on humanitarian assistance. Priority sectors for assistance are emergency shelter, health, and WASH. Other needs include food and relief materials.

Bangladesh: Displacement Influx of Rohingya
Created: 26/09/2017 +


As of 22 September, an estimated 429,000 Rohingya people have arrived in Bangladesh since 25 August (IOM 22/09/2017). Rohingya started fleeing northern Rakhine, Myanmar as the Myanmar Army is carrying out crackdown operations in the area. Operations, which have killed at least 400 people, started after the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA) carried out attacks against police- and border posts (Thomson Reuters Foundation 03/09/2017). The Myanmar Army has been accused of extrajudicial killings, torture, rape, burning of shelters, and arbitrary arrests of the minority Rohingya population. Rohingya people are entering Bangladesh at six points across the Naikonchari border: Gundum, Tombru, Jolpaitoli, Reju Aamtali, Baishpari, and Kolabagan (The Daily Star 29/08/2017). An unknown number could still be stranded at the border. 

Update 2 - Caribbean: Hurricane Irma
Created: 20/09/2017 +


Hurricane Irma first made landfall on the northeast Caribbean islands during the early hours local time of 6 September. Antigua and Barbuda, Anguilla, Bahamas, British Virgin Islands, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Puerto Rico, St Barthélemy, St. Martin, Sint Maarten, Turks and Caicos, and the US Virgin Islands were all affected. 169,000 people and 75,000 buildings were exposed to wind speeds higher than 252km/h. 5.5 million people lived in areas exposed to winds in excess of 120km/h.  At least 37 people have been reported dead. 

A new Category 5 Hurricane Maria is moving roughly over the same path as Hurricane Irma. It is expected to affect Dominica, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Puerto Rico, St. Kitts and Nevis, Montserrat and the US and British Virgin Islands. Communities have been advised to take shelter. States of emergency have been declared in number of locations. 

Mexico and Guatemala: Earthquake
Created: 12/09/2017 +


On 7 September, an 8.1 magnitude earthquake struck Mexico’s southern Pacific Coast, about 8km southwest of Pijijiapan in Chiapas state. A related 7.6 earthquake occurred in Guatemala the same evening. Aftershocks were still being reported in Mexico as of 10 September. In Mexico, 90 people were killed and at least 200 injured. Chiapas, Oaxaca, and Tabasco states were most affected. Damage to shelter has been reported, with people still sleeping outdoors for fear of more collapses. Health and school infrastructures also suffered damage, mostly in Oaxaca state. There are concerns that food shortages will arise as shops remain closed and road damage restricts movement.  
In Guatemala, an estimated 4,500 people were affected. No casualties were reported but two people were injured. Most affected departments were Huehuetenango, Quetzaltenango, Quiché, San Marcos, Suchitepéquez and Totonicapan. Houses were damaged and health and education provision disrupted.  

Update - Caribbean: Hurricane Irma
Created: 11/09/2017 +


Hurricane Irma made landfall on northeast Caribbean islands during the early hours local time of 6 September, affecting Antigua and Barbuda, Anguilla, Bahamas, British Virgin Islands, Cuba, St Barthélemy, St. Martin, the Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Haiti, US Virgin Islands, and Turks and Caicos. Two million people live in areas exposed to in excess of 120 km/h winds. 

28 people have been reported dead. 1.2 million people have been affected by damage to water infrastructure. An estimated 20,000 children have been affected throughout the region and 17,000 people are in immediate need of shelter. 70%-90% of infrastructure has been destroyed in Anguila and Barbuda. Livelihoods, housing and infrastructure in the British Virgin Islands, St. Martin, the US Virgin Islands, and Turks and Caicos have been severely affected. 34,000 people have been displaced in Dominican Republic and Haiti alone.  

Caribbean: Hurricane Irma
Created: 08/09/2017 +


Hurricane Irma made landfall on northeast Caribbean islands during the early hours local time of 6 September, affecting Antigua and Barbuda, Anguilla, British Virgin Islands, St Barthélemy, St. Martin, the Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Haiti, and other islands in the eastern Caribbean Sea. The hurricane is passing over Turks and Caicos, southern Bahamas, northern Dominican Republic and northern Haiti on 8 September.   

Myanmar and Bangladesh: Rohingya displacement and protection crisis
Created: 08/09/2017 +


Some 270,000 people have fled Rakhine state in Myanmar to Bangladesh following an eruption of violence on 25 August. The Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA), an Islamic insurgent group, launched multiple attacks on government posts in Rakhine state, and Myanmar security forces then launched counter attacks causing mass displacement. An estimated 400,000 Rohingya are still trapped in conflict zones of Rakhine state, where needs are unknown and access virtually impossible. In Bangladesh, the sudden influx, on top of an existing crisis, means needs are high. In addition to the 270,000 who have fled so far, a further 40,000 are stranded in an accessible area near the border after being stopped by border guards.   

Nepal: Floods in southern Terai
Created: 16/08/2017 +


Due to prolonged rainfall across Nepal from 11-14 August, 31 out of 75 districts have been affected by flooding and landslides. The southern Terai region has been particularly affected with an estimated 450,000 people affected by flooding and landslides. In this region 43 people were killed and an estimated 32,000 houses were damaged. Districts in central and eastern Terai have the highest reported impacts. Currently the impacts from flooding significantly outweigh those of landslides although the risk remains as rains persist and continue to hamper response efforts.

Sierra Leone: Mudslides and floods
Created: 16/08/2017 +


Rains in Freetown started on Sunday 13 August and have continued since. At least 400 people, including at least 60 children, were killed following the collapse of a hillside in the Regent area near the capital, in Greater Freetown early on Monday morning, as many people were asleep. Since 1 July, Freetown has received triple the usual amount of rain. Most affected areas are within an area known as Regent. Three other communities were inundated, at Lumley in the west of Freetown as well as Kissy Brook and Dworzak Farm. 

Ethiopia: Food insecurity and malnutrition in Somali Region
Created: 04/08/2017 +


A drought that began in October 2016 has been ongoing in Ethiopia, leading to high levels of food insecurity and malnutrition. Somali region is the most affected, where 1.7% of the population are affected by SAM. The Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region (SNNPR), and southern Oromia are also affected. Within the Somali region, the most severely affected areas are Dollo, Korahe, Afder, and Jarar Zones. At least 9.5 million people need food assistance across the country.. As of June, the worst affected households are facing Emergency (IPC Phase 4) food insecurity outcomes. The drought has resulted in significant livestock losses, greatly reduced access to food, and has driven large-scale displacement. The nutritional situation has also been deteriorating rapidly with a caseload of over 376,000 children suffering from SAM - 97,000 of whom are in the Somali region. 

Tajikistan: Flooding in the Rasht Valley
Created: 25/07/2017 +


This anticipatory briefing note was requested by START Network, with a specific location and timeframe. However, our analysis shows that other areas are experiencing lower impact on floods over the past year.
Therefore, the publication of this report is only for the purpose of knowledged-sharing. 

