Briefing notes

Yemen: Food Security and Nutrition
Created: 27/03/2017 +

Overview

The UN has warned that Yemen is at risk of falling into famine if the international community does not take immediate steps to address the severe food and nutrition crisis. 6.8 million people (25% of the population) are facing Emergency (IPC Phase 4) levels of food insecurity, only one phase before the declaration of famine. A further 10.2 million (38% of the population) are facing Crisis (IPC Phase 3). The population in Crisis and Emergency has increased by 20% compared to June 2016.  
 

Peru: Floods in Piura, Lambayeque, Lima, Ica, and Arequipa
Created: 22/03/2017 +

Overview

Since December 2016, above-average rains have caused flooding and landslides in 24 of the 25 regions of Peru. Over 99,000 people have suffered losses and over 600,000 people have been affected. 12 regions have declared a state of emergency. Piura and Lambayeque in the northwest, and Ica and Arequipa in the southwest are most affected. Piura, Lambayeque, Lima, Ica and Arequipa are particularly affected by infrastructure damage such as road and bridge collapse, damage to sewage and drainage systems, and health concerns. 

Madagascar: Tropical Cyclone Enawo
Created: 13/03/2017 +

Overview

Tropical Cyclone Enawo, equivalent to a Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale, made landfall over Antalaha district, in the northeastern coast of Madagascar, on 7 March at around 10:30am local time. Wind speeds of 220–230 km/h were recorded, along with heavy rains. The storm traversed nearly the length of the island over two days, affecting communities from north to south across Madagascar’s eastern and central regions. On 7 and 8 March, approximately 131mm of rain was recorded in Antananarivo (OCHA 09/03/2017). On 8 March, the cyclone weakened to a ‘moderate’ tropical storm, with an average speed of 80km/h, and the storm exited the country on 10 March.  

As of 13 March, at least 100,000 people have been directly affected by the cyclone, approximately half of whom are in Antalaha district. At least 50 people have been killed, and 183 wounded, mainly in Analanjirofo and Sava regions. Over 110,000 people have been displaced by flooding and storm waters, particularly in Antalaha and Maroantsetra districts.  
 

Afghanistan: Floods
Created: 03/03/2017 +

Overview

Continuous heavy rainfall since February has caused severe flooding in Khashrod and Chakhansur districts in Nimroz province. As of 23 February several homes had been destroyed or swept away by flood waters, and over 20,000 hectares of arable land had been submerged in flood water. An estimated 3,000 people have been affected and displaced by flooding in both Chakhansur and Khashrod districts. Affected populations are in dire need of humanitarian assistance. Some of the affected were already vulnerable prior to the flooding. Many were either internally displaced or returnees from Iran. 
 

Somalia: Food Security and Nutrition Crisis
Created: 24/02/2017 +

Overview

Severe drought conditions are rapidly deteriorating food security, nutrition, and health levels across Somalia. A pre-famine warning was declared in January, and there is currently a larger population at risk than in the 2011 famine. Below average gu (April-June) rainfall is predicted in most of the country, with famine conditions likely in localised areas if humanitarian assistance cannot reach all populations in need. Due to continued insecurity, this scenario is a distinct possibility. 

Mongolia: Dzud
Created: 16/02/2017 +

Overview

Seventeen out of 21 aimags (provinces) across Mongolia have been affected by a dzud, a phenomenon characterised by harsh winter conditions that result in extremely high numbers of livestock deaths. Around 157,000 herders are at risk of losing livestock and livelihoods, with the lean season expected to last until May. A previously rare phenomenon occurring once a decade, this is the second consecutive year with dzud conditions in Mongolia, limiting herders’ abilities to cope. Bulgan, Khuvsgul, and Zavkhan are among the aimags affected by the dzud. Seven out of 36 priority soums (districts) in Mongolia identified on 22 December 2016 were in Khuvsgul, with another priority soum in Bulgan. The situation across Mongolia is expected to worsen, as the heaviest snowfalls are expected to coincide with the beginning of the spring birthing season. 

Mozambique Flooding
Created: 08/02/2017 +

Overview

Since the beginning of January 2017, heavy seasonal rains have been affecting central and southern provinces in Mozambique. 44 people have died and 79,000 have been affected. The Mozambican authorities issued an orange alert for the provinces of Maputo, Gaza, Inhambane and Nampula, yet areas of Tete and Sofala provinces have also been affected. The orange alert means that government institutions are planning for an impending disaster. Continued rainfall has been forecasted for the first quarter of 2017. [This report has been republished after a correction] 

DRC: Displacement in Kasai and Kasai Central
Created: 02/02/2017 +

Overview

Since August 2016, armed clashes between militia loyal to tribal leader Kamuina Nsapu and Armed Forces of DRC (FARDC) have taken place in Kasai and Kasai-Central. Fighting intensified in mid-December. As of mid-January, over 600 deaths have been reported. 216,000 people – 36,000 households – have been displaced by fighting in the region since August 2016. The majority of these people have reportedly fled to villages in Kasai Oriental and nearby forests. Their needs include food, shelter and NFIs, and protection. So far, the exact number of returnees, and their needs, have not been reported. 
 