Flooding, mudslides, and landslides occur in Tajikistan every year, mostly between April and June, affecting on average 5,000-10,000 people. The Rasht Valley is often affected, but with lower humanitarian needs reported compared to other districts, such as Panjakent, in Sughd province and Shugnan, in Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast (GBAO). It is likely that in July-August 2017, floods, landslides, and mudslides will be reported, resulting in damage to agricultural land, livestock, shelters and WASH/health facilities. Across Tajikistan, up to 10,000 people may be affected in the next two months.  Infrastructure such as roads, bridges and power lines will also be damaged.  

Sudan: Conflict in Darfur
Created: 06/07/2017 +


Conflict between the government and armed groups in Darfur has been ongoing since 2003. After a brief respite following a ceasefire in October 2016, fighting resumed as of April 2017. The government has renewed the ceasefire on 2 July for a further four months. The armed groups they are clashing with, the JEM and the SLM-MM, also signed a ceasefire agreement on 3 May. Despite these declarations, clashes occurred in both May and June, highlighting a lack of commitment to the ceasefire agreements on both sides.

India: Floods in Assam
Created: 06/07/2017 +


India’s northeastern state of Assam has been hard-hit by monsoon rains and flooding beginning of July. Flooding worsened in Assam on 2 July, when new areas were submerged by the rising waters of the Brahmaputra River and its tributaries. As of 5 July, official figures show over 390,000 people have been affected in over 850 villages across 15 out of 32 districts.

Ethiopia: Fall Armyworms Infestation in Sidama Zone, SNNP
Created: 03/07/2017 +


The Fall Armyworms infestation worsened significantly in June in Ethiopia, with 145,000 hectares of land affected – compared to 53,000 hectares at the end of May. The infestation, which affected at least 16 other African countries and millions of people since late 2016, has spread to at least six states out of 11 in Ethiopia, and is likely to spread further. Three to four million hectares of maize crops are expected to be affected at this rate. The Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples’ State (SNNPS) is the most affected by livelihoods loss, with about 100,000 people (or 20,000 households) affected. 

Uganda: South Sudanese Displacement
Created: 28/06/2017 +


2017 has seen a significant spike in South Sudanese refugees entering Uganda: as of 7 June the total number of south Sudanese refugees in Uganda is over 955,000. Most are in West Nile district in the northern region of Uganda, although some are now being settled in Lamwo district. These refugees are reliant on humanitarian assistance for survival, and response is stretched by limited funding and the high continuous arrival rate. Priority sectors for assistance are food and livelihoods, WASH, and health. Nutrition, protection, education, and shelter needs are also high. 

Philippines: Displacement from Marawi City
Created: 23/06/2017 +


Since fighting broke out on 23 May in Marawi City, Lanao del Sur, displacement has occurred from Marawi City and the neighbouring Marantao municipality. As of 22 June, more than 294,000 people were still displaced, around 16,000 of whom were hosted in evacuation centres (ECs). Ongoing conflict in Marawi City prevents the return of displaced people and has left between 300-500 people trapped in areas controlled by IS-affiliated groups. The government of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) asked for international assistance on 29 May, including from non-governmental partners. 

Afghanistan: Conflict-induced displacement in Kunduz
Created: 22/06/2017 +


Conflict between the Taliban and Afghan security forces in the northern provinces has intensified in the first week of June, especially in Kunduz province. Since the beginning of 2017 12,000 IDPs have been displaced from Kunduz province, the majority to other provinces across Afghanistan, of which over 7,000 were displaced in May. Since January the newly displaced from Kunduz province represent 10% of the total newly displaced population across Afghanistan. IDPs displaced in May made up 49% of Afghanistan’s total displacement.  

Bangladesh: Landslides
Created: 21/06/2017 +


Landslides that began on 13 June in Chittagong division have resulted in 160 deaths and 187 injured. 6,000 structures have been destroyed, and other key infrastructure damaged. The area affected is in a region referred to as the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT). Reports indicate that approximately 80,000 people across five districts – Bandarban, Chittagong, Cox’s Bazar, Khagrachari and, Rangamati – are affected.

Sudan: Cholera Outbreak
Created: 16/06/2017 +


A cholera outbreak that started in Blue Nile state in August 2016 began to spread rapidly as of April this year. Conservative estimates suggest a minimum of between 15,000-23,000 people infected, with 280-820 deaths. It is currently affecting Gedarif, White Nile, Khartoum, Sennar, River Nile, North Kordofan, and Gezira states. White Nile is host to a large South Sudanese refugee population and has had the highest number of cases so far. A state of emergency has not yet been declared and response has been limited. An underfunded health system and poor WASH facilities have contributed to the spread of infection.  

Iraq: Displacement from Mosul and Tal-Afar
Created: 09/06/2017 +


Since the beginning of the operation to recapture Mosul from IS on 17 October 2016, over 806,200 people have been displaced from Mosul as of 4 June. Of these, a total of 630,040 people have fled west Mosul since the start of the operation there on 19 February. From 6 to 7 June, over 25,000 people fled Mosul and surrounding districts. 

Approximately 118,000 people are estimated to be trapped in the Old City area and the neighbourhoods immediately north of the Old City as of 4 June. Civilian casualties have been on the rise, since ISF launched an offensive from the northwest of Mosul on 4 May. From 26 May to 8 June, over 231 deaths of civilians attempting to flee west Mosul have been recorded. Food, WASH, and health needs of IDPs and civilians still in west Mosul and IS-held areas are high. 

In Syria, opposition forces have launched an offensive to take over IS' stronghold ar Raqqa. For more on the ar Raqqa situation, see the ACAPS briefing note Displacement from ar Raqqa

Syria: Displacement in ar Raqqa
Created: 09/06/2017 +


The Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) campaign to retake areas of ar Raqqa governorate currently under IS control has been ongoing since November 2016. The operation is supported by airstrikes by the US-led coalition. On 6 June, the SDF entered ar Raqqa city from the eastern neighbourhood of al Mashlab. The campaign has generated considerable, mostly short-term displacement. As of end-May, over 205,000 had been displaced, mostly within ar Raqqa governorate. IDPs residing in organised camps and makeshift settlements have irregular access to food, drinking water, and sanitation facilities, as well as health services. Anecdotal evidence suggests similar needs among those still in IS-held ar Raqqa city. 

In the last year, IS has been pushed back both in Iraq and Syria, losing large areas, with the offensive to take over the IS stronghold in Iraq, Mosul, currently entering its last stages. For more information on the situation in Mosul, see the ACAPS briefing note Iraq Displacement from Mosul and Tal-Afar. 



Republic of Congo: Conflict in Pool department
Created: 06/06/2017 +


Since late September, several armed clashes between government forces and militia Nsilulu, also known as Ninja, have occurred in Pool Department. According to the government, more than 60 fatal attacks have been carried out. According to the latest census in 2007, more than 126,000 people are living in these areas and have been affected by the conflict. At least 23,000 people have been displaced since March 2016. Internally displaced people are in dire need of shelter, food, and clean water. People are living with families, on church grounds, in public buildings or in overcrowded makeshift sites. Following significant sustained fighting early 2017, thousands more people were estimated to be displaced. However, due to security issues and limited access given by the government, no independent confirmation has been possible, leaving uncertainty around the total number of displaced people. 

Philippines: Displacement in Marawi
Created: 01/06/2017 +


Since 23 May, fighting has erupted in Marawi city, Lanao del Sur on Mindanao island, between armed forces of Philippines and Maute fighters, allegedly supported by elements of the Abu Sayyaf and Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters (BIFF). As of 1 June, over 100,000 IDPs have been registered by the regional authorities since 23 May but up to 90% of the 201,000 residents of Marawi are estimated to have fled. According to the authorities, at least 177 people have been killed, including 19 civilians, 120 Maute and allied group members, and 38 security forces personnel. Use of airstrikes by military forces, along enforcement of martial law increase protection concerns. 

Bangladesh: Tropical Storm Mora
Created: 01/06/2017 +


Cyclone Mora made landfall near Kutubdia upazila, Cox’s Bazar district, southeast Bangladesh on 30 May. As of 31 May, the Bangladesh Meteorological Department has lowered the danger signal related to the cyclone from 10 to 3, as the storm weakened. Initial assessments estimate that over 280,000 people have been affected. The impact Initial assessments estimate that over 280,000 people have been affected. The impact Chittagong. Vulnerable settlements where refugees and undocumented migrants and refugees, many of whom are Rohingya, reside in Cox’s Bazar have been hit particularly hard. Over 475,000 were evacuated to cyclone shelters before the storm made landfall and people have started to return home. 

Sri Lanka: Floods
Created: 31/05/2017 +


Heavy rains in southwestern Sri Lanka from 25 May triggered flooding that affected 15 districts, of which Galle, Kalutara, Matara, and Ratnapura were the most severely affected. Over 588,000 people have been affected, 180 killed, and 110 are missing. Landslides and flooding have constrained access to heavily affected areas. An estimated 40% of those in affected areas do not have access to piped water, and are therefore extremely vulnerable to waterborne diseases such as cholera or diarrhoea.  

ACAPS Briefing Note DRC Kasai Displacement UPDATE
Created: 26/05/2017 +


Update: Fighting in and around the Kasai regions continues to cause displacement. So far, approximately 1.3 million people have fled violence in eight provinces. Between April and 22 May, over 23,500 people arrived in Angola. By mid-April 2017, at least 400 deaths had been recorded, including many civilians, but the number is likely higher.  Armed clashes began between militia loyal to a local chief, Kamuina Nsapu, and FARDC in Kasai in August 2016. Since then, fighting has occurred between different militia groups in Kasai-Central, Kasai Oriental, Kasai, Lomami, and Sankuru. Violence is also now partly driven by ethnic tensions. 


Sudan: Impact of rainy season on IDPs and refugees
Created: 24/05/2017 +


Floods during the rainy season from June until at least October will affect about 200,000 people, mostly in southern Sudan. Particularly vulnerable are the displaced in southern Sudan, where there are 2.3 million IDPs and about 400,000 South Sudanese, 110,000 of whom arrived in 2017. Floods will damage key WASH infrastructure and increase the caseload of diseases including cholera and malaria. Houses will be destroyed and flooding will damage crops and isolate some localities, driving up food prices. 

Central African Republic: Conflict and Displacement
Created: 19/05/2017 +


A spike in fighting over resources occurred in Alindao, Basse-Kotto over 7–9 May, with at least 56 people killed and over 11,000 displaced. In nearby Bangassou, Mbomou prefecture, armed groups killed at least 26 people, with at least 3,000 displaced in CAR, 2,750 fleeing to DRC and 25,000 in need of humanitarian assistance. Government response is lacking and there is no evidence of humanitarian assistance reaching affected populations, excluding emergency healthcare. 

Yemen: Cholera outbreak
Created: 18/05/2017 +


A cholera outbreak was reported in Yemen on 27 April. Since then, the number of acute watery diarrhoea (AWD) or suspected cholera cases has increased to reach over 17,200, including 209 deaths, and the infection rate is rising quickly. The outbreak has affected 18 districts: Sana’a City (Amanat al Asemah) is the most heavily affected area, with over 4,000 suspected cases. A state of emergency has been declared in the governorate.  

Venezuela: Humanitarian Needs from Economic Crisis
Created: 17/05/2017 +


Import restrictions from the economic crisis that escalated in 2014 are resulting in severe food shortages and escalating malnutrition rates. A recent assessment of 526 children in several states found GAM rates of 8.9% and SAM of 3.2%. Severe medicine shortages combined with poor hospital services facilitate the spread of diseases such as malaria and diphtheria. Maternal mortality increased by 65% between 2015 and 2016 according to some government data. Approximately one million children do not go to school due to insecurity, food shortages in schools, and teachers’ absenteeism. Protection concerns are widespread as Venezuela recorded increasing violence with one of the highest homicide rates in the world in 2016.

Niger: Hepatitis E in Diffa Region
Created: 04/05/2017 +


Between 9 January and 25 April, a total of 164 cases of hepatitis E, including 25 deaths (CFR: 15.2%) have been reported in Diffa region, where there is a population of 673,146. The outbreak was declared by the Nigerien authorities in mid-April. All the deaths occurred among pregnant mothers. Over 76% of reported cases were among females. As of 28 April, five of the six health districts in Diffa region had been affected, with Diffa and N’Guigmi districts accounting for 96% of all cases reported.

Timor-Leste: Drought May - July 2017
Created: 03/05/2017 +


Timor-Leste has been experiencing a severe drought due to the El Niño phenomenon since the end of 2015. The latest rainy season, which takes place from November 2016 to May 2017, has been insufficient and erratic, maintaining drought conditions on most of the island. In the next three months, rains are expected to remain insufficient with the onset of the dry season in June. Food security continued deteriorating in the November–February lean season. With the start of the dry season in June, expectations of a poor harvest make it likely that people will continue to rely on livestock for food. Food intake reduction and a lack of diet diversity is likely to escalate malnutrition rates. National and international response is underway, but the government has not declared an emergency. 

DRC: Displacement in Kasai-Central and neighbouring provinces
Created: 28/04/2017 +


Since August 2016, armed clashes between militia loyal to Kamuina Nsapu (KN) and the Armed Forces of DRC (FARDC) have occurred in Kasai-Central, Kasai Oriental, Kasai, Lomami, and Sankuru. As of mid-April 2017, at least 400 deaths have been recorded, including many civilians, but the number is likely higher. As of 27 April, at least 1.17 million people had been internally displaced due to clashes since August 2016, of whom 140,000 since mid-April. An additional 9,000 people have crossed the border into Angola in April, where there is now over 11,000 refugees. Figures are likely underestimated due to lack of access. 

Pakistan: Sindh Heatwave April - May 2017
Created: 24/04/2017 +


Many rural areas of Sindh are currently experiencing daily highs above 40°C, which are forecast to continue until early May. Average annual temperatures are in the mid-thirties at this time and increase to reach their peak in May and June, when urban areas including Karachi will be severely affected by the heatwave. Heatwaves in the past have caused considerable health impacts including dehydration, sunburn, and heatstroke. Impacts on WASH lead to additional health risks such as waterborne diseases. Increased power needs might lead to blackouts, affecting hospitals, transport, and communication. 

Northeast Nigeria: Food Security and Nutrition Crisis
Created: 12/04/2017 +


Years of insurgency and counterinsurgency operations have resulted in the displacement of approximately 1.9 million people and created a food and nutrition crisis in Nigeria’s northeast. The worst-affected local government areas of northeast Nigeria are facing Emergency (IPC Phase 4) food security conditions and Global Acute Malnutrition (GAM) levels above emergency threshold.