 

Somalia: Drought
Created: 31/01/2017 +

Overview

Somalia is currently experiencing a drought that started in 2015. The whole country is affected, with northeastern areas of Puntland and Somaliland the worst affected. Humanitarian conditions in the southcentral areas of Bay, Bakool, and Gedo have deteriorated rapidly since November, with poor rainfall affecting crops and livestock. Poor and rural households are atypically market dependent heading into the Jilaal lean season and many require humanitarian assistance to meet basic needs.

Borno: Humanitarian situation in newly accessible areas
Created: 27/01/2017 +

Overview

The Nigerian government has recently engaged in military operations in areas previously held by Boko Haram (BH). As a result, some parts within ten Local Government Areas (LGAs), namely Bama, Damboa, Dikwa, Gwoza, Konduga, Kukawa,  Magumeri, Monguno, Ngala and Shani, have become more accessible as of mid-December 2016.

At least 279,758 IDPs out of the 579,000 present in these areas are now reachable. This newly gained accessibility is revealing the dire needs of people who had been cut off from all essential services for almost two years. High malnutrition rates and suspicion of famine levels are among the main humanitarian issues. Poor health and wash conditions exacerbate the needs of the affected population. Protection issues are also widely reported among IDPs.

However, even if access has recently improved, in most cases it is limited to the LGA headquarters. At least six LGAs remain completely inaccessible in northern and central Borno, leaving between 400,000-800,000 people cut off from humanitarian aid.  

The Gambia: Displacement
Created: 26/01/2017 +

Overview

Political uncertainty in the Gambia, due to former President Yahya Jammeh’s refusal to accept the results of the 1 December  presidential election, drove thousands of Gambians to flee the country into Senegal and Guinea-Bissau. As of 22 January, over 76,000 people have reportedly sought shelter in Senegal since early January. An estimated 3,500 Gambians have sought safety in Guinea-Bissau since mid-January. Although some people have already begun to return, an estimated 50,000 Gambians remained in Senegal and Guinea-Bissau as of 24 January. Additionally, an estimated 150,000 people are internally displaced.

Bangladesh: Refugee Influx
Created: 18/01/2017 +

Overview

Three border posts along the Myanmar–Bangladesh border were attacked on 9 October by Harakah al-Yaqin, a resurgent group in Rakhine state which has supposed links to the Rohingya. In response, the Myanmar Army has deployed more troops into the northern Rakhine area, mainly in Maungdaw, and has conducted a security operation. At least 130 people have since been killed in raids and skirmishes. A state of emergency has been declared.

Philippines: Typhoon Nock Ten, Bicol Region
Created: 03/01/2017 +

Overview

Typhoon Nock-Ten (locally known as Nina) made eight landfalls on the Philippines between 25 and 26 December, with winds of up to 235 km/h and gusts of up to 285 km/h. Nearly 2 million people have been affected in Bicol region (Region V), Mimaropa, Calabarzon and Eastern Visayas (Region VIII). At least three people were killed.

1.4 million of the affected are in Cantanduanes, Albay, and Camerines Sur, in Bicol region. More than 70% of the 250,000 damaged homes are in Bicol. As of 2 January, nearly 60% (153,861 people) of Cantanduanes’s population was affected and more than 20,000 people were still in evacuation centres. Albay and Camarines Sur provinces, in the same region, are also severely affected.

Mixed migration: Horn of Africa to Europe
Created: 12/12/2016 +

Overview

More than 173,500 refugees and migrants have reached Italy so far in 2016, around 29,000 more than in the same period last year. While the vast majority still use Libya as the departure point to Europe, more are using Egypt and Algeria. The nationality of arrivals is evolving, with fewer Eritreans and more Egyptians.

Protection is a primary concern. The estimated number of deaths on the Central Mediterranean route has grown to over 4,200 people this year, compared to less than 2,900 at the same point in 2015. Many people die on the journey over land to north Africa, but this number is not known. Migrants and refugees also face detention, sexual exploitation, and forced labour. The number of unaccompanied minors arriving in Italy is growing.

Somalia, Displacement in Gaalkacyo
Created: 20/10/2016 +

Overview

On 7 October, armed violence broke out between forces from Galmudug and Puntland, in Gaalkacyo, the capital of the north-central Mudug region, leaving 11 people killed and dozens injured. As of 13 October, an estimated 50,000 – 70,000 people have been displaced, at least 60% of whom are IDPs facing secondary displacement. The violence erupted in the outskirts of Gaalkacyo at a site where the Puntland government is building a livestock market. A ceasefire was initially agreed on 9 October, but failed to hold. A new ceasefire was agreed on 19 October.