Areas of Borno with limited access, such as Konduga, Bama, KalaBalge, Mafa, Ngala, Dikwa, and Marte, have between 39,000 and 250,000 people in Crisis (IPC Phase 3) to Famine (IPC Phase 5) food security conditions, according to the Cadre Harmonisé (Cadre Harmonisé 10/03/2017). Agricultural production has fallen, and raids and suicide bombings have destroyed vital infrastructure.

Security measures impacting food security include a ban on the cultivation of tall crops, road closures, controls on fertiliser and fuels, and curfews. The scale of population movement is worsening food security: returning refugees and IDPs are adding to the strain on both camps and host communities.  

Nigeria: Meningitis
Created: 11/04/2017 +


3,959 cases of meningitis, 181 laboratory confirmed, resulting in 438 deaths have been reported as of 5 April. While 19 states have reported outbreaks, 97% of reported cases are in six states: Katsina, Kebbi, Niger, Sokoto, Yobe, and Zamfara. Meningitis serotype C, or NmC, is responsible for 83% of laboratory confirmed cases and is severely undervaccinated in the affected areas. Additionally, vaccines for NmC is very costly at USD 50 per dose. Both this cost and local health capacity has limited response thus far. 

Colombia: Floods and Mudslides in Mocoa
Created: 11/04/2017 +


130mm of rain fell in the city of Mocoa in southwest Colombia between 23:00 on 31 March and 01:00 on 1 April local time (between 05:00 and 07:00 GMT), causing the flooding of the Mocoa, Mulato, and Sangoyaco Rivers, and several mudslides throughout Mocoa (Sky News 02/04/2017).  

At least 254 people have died, 200 were injured, 200 remain missing, and around 1,200 have been affected by the floods (Floodlist 02/04/2017 ; ABC 02/04/2017). 17 neighbourhoods of Mocoa have been affected (in the area shown on the map below). Areas in southern Mocoa have been the hardest hit: San Miguel (which may have been completely destroyed), Los Laureles, San Fernando, and El Progreso (Colombia Reports 01/04/2017).  

Afghanistan: Undocumented returnees from Pakistan and Iran
Created: 07/04/2017 +


Although the flow of returnees to Afghanistan has slowed since its peak in mid-2016, more than 60,000 people have returned from Iran (54,000) and Pakistan (almost 10,000) this year. They are in need of livelihoods and shelter as well as protection assistance.

Returnees from Pakistan go through Torkham border in Nangarhar province and Spin Boldak border in Kandarhar. Undocumented returnees make up around 40% of a total of 620,000 Afghans who returned from Pakistan in 2016. Returnees from Iran go through Islam Qala border in Herat province and Milak border in Nimroz province. More than 248,000 people returned from Pakistan in 2016, and more than 443,000 from Iran.

The increase is a result of worsening relations between the Afghanistan and Pakistan governments, prompting increasing pressure to return. The increase in returns from Iran is primarily due to the perceived pressure by the Iranian government that Afghan undocumented migrants put on the Iranian economy.  

South Sudan: Cholera outbreak
Created: 07/04/2017 +


671 cholera cases have been reported in Awerial county, Lakes, since June 2016, of which at least 117 are new cases since 6 March. Most new cases have been reported in Mingkaman IDP camp. The case fatality rate (CFR) is 1.49% - or ten deaths.  A lack of WASH facilities has been reported, further spreading the outbreak. The upcoming rainy season, from May/June onwards, will also likely further deteriorate the WASH situation and result in an increased number of cholera cases. Neighbouring Yirol East county has also experienced an increase of cholera cases, as reported below. Movement of population between the two counties may trigger a wider spread of the outbreak. 

South Sudan: Food Security and Nutrition
Created: 05/04/2017 +


Famine was declared in Unity state in February 2017 after months of a deteriorating food security situation across South Sudan. An estimated 100,000 people are facing Famine (IPC Phase 5) food security outcomes in Unity state, and 4.9 million people are currently food insecure (IPC Phases 3 to 5) across South Sudan – an increase of 1.5 million since the beginning of 2016. The north of the country – where conflict was initially concentrated – has been the most affected by the severe food insecurity situation, but the situation in the south has rapidly deteriorated since fighting erupted in Juba in mid-2016, and spread to the Equatorias. 

Yemen: Food Security and Nutrition
Created: 27/03/2017 +


The UN has warned that Yemen is at risk of falling into famine if the international community does not take immediate steps to address the severe food and nutrition crisis. 6.8 million people (25% of the population) are facing Emergency (IPC Phase 4) levels of food insecurity, only one phase before the declaration of famine. A further 10.2 million (38% of the population) are facing Crisis (IPC Phase 3). The population in Crisis and Emergency has increased by 20% compared to June 2016.  

Peru: Floods in Piura, Lambayeque, Lima, Ica, and Arequipa
Created: 22/03/2017 +


Since December 2016, above-average rains have caused flooding and landslides in 24 of the 25 regions of Peru. Over 99,000 people have suffered losses and over 600,000 people have been affected. 12 regions have declared a state of emergency. Piura and Lambayeque in the northwest, and Ica and Arequipa in the southwest are most affected. Piura, Lambayeque, Lima, Ica and Arequipa are particularly affected by infrastructure damage such as road and bridge collapse, damage to sewage and drainage systems, and health concerns. 

Madagascar: Tropical Cyclone Enawo
Created: 13/03/2017 +


Tropical Cyclone Enawo, equivalent to a Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale, made landfall over Antalaha district, in the northeastern coast of Madagascar, on 7 March at around 10:30am local time. Wind speeds of 220–230 km/h were recorded, along with heavy rains. The storm traversed nearly the length of the island over two days, affecting communities from north to south across Madagascar’s eastern and central regions. On 7 and 8 March, approximately 131mm of rain was recorded in Antananarivo (OCHA 09/03/2017). On 8 March, the cyclone weakened to a ‘moderate’ tropical storm, with an average speed of 80km/h, and the storm exited the country on 10 March.  

As of 13 March, at least 100,000 people have been directly affected by the cyclone, approximately half of whom are in Antalaha district. At least 50 people have been killed, and 183 wounded, mainly in Analanjirofo and Sava regions. Over 110,000 people have been displaced by flooding and storm waters, particularly in Antalaha and Maroantsetra districts.  

Afghanistan: Floods
Created: 03/03/2017 +


Continuous heavy rainfall since February has caused severe flooding in Khashrod and Chakhansur districts in Nimroz province. As of 23 February several homes had been destroyed or swept away by flood waters, and over 20,000 hectares of arable land had been submerged in flood water. An estimated 3,000 people have been affected and displaced by flooding in both Chakhansur and Khashrod districts. Affected populations are in dire need of humanitarian assistance. Some of the affected were already vulnerable prior to the flooding. Many were either internally displaced or returnees from Iran. 

Somalia: Food Security and Nutrition Crisis
Created: 24/02/2017 +


Severe drought conditions are rapidly deteriorating food security, nutrition, and health levels across Somalia. A pre-famine warning was declared in January, and there is currently a larger population at risk than in the 2011 famine. Below average gu (April-June) rainfall is predicted in most of the country, with famine conditions likely in localised areas if humanitarian assistance cannot reach all populations in need. Due to continued insecurity, this scenario is a distinct possibility. 