Philippines: Typhoon Lawin, Northern Luzon
Created: 19/10/2016 +

Overview

Early on 20 October 2016, typhoon Haima/Lawin is due to hit the Philippines. Winds up to 185 km/h are expected, and rainfall of 100-200 mm throughout the next two days with local amounts over 300 mm, thus exacerbating the risk of mudslides, especially in higher elevations.

11.6 million people could be affected, mostly in northern Luzon – including 2.8 million in the Cagayun and Isabela provinces, where it will hit the hardest.

Haiti: Hurricane Matthew, Update 4
Created: 14/10/2016 +

Overview

Key updates since 12 October:

  • Trust between people in need and aid workers has been hampered by several security incidents. Blockades and attacks on aid workers are reported in Jérémie, Les Cayes, Carrefour Charles, Chambellon, and Torbeck as people try to access aid. Road access has improved throughout Grand’Anse and Sud.
  • 510 cases of cholera now reported throughout Haiti; 60,000 are in need of emergency health services.
  • The damage to schools and numbers of affected children reported so far refer only to public schools, which comprise only 20% of schools in Haiti, meaning figures are likely much higher.

Niger, Rift Valley Fever
Created: 12/10/2016 +

Overview

•    A Rift Valley Fever (RVF) outbreak was declared on 20 September in the districts of Tchintabaraden, Tassara, and Abalak in the Tahoua region of Niger.
•    As of 10 October, 90 cases have been reported among humans, including 28 deaths, with a case fatality rate (CFR) of 31.1%.
•    Movement of the animal and human population is likely to further increase the risk of the outbreak spreading. The population at risk is estimated at 125,000.

Haiti: Hurricane Matthew Update 3
Created: 12/10/2016 +

Overview
  • According to the latest government figures, 1,410,900 people, including 592,600 children, are in need of humanitarian aid, of which 750,000, including 315,000, are severely in need. So far, at least 1,000 people have been reported dead. More than 200,000 houses have been severely damaged or destroyed.
  • At least 175,500 have been evacuated or displaced and housed in 224 temporary shelters. However, this figure does not include displaced people living in host families or informal settlements. The overall scale of displacement is therefore underestimated.
  • At least 356 new cholera cases have already been reported. There is a very high risk of a significant increase in cholera as a result of damage to weak WASH infrastructure. High food shortages and extensive damages to plantations have been reported across the affected areas.
  • Road access is improving in coastal areas but interior mountainous areas have still not be reached. Growing insecurity are of concern and likely to impact response.

Haiti: Ouragan Matthew
Created: 12/10/2016 +

Overview

Au moins 20% du territoire d’Haïti a été touché par l’ouragan Matthew. Un grand nombre de glissements de terrain et d’inondations ont été rapportés dans toutes les régions côtières, de même qu’à l’intérieur des départements touchés. Les départements les plus touchés sont: Sud, Grand’Anse et Nippes. Au total, 2 128 700 personnes, soit 12 % de la population d’Haïti, ont été touchées, dont 894 100 enfants.

Afghanistan: Conflict in Kunduz
Created: 11/10/2016 +

Overview

Fighting has been ongoing in Kunduz city since 3 October, when the Taliban attacked. Government troops backed by Afghan special forces and US airstrikes are still conducting ‘clearing operations’ and have yet to recapture the city. At least three civilians had been killed and more than 290 wounded by 6 October. As of 10 October, approximately 33,000 people have reportedly fled Kunduz to neighbouring provinces. On 6 October, 10,000 IDPs have reportedly arrived in Kabul, Mazar-i-Sharif (Balkh province), Taloqan (Takhar province), and in Baghlan province. Protection, health and food needs are priorities.

Haiti: Hurricane Matthew, Update 2
Created: 10/10/2016 +

Overview
  • According to the latest government figures, 1.4 million people are in need of humanitarian aid, including 750,000 targeted to address serious needs.
  • At least 61,537 have been evacuated or displaced and are housed in 192 temporary shelters.
  • So far, at least 1,000 people have been reported dead but the death toll is still expected to rise as the worst-affected areas are accessed.
  • New cholera cases have already been reported, and enormous water infrastructure damage. Preliminary assessment indicates food shortages in worst-affected areas of Sud and Grand'Anse departments.
  • Flooding, landslides, and debris have cut road access throughout affected areas, although a temporary bridge has replaced the collapsed La Digue bridge, enabling vehicle access to southern departments.

Mali: Anticipatory Briefing Note Flooding
Created: 10/10/2016 +

Overview
  • The floods that began on 11 July brought heavy and above average rain and have so far affected some 9,500–15,000 people across Mali, including the regions of Sikasso, Koulikoro, Segou, Mopti, Timbuktu, Gao, and Kidal.
  • 13 people have died. The total population of these areas is roughly 10,000,000
  • Based on experiences from floods in 2012 and 2013 that were less serious than this year’s predictions, up to 30,000 people are likely to be affected, though a precise prediction is impossible to make at this point. The capital, Bamako, is at risk of flooding.

Haiti: Hurricane Matthew - Update
Created: 07/10/2016 +

Overview
  • At least 25% of Haiti’s territory has been impacted by Hurricane Matthew: Sud, Sud-Est, Grande'Anse, Nippes, Nord-Ouest, and Ouest departments are the most affected.
  • So far, 300 people have been reported dead, and 350,000 people are estimated to be in need of assistance. At least 15,623 people have been displaced and over 21,000 have been evacuated. 
  • Some populations in the south are still inaccessible; a greater humanitarian response will likely be necessary to prevent dire long-term consequences, especially given the ongoing cholera epidemic.

Haiti: Hurricane Matthew
Created: 05/10/2016 +

Overview

Category 4 Hurricane Matthew struck the southwest coast of Haiti at 0700 local time (1200 GMT) on 4 October. Wind speeds of 230km/h were recorded, and caused widespread damage, flooding, and displacement. It continued across the northwest of the country. 

350,000 people require humanitarian assistance, and 14,530 have been displaced. Reported death toll is currently six.

Sud, Sud-Est, Grande'Anse, Nippes, Nord-Ouest, and Ouest departments are the most affected.

It is expected that flooding will exacerbate pre-existing epidemics such as cholera, dengue fever, and Zika.

DRC: Displacement from South Sudan
Created: 28/09/2016 +

Overview

Since mid-July over 15,000 South Sudanese refugees have arrived in the territories of Faradge and Aru in Haut-Uele and Ituri provinces following a resurgence of violence in South Sudan. DRC has been experiencing an influx of refugees into Aru territory in Ituri, close to the border with South Sudan, since October 2015. There is now a total of 27,250 registered South Sudanese refugees in the territories of Faradge and Aru in Haut-Uele and Ituri provinces. The new arrivals have received little humanitarian assistance. Lack of food, shelter, and medicine has been reported in Ituri.

Nigeria: Humanitarian Situation in the Northeast
Created: 27/09/2016 +

Overview

Critical levels of malnutrition and food insecurity persist in Nigeria’s Borno, Yobe, and Adamawa states. 4.5 million people are severely food insecure, and at least 65,000 people are experiencing Famine (IPC Phase 5). Health is emerging as a major need, as most health centres across Borno are either only partially functional or not functional at all and cases of communicable diseases are being reported, including polio, measles, and acute watery diarrhoea (AWD). The humanitarian situation is thought to be worse in northern Borno, which is still inaccessible.

DPRK: Floods
Created: 13/09/2016 +

Overview

Major flooding in northeastern DPRK, primarily in North Hamgyong province, has affected 600,000 people, left 140,000 in urgent need of assistance, and displaced 107,000. 395 people are missing, and 133 have died. Considerable damage to vital health, water, and transport infrastructure leaves much of the affected population without shelter and vulnerable to waterborne diseases and food insecurity.

Kenya Drought
Created: 07/09/2016 +

Overview

As of July, 1.2 million people in Kenya acutely need food assistance, an increase of 500,000 from February. Most food insecure people are in Garissa, Tana River, and Isiolo counties, in the centre-east. Such levels of food insecurity are typical for Kenya and do not represent any major deterioration.

This briefing note focuses on four counties in the pastoral northwest and northeast (Mandera, Marsabit, Turkana, West Pokot), and on two counties in southeast and coastal areas (Kilifi, Tana River). Tana River, Marsabit. and Kilifi are worst affected. Global acute malnutrition (GAM) and severe acute malnutrition (SAM) rates are reported to be above the emergency threshold in West Pokot and Turkana, where malnutrition rates are often very high.

Afghanistan: Undocumented refugee returnees
Created: 27/08/2016 +

Overview

Over 101,000 undocumented refugees are estimated to have returned from Pakistan in 2016, and the rate of returns increased significantly in July and the first two weeks of August. Most are returning to Nangarhar, where conflict is ongoing. The undocumented returnees' needs are considered to be high as their status means they are not eligible for assistance, and insecurity hampers access.

CAR: Cholera Epidemic
Created: 25/08/2016 +

Overview

166 cholera cases and 19 deaths have been recorded in CAR as of 21 August. The government declared an outbreak on 10 August, although cholera was first detected on 27 July in Mourou-Fleuve village, Ndjoukou subprefecture of Kemo, located along the Oubangui River, 100km from the capital Bangui. The outbreak has since spread to Damara subprefecture (Ombella Mpoko) and to at least four arrondissements in Bangui. 