Mongolia: Dzud
Created: 16/02/2017 +


Seventeen out of 21 aimags (provinces) across Mongolia have been affected by a dzud, a phenomenon characterised by harsh winter conditions that result in extremely high numbers of livestock deaths. Around 157,000 herders are at risk of losing livestock and livelihoods, with the lean season expected to last until May. A previously rare phenomenon occurring once a decade, this is the second consecutive year with dzud conditions in Mongolia, limiting herders’ abilities to cope. Bulgan, Khuvsgul, and Zavkhan are among the aimags affected by the dzud. Seven out of 36 priority soums (districts) in Mongolia identified on 22 December 2016 were in Khuvsgul, with another priority soum in Bulgan. The situation across Mongolia is expected to worsen, as the heaviest snowfalls are expected to coincide with the beginning of the spring birthing season. 

Mozambique Flooding
Created: 08/02/2017 +


Since the beginning of January 2017, heavy seasonal rains have been affecting central and southern provinces in Mozambique. 44 people have died and 79,000 have been affected. The Mozambican authorities issued an orange alert for the provinces of Maputo, Gaza, Inhambane and Nampula, yet areas of Tete and Sofala provinces have also been affected. The orange alert means that government institutions are planning for an impending disaster. Continued rainfall has been forecasted for the first quarter of 2017. [This report has been republished after a correction] 

DRC: Displacement in Kasai and Kasai Central
Created: 02/02/2017 +


Since August 2016, armed clashes between militia loyal to tribal leader Kamuina Nsapu and Armed Forces of DRC (FARDC) have taken place in Kasai and Kasai-Central. Fighting intensified in mid-December. As of mid-January, over 600 deaths have been reported. 216,000 people – 36,000 households – have been displaced by fighting in the region since August 2016. The majority of these people have reportedly fled to villages in Kasai Oriental and nearby forests. Their needs include food, shelter and NFIs, and protection. So far, the exact number of returnees, and their needs, have not been reported. 

Somalia: Drought
Created: 31/01/2017 +


Somalia is currently experiencing a drought that started in 2015. The whole country is affected, with northeastern areas of Puntland and Somaliland the worst affected. Humanitarian conditions in the southcentral areas of Bay, Bakool, and Gedo have deteriorated rapidly since November, with poor rainfall affecting crops and livestock. Poor and rural households are atypically market dependent heading into the Jilaal lean season and many require humanitarian assistance to meet basic needs.

Borno: Humanitarian situation in newly accessible areas
Created: 27/01/2017 +


The Nigerian government has recently engaged in military operations in areas previously held by Boko Haram (BH). As a result, some parts within ten Local Government Areas (LGAs), namely Bama, Damboa, Dikwa, Gwoza, Konduga, Kukawa,  Magumeri, Monguno, Ngala and Shani, have become more accessible as of mid-December 2016.

At least 279,758 IDPs out of the 579,000 present in these areas are now reachable. This newly gained accessibility is revealing the dire needs of people who had been cut off from all essential services for almost two years. High malnutrition rates and suspicion of famine levels are among the main humanitarian issues. Poor health and wash conditions exacerbate the needs of the affected population. Protection issues are also widely reported among IDPs.

However, even if access has recently improved, in most cases it is limited to the LGA headquarters. At least six LGAs remain completely inaccessible in northern and central Borno, leaving between 400,000-800,000 people cut off from humanitarian aid.  

The Gambia: Displacement
Created: 26/01/2017 +


Political uncertainty in the Gambia, due to former President Yahya Jammeh’s refusal to accept the results of the 1 December  presidential election, drove thousands of Gambians to flee the country into Senegal and Guinea-Bissau. As of 22 January, over 76,000 people have reportedly sought shelter in Senegal since early January. An estimated 3,500 Gambians have sought safety in Guinea-Bissau since mid-January. Although some people have already begun to return, an estimated 50,000 Gambians remained in Senegal and Guinea-Bissau as of 24 January. Additionally, an estimated 150,000 people are internally displaced.

Bangladesh: Refugee Influx
Created: 18/01/2017 +


Three border posts along the Myanmar–Bangladesh border were attacked on 9 October by Harakah al-Yaqin, a resurgent group in Rakhine state which has supposed links to the Rohingya. In response, the Myanmar Army has deployed more troops into the northern Rakhine area, mainly in Maungdaw, and has conducted a security operation. At least 130 people have since been killed in raids and skirmishes. A state of emergency has been declared.

Philippines: Typhoon Nock Ten, Bicol Region
Created: 03/01/2017 +


Typhoon Nock-Ten (locally known as Nina) made eight landfalls on the Philippines between 25 and 26 December, with winds of up to 235 km/h and gusts of up to 285 km/h. Nearly 2 million people have been affected in Bicol region (Region V), Mimaropa, Calabarzon and Eastern Visayas (Region VIII). At least three people were killed.

1.4 million of the affected are in Cantanduanes, Albay, and Camerines Sur, in Bicol region. More than 70% of the 250,000 damaged homes are in Bicol. As of 2 January, nearly 60% (153,861 people) of Cantanduanes’s population was affected and more than 20,000 people were still in evacuation centres. Albay and Camarines Sur provinces, in the same region, are also severely affected.

Mixed migration: Horn of Africa to Europe
Created: 12/12/2016 +


More than 173,500 refugees and migrants have reached Italy so far in 2016, around 29,000 more than in the same period last year. While the vast majority still use Libya as the departure point to Europe, more are using Egypt and Algeria. The nationality of arrivals is evolving, with fewer Eritreans and more Egyptians.

Protection is a primary concern. The estimated number of deaths on the Central Mediterranean route has grown to over 4,200 people this year, compared to less than 2,900 at the same point in 2015. Many people die on the journey over land to north Africa, but this number is not known. Migrants and refugees also face detention, sexual exploitation, and forced labour. The number of unaccompanied minors arriving in Italy is growing.

Somalia, Displacement in Gaalkacyo
Created: 20/10/2016 +


On 7 October, armed violence broke out between forces from Galmudug and Puntland, in Gaalkacyo, the capital of the north-central Mudug region, leaving 11 people killed and dozens injured. As of 13 October, an estimated 50,000 – 70,000 people have been displaced, at least 60% of whom are IDPs facing secondary displacement. The violence erupted in the outskirts of Gaalkacyo at a site where the Puntland government is building a livestock market. A ceasefire was initially agreed on 9 October, but failed to hold. A new ceasefire was agreed on 19 October.

Philippines: Typhoon Lawin, Northern Luzon
Created: 19/10/2016 +


Early on 20 October 2016, typhoon Haima/Lawin is due to hit the Philippines. Winds up to 185 km/h are expected, and rainfall of 100-200 mm throughout the next two days with local amounts over 300 mm, thus exacerbating the risk of mudslides, especially in higher elevations.

11.6 million people could be affected, mostly in northern Luzon – including 2.8 million in the Cagayun and Isabela provinces, where it will hit the hardest.

Haiti: Hurricane Matthew, Update 4
Created: 14/10/2016 +


Key updates since 12 October:

  • Trust between people in need and aid workers has been hampered by several security incidents. Blockades and attacks on aid workers are reported in Jérémie, Les Cayes, Carrefour Charles, Chambellon, and Torbeck as people try to access aid. Road access has improved throughout Grand’Anse and Sud.
  • 510 cases of cholera now reported throughout Haiti; 60,000 are in need of emergency health services.
  • The damage to schools and numbers of affected children reported so far refer only to public schools, which comprise only 20% of schools in Haiti, meaning figures are likely much higher.

Niger, Rift Valley Fever
Created: 12/10/2016 +


•    A Rift Valley Fever (RVF) outbreak was declared on 20 September in the districts of Tchintabaraden, Tassara, and Abalak in the Tahoua region of Niger.
•    As of 10 October, 90 cases have been reported among humans, including 28 deaths, with a case fatality rate (CFR) of 31.1%.
•    Movement of the animal and human population is likely to further increase the risk of the outbreak spreading. The population at risk is estimated at 125,000.

Haiti: Hurricane Matthew Update 3
Created: 12/10/2016 +

  • According to the latest government figures, 1,410,900 people, including 592,600 children, are in need of humanitarian aid, of which 750,000, including 315,000, are severely in need. So far, at least 1,000 people have been reported dead. More than 200,000 houses have been severely damaged or destroyed.
  • At least 175,500 have been evacuated or displaced and housed in 224 temporary shelters. However, this figure does not include displaced people living in host families or informal settlements. The overall scale of displacement is therefore underestimated.
  • At least 356 new cholera cases have already been reported. There is a very high risk of a significant increase in cholera as a result of damage to weak WASH infrastructure. High food shortages and extensive damages to plantations have been reported across the affected areas.
  • Road access is improving in coastal areas but interior mountainous areas have still not be reached. Growing insecurity are of concern and likely to impact response.

Haiti: Ouragan Matthew
Created: 12/10/2016 +


Au moins 20% du territoire d’Haïti a été touché par l’ouragan Matthew. Un grand nombre de glissements de terrain et d’inondations ont été rapportés dans toutes les régions côtières, de même qu’à l’intérieur des départements touchés. Les départements les plus touchés sont: Sud, Grand’Anse et Nippes. Au total, 2 128 700 personnes, soit 12 % de la population d’Haïti, ont été touchées, dont 894 100 enfants.

Afghanistan: Conflict in Kunduz
Created: 11/10/2016 +


Fighting has been ongoing in Kunduz city since 3 October, when the Taliban attacked. Government troops backed by Afghan special forces and US airstrikes are still conducting ‘clearing operations’ and have yet to recapture the city. At least three civilians had been killed and more than 290 wounded by 6 October. As of 10 October, approximately 33,000 people have reportedly fled Kunduz to neighbouring provinces. On 6 October, 10,000 IDPs have reportedly arrived in Kabul, Mazar-i-Sharif (Balkh province), Taloqan (Takhar province), and in Baghlan province. Protection, health and food needs are priorities.

Haiti: Hurricane Matthew, Update 2
Created: 10/10/2016 +

  • According to the latest government figures, 1.4 million people are in need of humanitarian aid, including 750,000 targeted to address serious needs.
  • At least 61,537 have been evacuated or displaced and are housed in 192 temporary shelters.
  • So far, at least 1,000 people have been reported dead but the death toll is still expected to rise as the worst-affected areas are accessed.
  • New cholera cases have already been reported, and enormous water infrastructure damage. Preliminary assessment indicates food shortages in worst-affected areas of Sud and Grand'Anse departments.
  • Flooding, landslides, and debris have cut road access throughout affected areas, although a temporary bridge has replaced the collapsed La Digue bridge, enabling vehicle access to southern departments.

Mali: Anticipatory Briefing Note Flooding
Created: 10/10/2016 +

  • The floods that began on 11 July brought heavy and above average rain and have so far affected some 9,500–15,000 people across Mali, including the regions of Sikasso, Koulikoro, Segou, Mopti, Timbuktu, Gao, and Kidal.
  • 13 people have died. The total population of these areas is roughly 10,000,000
  • Based on experiences from floods in 2012 and 2013 that were less serious than this year’s predictions, up to 30,000 people are likely to be affected, though a precise prediction is impossible to make at this point. The capital, Bamako, is at risk of flooding.

Haiti: Hurricane Matthew - Update
Created: 07/10/2016 +

  • At least 25% of Haiti’s territory has been impacted by Hurricane Matthew: Sud, Sud-Est, Grande'Anse, Nippes, Nord-Ouest, and Ouest departments are the most affected.
  • So far, 300 people have been reported dead, and 350,000 people are estimated to be in need of assistance. At least 15,623 people have been displaced and over 21,000 have been evacuated. 
  • Some populations in the south are still inaccessible; a greater humanitarian response will likely be necessary to prevent dire long-term consequences, especially given the ongoing cholera epidemic.

Haiti: Hurricane Matthew
Created: 05/10/2016 +


Category 4 Hurricane Matthew struck the southwest coast of Haiti at 0700 local time (1200 GMT) on 4 October. Wind speeds of 230km/h were recorded, and caused widespread damage, flooding, and displacement. It continued across the northwest of the country. 

350,000 people require humanitarian assistance, and 14,530 have been displaced. Reported death toll is currently six.

Sud, Sud-Est, Grande'Anse, Nippes, Nord-Ouest, and Ouest departments are the most affected.

It is expected that flooding will exacerbate pre-existing epidemics such as cholera, dengue fever, and Zika.

DRC: Displacement from South Sudan
Created: 28/09/2016 +


Since mid-July over 15,000 South Sudanese refugees have arrived in the territories of Faradge and Aru in Haut-Uele and Ituri provinces following a resurgence of violence in South Sudan. DRC has been experiencing an influx of refugees into Aru territory in Ituri, close to the border with South Sudan, since October 2015. There is now a total of 27,250 registered South Sudanese refugees in the territories of Faradge and Aru in Haut-Uele and Ituri provinces. The new arrivals have received little humanitarian assistance. Lack of food, shelter, and medicine has been reported in Ituri.

Nigeria: Humanitarian Situation in the Northeast
Created: 27/09/2016 +


Critical levels of malnutrition and food insecurity persist in Nigeria’s Borno, Yobe, and Adamawa states. 4.5 million people are severely food insecure, and at least 65,000 people are experiencing Famine (IPC Phase 5). Health is emerging as a major need, as most health centres across Borno are either only partially functional or not functional at all and cases of communicable diseases are being reported, including polio, measles, and acute watery diarrhoea (AWD). The humanitarian situation is thought to be worse in northern Borno, which is still inaccessible.

DPRK: Floods
Created: 13/09/2016 +


Major flooding in northeastern DPRK, primarily in North Hamgyong province, has affected 600,000 people, left 140,000 in urgent need of assistance, and displaced 107,000. 395 people are missing, and 133 have died. Considerable damage to vital health, water, and transport infrastructure leaves much of the affected population without shelter and vulnerable to waterborne diseases and food insecurity.