Most of the affected are located along the Oubangui River, which serves as the borer with DRC. Road access to these communities is very limited due to the rainy season. 

Senegal: Floods
Created: 18/08/2016 +

Overview

On 24 July, high amounts of rainfall (between 100-200mm at various locations) caused heavy flooding in some parts of Senegal. The districts Kaffrine and Kolda (central and south Senegal) have reportedly been the heaviest affected, with Kaolack and Matam also receiving above average rainfall. Throughout Kaffrine district some 1,500 houses have been destroyed and 7,500 people affected. Because no independent assessment has been carried out yet the actual amount of damage and sectoral needs are not yet known.
The number of people potentially at risk throughout the 2016 flood season is estimated at 210,000.

Nigeria: Food Security
Created: 18/08/2016 +

Overview

Newly accessible areas of Borno and Yobe states and areas with active military operations face severely limited access to food. Levels of malnutrition are critical and populations face a substantially increased risk of mortality. The crude mortality rate (CMR) has surpassed the threshold of 2/10,000/day – used when classifying Famine (IPC Phase 5) – in several areas since June 2016.

Bolivia: Drought
Created: 11/08/2016 +

Overview

Drought has been ongoing since October 2015, but has recently deteriorated dramatically. The drought has now impacted seven departments and 106 municipalities. Over 160,000 people as well as 90,000 hectares of agriculture and over 121,000 cattle have been affected. 104 municipalities have declared a state of emergency, with losses in agricultural production reported at USD 35 million among small farmers of the Pailon municipality alone.

India: Floods in Assam
Created: 03/08/2016 +

Overview

The northeastern state of Assam has been particularly hard-hit by monsoon rains and flooding this season. Rainfall this year has been 20% above average in some areas of India, including in Assam.

Flooding worsened in Assam on 22 July, when new areas were submerged by the rising waters of the Brahmaputra River and its tributaries. As of 1 August, official figures show over 1.1 million people and over 3,300 villages across 21 out of 32 districts are affected. At least 32 people have died, most since 22 July.

Bangladesh Floods
Created: 03/08/2016 +

Overview

Heavier than usual monsoon rains have caused floods in Bangladesh since 20 July. Some 3,200,000 people have been affected and up to 42 have died as of 3 August. Up to 300,000 people have been displaced in 16 different districts, mostly in the Northern and Central provinces (including Bogra, Faridpur, Gaibandha, Jamalpur, Kurigram, Kustia, Lalmonirhat, Madaripur, Manikganj, Nilphamary, Rajbari, Rangpur, Sariatpur, Sirajgonj, Sunamgonj, and Tangail). Most urgent needs are food provisions, WASH, and Emergency Shelter.

South Sudan: Insecurity in Eastern Equatoria
Created: 28/07/2016 +

Overview

Following the escalation of conflict in Juba on 7-11 July the situation across South Sudan has remained tense and clashes have been reported across the country. Immediately after the events in Juba a notable increase in violence was reported in Magwi and Torit counties in Eastern Equatoria. Clashes are likely ongoing. People are fleeing the area in anticipation of more heavy fighting. It is expected that the ceasefire in place since 11 July will not hold and violence will continue to spread. Between 7-27 July more than 37,500 people  fled to Uganda, at a rate of 2,000 – 4,000 people per day. If clashes are ongoing  it is also likely that thousands of people are currently internally displaced in Eastern Equatoria. 

South Sudan: Displacement in Juba
Created: 18/07/2016 +

Overview

As of 16 July, an estimated 12,800 people remain displaced after fighting erupted in Juba over 7–11 July. They are at UN House (6,838), UNMISS Tongping (3,300), Don Bosco Gumbo (1,800), Rajaf village (500), St Joseph Parish Church (100), SSRC Compound (109), and San Francis Pitia school (150): see map page 6 (CCCM 16/07/2016).. Humanitarian agencies currently have access, but this is not stable as the ceasefire is fragile and the situation remains tense. Main needs include water, food, health, and protection.

A disagreement at a checkpoint between soldiers of the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) and Sudan People’s Liberation Army in Opposition (SPLA-IO) prompted the fighting across Juba. An estimated 36,000–42,000 people were initially displaced.

Malnutrition and Food Insecurity in Borno and Yobe States
Created: 12/07/2016 +

Overview

Newly accessible areas of Borno and Yobe states are revealing extremely high rates of severe acute malnutrition, especially among 275,000 IDPs reported to live in 15 camps in Borno state. Information from recent rapid assessments, although limited, raises the possibility of Famine (IPC Phase 5) in the worst affected and least accessible areas of Borno. The Minister of Health has declared a nutrition emergency in Borno state. 613,000 children have been reported with SAM.
Poor quality and lack of food, inadequate WASH, as well as the insurgency, are among the main causes. Most affected areas are those adjacent to Sambisa Forest and those in northern Borno. Although only limited information is available, there are concerns that conditions among other IDP populations in the area could be similarly dire. The crude mortality rate (CMR) may have surpassed 2/10,000/day in June.