Kenya Drought
Created: 07/09/2016 +


As of July, 1.2 million people in Kenya acutely need food assistance, an increase of 500,000 from February. Most food insecure people are in Garissa, Tana River, and Isiolo counties, in the centre-east. Such levels of food insecurity are typical for Kenya and do not represent any major deterioration.

This briefing note focuses on four counties in the pastoral northwest and northeast (Mandera, Marsabit, Turkana, West Pokot), and on two counties in southeast and coastal areas (Kilifi, Tana River). Tana River, Marsabit. and Kilifi are worst affected. Global acute malnutrition (GAM) and severe acute malnutrition (SAM) rates are reported to be above the emergency threshold in West Pokot and Turkana, where malnutrition rates are often very high.

Afghanistan: Undocumented refugee returnees
Created: 27/08/2016 +


Over 101,000 undocumented refugees are estimated to have returned from Pakistan in 2016, and the rate of returns increased significantly in July and the first two weeks of August. Most are returning to Nangarhar, where conflict is ongoing. The undocumented returnees' needs are considered to be high as their status means they are not eligible for assistance, and insecurity hampers access.

CAR: Cholera Epidemic
Created: 25/08/2016 +


166 cholera cases and 19 deaths have been recorded in CAR as of 21 August. The government declared an outbreak on 10 August, although cholera was first detected on 27 July in Mourou-Fleuve village, Ndjoukou subprefecture of Kemo, located along the Oubangui River, 100km from the capital Bangui. The outbreak has since spread to Damara subprefecture (Ombella Mpoko) and to at least four arrondissements in Bangui. 

Most of the affected are located along the Oubangui River, which serves as the borer with DRC. Road access to these communities is very limited due to the rainy season. 

Senegal: Floods
Created: 18/08/2016 +


On 24 July, high amounts of rainfall (between 100-200mm at various locations) caused heavy flooding in some parts of Senegal. The districts Kaffrine and Kolda (central and south Senegal) have reportedly been the heaviest affected, with Kaolack and Matam also receiving above average rainfall. Throughout Kaffrine district some 1,500 houses have been destroyed and 7,500 people affected. Because no independent assessment has been carried out yet the actual amount of damage and sectoral needs are not yet known.
The number of people potentially at risk throughout the 2016 flood season is estimated at 210,000.

Nigeria: Food Security
Created: 18/08/2016 +


Newly accessible areas of Borno and Yobe states and areas with active military operations face severely limited access to food. Levels of malnutrition are critical and populations face a substantially increased risk of mortality. The crude mortality rate (CMR) has surpassed the threshold of 2/10,000/day – used when classifying Famine (IPC Phase 5) – in several areas since June 2016.

Bolivia: Drought
Created: 11/08/2016 +


Drought has been ongoing since October 2015, but has recently deteriorated dramatically. The drought has now impacted seven departments and 106 municipalities. Over 160,000 people as well as 90,000 hectares of agriculture and over 121,000 cattle have been affected. 104 municipalities have declared a state of emergency, with losses in agricultural production reported at USD 35 million among small farmers of the Pailon municipality alone.

India: Floods in Assam
Created: 03/08/2016 +


The northeastern state of Assam has been particularly hard-hit by monsoon rains and flooding this season. Rainfall this year has been 20% above average in some areas of India, including in Assam.

Flooding worsened in Assam on 22 July, when new areas were submerged by the rising waters of the Brahmaputra River and its tributaries. As of 1 August, official figures show over 1.1 million people and over 3,300 villages across 21 out of 32 districts are affected. At least 32 people have died, most since 22 July.

Bangladesh Floods
Created: 03/08/2016 +


Heavier than usual monsoon rains have caused floods in Bangladesh since 20 July. Some 3,200,000 people have been affected and up to 42 have died as of 3 August. Up to 300,000 people have been displaced in 16 different districts, mostly in the Northern and Central provinces (including Bogra, Faridpur, Gaibandha, Jamalpur, Kurigram, Kustia, Lalmonirhat, Madaripur, Manikganj, Nilphamary, Rajbari, Rangpur, Sariatpur, Sirajgonj, Sunamgonj, and Tangail). Most urgent needs are food provisions, WASH, and Emergency Shelter.

South Sudan: Insecurity in Eastern Equatoria
Created: 28/07/2016 +


Following the escalation of conflict in Juba on 7-11 July the situation across South Sudan has remained tense and clashes have been reported across the country. Immediately after the events in Juba a notable increase in violence was reported in Magwi and Torit counties in Eastern Equatoria. Clashes are likely ongoing. People are fleeing the area in anticipation of more heavy fighting. It is expected that the ceasefire in place since 11 July will not hold and violence will continue to spread. Between 7-27 July more than 37,500 people  fled to Uganda, at a rate of 2,000 – 4,000 people per day. If clashes are ongoing  it is also likely that thousands of people are currently internally displaced in Eastern Equatoria. 

South Sudan: Displacement in Juba
Created: 18/07/2016 +


As of 16 July, an estimated 12,800 people remain displaced after fighting erupted in Juba over 7–11 July. They are at UN House (6,838), UNMISS Tongping (3,300), Don Bosco Gumbo (1,800), Rajaf village (500), St Joseph Parish Church (100), SSRC Compound (109), and San Francis Pitia school (150): see map page 6 (CCCM 16/07/2016).. Humanitarian agencies currently have access, but this is not stable as the ceasefire is fragile and the situation remains tense. Main needs include water, food, health, and protection.

A disagreement at a checkpoint between soldiers of the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) and Sudan People’s Liberation Army in Opposition (SPLA-IO) prompted the fighting across Juba. An estimated 36,000–42,000 people were initially displaced.

Malnutrition and Food Insecurity in Borno and Yobe States
Created: 12/07/2016 +


Newly accessible areas of Borno and Yobe states are revealing extremely high rates of severe acute malnutrition, especially among 275,000 IDPs reported to live in 15 camps in Borno state. Information from recent rapid assessments, although limited, raises the possibility of Famine (IPC Phase 5) in the worst affected and least accessible areas of Borno. The Minister of Health has declared a nutrition emergency in Borno state. 613,000 children have been reported with SAM.
Poor quality and lack of food, inadequate WASH, as well as the insurgency, are among the main causes. Most affected areas are those adjacent to Sambisa Forest and those in northern Borno. Although only limited information is available, there are concerns that conditions among other IDP populations in the area could be similarly dire. The crude mortality rate (CMR) may have surpassed 2/10,000/day in June.

Yellow fever in DRC
Created: 24/06/2016 +

  • As of 19 June, 1,106 suspected and 68 confirmed cases of yellow fever have been reported in DRC and 75 people have died. Cases have been reported in Kinshasa, Kongo-Central, and Kwango.
  • There is a high risk that the outbreak will spread into other provinces that share the border with Angola: Kasai, Kasai-Central, and Lualaba.
  • The porous border between Angola and DRC and uncontrollable movement of people and mosquitoes across the border hamper the response.

Niger, Diffa Displacement
Created: 09/06/2016 +


Boko Haram attacks in Yebi and Bosso, two towns in the east of Niger’s Diffa region, have displaced an estimated 50,000–75,000 people since 19 May. Most of the displaced population first sought safety in the town of Toumour, 25–30km west of Bosso town, but have since moved westwards and northwards, fearing further BH attacks.
Newly displaced populations are being reported among host communities and in spontaneous sites along the national highway that connects Diffa and N’guigmi departments. Others are heading to Kablewa, an official camp that is already nearing capacity. The new arrivals will have severe humanitarian needs after travelling up to 100km to reach safety, with little food, water or shelter. The capacity of host communities to cope with the newly displaced is low, and humanitarian agencies, while present, are already stretched to meet the needs of the 241,000 existing displaced.
Access in Bosso town is limited. Reports suggest most civilians have left, but this is yet to be confirmed and those who remain likely face high protection and humanitarian needs.

Syria, Displacement at Turkey-Syria border
Created: 01/06/2016 +


Over 45,000 people have been displaced since 27 May in the opposition-controlled area between the Bab Al Salam crossing on the Turkey–Syria border and the town of Azaz in Aleppo governorate, due to an ongoing IS offensive. Another 8,000 IDPs, fleeing an offensive on Ar Raqqa in the past week, have also arrived in the area.

Over 100,000 displaced had already fled to this zone since February, and the humanitarian situation is now critical: over 165,000 people trapped in the border strip face difficulties accessing medical care, food, water, and safety.

Bangladesh, Tropical Cyclone Roanu
Created: 23/05/2016 +


On 21 May, around midday local time (0600 GMT), Tropical Cyclone Roanu made landfall along the southern coastal districts of Bangladesh, bringing heavy rain, winds of up to 88km/h, and storm surges of up to 2m (AFP 21/05/2016).

At least 24 people have been killed (BDNews24 22/05/2016). Some 85,000 structures, including homes and shops, have been destroyed or damaged (NDTV 23/05/2016; (AFP 22/05/2016). At least 15 districts are affected, with Chittagong, Cox’s Bazar, Noakhali, Lakshimpur, Bhola, Barguna and Patuakhali among the worst affected (Newsnext 22/05/2016). 500,000 people were evacuated ahead of the cyclone (AFP 21/05/2016).  Returns had already reportedly begun on 21 May (AFP 21/05/2016; 22/05/2016). As of the evening of 22 May, some media reports cited disaster management officials as saying that 150,000 people were in evacuation shelters or open areas. (Newsnext 22/05/2016). The current number of evacuees is not clear, nor is the number of people in need of aid.

Sri Lanka, Floods
Created: 19/05/2016 +


Since 14 May, heavy rain has been affecting almost all provinces, causing severe floods and landslides. 19 out of 25 districts have been affected, and over 350,000 people according to official figures, including 200,000 people who have been evacuated to temporary shelters. Over 2,400 homes have been damaged or destroyed. Almost 40 people have been killed, including 35 people killed by a landslide in Kegalle, close to Colombo, on 18 May. As relief operations continue the death toll is expected to rise (Government 18/05/2016; ECHO 17/05/2016; Sri Lanka Red Cross 17/05/2016; Washington Post 18/05/2016).

Somalia, Cholera Epidemic
Created: 13/05/2016 +


The number of acute watery diarrhoea cases continues to rise in south-central Somalia, as the increasing scarcity of water in the central regions combined with flooding in the south leads to use of contaminated water sources (UNICEF 29/02/2016). As of 23 April, at least 12 people have died of cholera, and over 60 others are suffering from diarrhoea in towns of Middle Juba in southern Somalia. 11 people have died in Sakow, and one in Bu'ale in Middle Juba (Xinhuanet 23/04/2016; allAfrica 24/04/2016). 

Ethiopia Floods
Created: 13/05/2016 +


Since April 2016, heavy spring/belg rains have caused floods and landslides, resulting in 100 deaths as of 12 May. Up to 120,000 people have been displaced in six regions. The most affected regions are Somali, Oromia, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples (SNNP), Afar, Amhara, and Harari – already severely affected by the El Niño drought.  

Pakistan, Heatwave
Created: 03/05/2016 +


A severe heatwave is expected to strike Pakistan, in particular the southern province of Sindh and its capital Karachi, from the beginning of May up to the first week of June, coinciding with the first week of Ramadan. Karachi has already been affected by a moderate heatwave during the last 10 days of April, which caused two deaths. 

Last year, a heatwave affected Sindh throughout June and during Ramadan, the month during which practising Muslims do not drink or eat between sunrise and sunset. Between 1,300 and 2,000 people died in Karachi, with the impact of the heatwave exacerbated by fasting, despite calls of local clerics to suspend fasting if necessary. Additional factors explaining the severity of last year’s heatwave included a delay in emergency warning, widespread power cuts, and a general lack of preparedness by the authorities and other responding agencies.   

India, Drought
Created: 27/04/2016 +


Following two consecutive below-average monsoon seasons, 330 million people are affected by drought across 10 of India’s 29 states, according to the government. Water shortages are severe. People are facing food shortages and livelihoods have been severely damaged.

The focus of this report will be Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, particularly the Bundelkhand region that covers 13 districts across the two states, as well as Maharashtra state. These areas are particularly affected after suffering from three consecutive years of drought and successive crop failures. Over the past year these regions have received less than 50% of what is considered the normal amount of rainfall.  Over 150 million people are estimated to be affected in these three states.

Elsewhere, 17 million people are affected in Telangana state. A further 30 million people are affected in Karnataka, where up to 40,000 people are reported to have migrated in recent months (Business insider 25/03/2016). To the east, 16 million people are affected in Orissa and 23 million people are affected in Andhra Pradesh. Over the past month, the situation has also started to significantly worsen in Gujarat and Haryana to the northwest (New India Express 25/04/2016).

The situation has intensified as parts of the country have also been severely affected by a heatwave since the end of March. Temperatures reached unusual highs of above 45ºC in the first week of April. 

Vanuatu: Tropical cyclone
Created: 22/04/2016 +


Category five Tropical Cyclone Pam hit Vanuatu in the evening of 13 March 2015, with winds of more than 250km/hr and has affected the entire country, but particularly in the central and southern provinces. On 13 March, the Government issued a ‘red alert’ to all six provinces, advising people to seek shelter immediately.

According to GDACS, more than 48,000 people out of the total 245,000 people are affected and humanitarian needs are high. More than 10,000 are reportedly homeless in the capital and largest city Port Vila; more than 33,000 people are affected in the outlying southernmost islands. This number is in fact likely to be much higher, as more information becomes available.  

Unconfirmed reports said that 44 people had died in the northeastern province of Penama, according to OCHA. Only six are confirmed dead. 



Ecuador, Earthquake
Created: 21/04/2016 +


A 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Ecuador at 18:58 local time on 16 April (GMT 00:58 on 17 April). The death toll stands at 272 and is expected to rise as search efforts continue (Reuters 18/04/2016). No definite figures are available on the number of people affected, but tens of thousands of people have been affected. 

Iraq: Besieged Populations in Fallujah
Created: 21/04/2016 +


Fallujah, located 50km west of Baghdad in Anbar governorate, has been under Islamic State (IS) control for more than two years. Since January 2016, the Iraqi Security Forces (ISF) have surrounded the city. The military siege, which has tightened in the past three months, is preventing any food and medical supplies from reaching between 30,000 and 60,000 Iraqi civilians trapped in Fallujah. Military operations are ongoing in surrounding areas, but it is unconfirmed whether an attack on the city itself is imminent.