Yellow fever in DRC
Created: 24/06/2016 +

Overview
  • As of 19 June, 1,106 suspected and 68 confirmed cases of yellow fever have been reported in DRC and 75 people have died. Cases have been reported in Kinshasa, Kongo-Central, and Kwango.
  • There is a high risk that the outbreak will spread into other provinces that share the border with Angola: Kasai, Kasai-Central, and Lualaba.
  • The porous border between Angola and DRC and uncontrollable movement of people and mosquitoes across the border hamper the response.

Niger, Diffa Displacement
Created: 09/06/2016 +

Overview

Boko Haram attacks in Yebi and Bosso, two towns in the east of Niger’s Diffa region, have displaced an estimated 50,000–75,000 people since 19 May. Most of the displaced population first sought safety in the town of Toumour, 25–30km west of Bosso town, but have since moved westwards and northwards, fearing further BH attacks.
Newly displaced populations are being reported among host communities and in spontaneous sites along the national highway that connects Diffa and N’guigmi departments. Others are heading to Kablewa, an official camp that is already nearing capacity. The new arrivals will have severe humanitarian needs after travelling up to 100km to reach safety, with little food, water or shelter. The capacity of host communities to cope with the newly displaced is low, and humanitarian agencies, while present, are already stretched to meet the needs of the 241,000 existing displaced.
Access in Bosso town is limited. Reports suggest most civilians have left, but this is yet to be confirmed and those who remain likely face high protection and humanitarian needs.

Syria, Displacement at Turkey-Syria border
Created: 01/06/2016 +

Overview

Over 45,000 people have been displaced since 27 May in the opposition-controlled area between the Bab Al Salam crossing on the Turkey–Syria border and the town of Azaz in Aleppo governorate, due to an ongoing IS offensive. Another 8,000 IDPs, fleeing an offensive on Ar Raqqa in the past week, have also arrived in the area.

Over 100,000 displaced had already fled to this zone since February, and the humanitarian situation is now critical: over 165,000 people trapped in the border strip face difficulties accessing medical care, food, water, and safety.

Bangladesh, Tropical Cyclone Roanu
Created: 23/05/2016 +

Overview

On 21 May, around midday local time (0600 GMT), Tropical Cyclone Roanu made landfall along the southern coastal districts of Bangladesh, bringing heavy rain, winds of up to 88km/h, and storm surges of up to 2m (AFP 21/05/2016).

At least 24 people have been killed (BDNews24 22/05/2016). Some 85,000 structures, including homes and shops, have been destroyed or damaged (NDTV 23/05/2016; (AFP 22/05/2016). At least 15 districts are affected, with Chittagong, Cox’s Bazar, Noakhali, Lakshimpur, Bhola, Barguna and Patuakhali among the worst affected (Newsnext 22/05/2016). 500,000 people were evacuated ahead of the cyclone (AFP 21/05/2016).  Returns had already reportedly begun on 21 May (AFP 21/05/2016; 22/05/2016). As of the evening of 22 May, some media reports cited disaster management officials as saying that 150,000 people were in evacuation shelters or open areas. (Newsnext 22/05/2016). The current number of evacuees is not clear, nor is the number of people in need of aid.

Sri Lanka, Floods
Created: 19/05/2016 +

Overview

Since 14 May, heavy rain has been affecting almost all provinces, causing severe floods and landslides. 19 out of 25 districts have been affected, and over 350,000 people according to official figures, including 200,000 people who have been evacuated to temporary shelters. Over 2,400 homes have been damaged or destroyed. Almost 40 people have been killed, including 35 people killed by a landslide in Kegalle, close to Colombo, on 18 May. As relief operations continue the death toll is expected to rise (Government 18/05/2016; ECHO 17/05/2016; Sri Lanka Red Cross 17/05/2016; Washington Post 18/05/2016).

Somalia, Cholera Epidemic
Created: 13/05/2016 +

Overview

The number of acute watery diarrhoea cases continues to rise in south-central Somalia, as the increasing scarcity of water in the central regions combined with flooding in the south leads to use of contaminated water sources (UNICEF 29/02/2016). As of 23 April, at least 12 people have died of cholera, and over 60 others are suffering from diarrhoea in towns of Middle Juba in southern Somalia. 11 people have died in Sakow, and one in Bu'ale in Middle Juba (Xinhuanet 23/04/2016; allAfrica 24/04/2016). 

Ethiopia Floods
Created: 13/05/2016 +

Overview

Since April 2016, heavy spring/belg rains have caused floods and landslides, resulting in 100 deaths as of 12 May. Up to 120,000 people have been displaced in six regions. The most affected regions are Somali, Oromia, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples (SNNP), Afar, Amhara, and Harari – already severely affected by the El Niño drought.  

Pakistan, Heatwave
Created: 03/05/2016 +

Overview

A severe heatwave is expected to strike Pakistan, in particular the southern province of Sindh and its capital Karachi, from the beginning of May up to the first week of June, coinciding with the first week of Ramadan. Karachi has already been affected by a moderate heatwave during the last 10 days of April, which caused two deaths. 

Last year, a heatwave affected Sindh throughout June and during Ramadan, the month during which practising Muslims do not drink or eat between sunrise and sunset. Between 1,300 and 2,000 people died in Karachi, with the impact of the heatwave exacerbated by fasting, despite calls of local clerics to suspend fasting if necessary. Additional factors explaining the severity of last year’s heatwave included a delay in emergency warning, widespread power cuts, and a general lack of preparedness by the authorities and other responding agencies.   

India, Drought
Created: 27/04/2016 +

Overview

Following two consecutive below-average monsoon seasons, 330 million people are affected by drought across 10 of India’s 29 states, according to the government. Water shortages are severe. People are facing food shortages and livelihoods have been severely damaged.

The focus of this report will be Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, particularly the Bundelkhand region that covers 13 districts across the two states, as well as Maharashtra state. These areas are particularly affected after suffering from three consecutive years of drought and successive crop failures. Over the past year these regions have received less than 50% of what is considered the normal amount of rainfall.  Over 150 million people are estimated to be affected in these three states.

Elsewhere, 17 million people are affected in Telangana state. A further 30 million people are affected in Karnataka, where up to 40,000 people are reported to have migrated in recent months (Business insider 25/03/2016). To the east, 16 million people are affected in Orissa and 23 million people are affected in Andhra Pradesh. Over the past month, the situation has also started to significantly worsen in Gujarat and Haryana to the northwest (New India Express 25/04/2016).

The situation has intensified as parts of the country have also been severely affected by a heatwave since the end of March. Temperatures reached unusual highs of above 45ºC in the first week of April. 

Vanuatu: Tropical cyclone
Created: 22/04/2016 +

Overview

Category five Tropical Cyclone Pam hit Vanuatu in the evening of 13 March 2015, with winds of more than 250km/hr and has affected the entire country, but particularly in the central and southern provinces. On 13 March, the Government issued a ‘red alert’ to all six provinces, advising people to seek shelter immediately.

According to GDACS, more than 48,000 people out of the total 245,000 people are affected and humanitarian needs are high. More than 10,000 are reportedly homeless in the capital and largest city Port Vila; more than 33,000 people are affected in the outlying southernmost islands. This number is in fact likely to be much higher, as more information becomes available.  

Unconfirmed reports said that 44 people had died in the northeastern province of Penama, according to OCHA. Only six are confirmed dead. 

 

 

Ecuador, Earthquake
Created: 21/04/2016 +

Overview

A 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Ecuador at 18:58 local time on 16 April (GMT 00:58 on 17 April). The death toll stands at 272 and is expected to rise as search efforts continue (Reuters 18/04/2016). No definite figures are available on the number of people affected, but tens of thousands of people have been affected. 

Iraq: Besieged Populations in Fallujah
Created: 21/04/2016 +

Overview

Fallujah, located 50km west of Baghdad in Anbar governorate, has been under Islamic State (IS) control for more than two years. Since January 2016, the Iraqi Security Forces (ISF) have surrounded the city. The military siege, which has tightened in the past three months, is preventing any food and medical supplies from reaching between 30,000 and 60,000 Iraqi civilians trapped in Fallujah. Military operations are ongoing in surrounding areas, but it is unconfirmed whether an attack on the city itself is imminent. 

Kathmandu/Nepal Earthquake: Update 2
Created: 20/04/2016 +

Overview

As of 27 April, 21:30 local time, at least 3,904 people have died and more than 7,180 have been injured. The situation is still unclear in remote areas, which remain cut off or hard to access. 

As of 27 April, aftershocks are still being felt. At least 44 aftershocks have occurred since 25 April. Magnitudes aftershocks have ranged from 4.1–6.7. 

On 25 April, 11:41 local time, an earthquake with of 7.8 magnitude and a depth of 2 km, hit Nepal near the capital city of Kathmandu. The epicentre is located 77km northwest of Kathmandu, and 68km east from Pokhara. Tremors have also caused damage outside Nepal. 

The government has reported that a total of 30 districts have been affected in the Western and Central Regions, including Kathmandu Valley districts. There is no total figure of affected population yet WHO has estimated that over 5 million people are affected. 

 

Kathmadu/Nepal Earthquake: Update 1
Created: 20/04/2016 +

Overview

On 25 April, 11:41 local time, an earthquake with of 7.8 magnitude and a depth of 2 km, hit Nepal near the capital city of Kathmandu. The epicentre is located 77km northwest of Kathmandu, and 68km east from Pokhara. Tremors have also caused damage outside Nepal.  

As of 26 April, 15:30 local time, at least 2,200 people have died and around 4,600 more have been injured. The situation is still unclear in remote areas, which remain cut off or hard to access.

As of 26 April, aftershocks are still being felt. At least 18 aftershocks occurred on 25 April. Magnitudes aftershocks have ranged from 5–6.7. 

Kathmadu/Nepal Earthquake
Created: 20/04/2016 +

Overview

On 25 April, 11:41 local time, an earthquake with of 7.8 magnitude and a depth of 2 km, hit Nepal near the capital city of Kathmandu. The epicentre is located 81km northwest of Kathmandu, and 68km east from Pokhara. Quake tremors were felt from between 30 seconds and two minutes. 

As of 20:20 local time, 25 April, at least 876 people have died, 242 of them in Kathmandu. At least 2,000 people have been injured. The number of casualties is expected to increase dramatically as information is collected. 

As of 17:55 local time, 25 April, at least 18 aftershocks have been felt. Magnitudes of some aftershocks have ranged from 5–6.6. 

Hospitals are overwhelmed, and as aftershocks continue, victims are being treated in the streets. Reports suggest people are still trapped under the rubble, and some affected areas have still to be reached. 

 

 

Liberia: Re-emergence of Ebola
Created: 14/04/2016 +

Overview

On 20 November, a new Ebola virus disease case was confirmed in Monrovia, capital of Liberia. The latest case, depending on sources either a 10-year or 15-year-old boy, who lives in the eastern Paynesville district of the city, was admitted to a treatment centre in the outskirts of Monrovia on 19 November. Two direct family members tested positive as well on 20 November. As of 20 November, at least four other people, of whom two relatives, had been admitted to the Ebola treatment centre (ETC). At least 153 contacts have been identified and are being monitored. Food and water were delivered on 21 November to high risk contacts. 

The boy was at school, the Living in Christ International Ministry School, and appears to have shown symptoms before being admitted to hospital, according to health officials. At least seven healthcare workers may have treated him without the protective equipment essential for Ebola cases (New York Times, 21/11/2015). According to media sources, the child’s family and school will be put into quarantine.

These are the first new Ebola cases in Liberia, since the country was declared free from the disease a second time on 3 September 2015. 

Ebola en Afrique de l'Ouest: Impact sur les systèmes de santé
Created: 14/04/2016 +

Overview

Le nombre cumulé de cas d'Ebola signalés en Guinée, au Libéria et en Sierra Leone est de 23 694. Au 22 février, 9 589 personnes avaient succombé à la maladie. Il s'agit donc de la plus grande flambée d'Ebola de l'histoire. Depuis janvier 2015, le taux d'incidence de la maladie s'est stabilisé dans les trois pays et les opérations devraient progressivement céder la place aux activités de relèvement.

Le grand nombre de cas d’Ebola a ébranlé les systèmes de santé fragilisés et défaillants des trois pays les plus touchés. Les ressources (humaines et financières) limitées ont été redirigées vers les programmes de lutte contre Ebola et les établissements de santé ont soit fermé leurs portes pour une durée indéterminée, soit réduit leurs activités.

 La défaillance des systèmes de suivi et de surveillance des maladies autres qu'Ebola ont entraîné d'importantes lacunes en matière d'information. Peu de données sont disponibles en ce qui concerne les autres problèmes de santé, y compris les flambées potentielles de maladies, l'accès au traitement contre le VIH/sida ou la tuberculose, l'incidence du paludisme et l'accès aux services de santé maternelle, aux campagnes d'immunisation et aux médicaments.

 
De nombreuses personnes hésitent à se faire soigner dans les établissements de santé de peur d'être contaminées et en raison d'une certaine méfiance à l'égard du système de santé, ce qui entraîne d'autres répercussions sur le secteur de la santé et risque d'augmenter les taux de mortalité et de morbidité liées à des maladies pourtant guérissables. 

Ebola in West Africa: Impact on Health Systems
Created: 14/04/2016 +

Overview

The reported cumulative number of Ebola cases across Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone is 23,694, including 9,589 deaths as of 22 February, making it the largest EVD outbreak ever recorded. Incidence has been stabilising in all three countries since January 2015, and the response is moving towards early recovery.

The large number of Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases has overwhelmed the weak and under-resourced health systems in the three most affected countries. Scarce resources have been diverted to the Ebola response, and health facilities have been temporarily closed or reduced operations.

The lack of monitoring and surveillance for diseases other than Ebola has led to big gaps in information. Little information is available on other health problems, including potential disease outbreaks, access to treatment for HIV/AIDS or tuberculosis, the burden of malaria, and access to maternal health services, immunisations and medication.

 Fear of contracting EVD and mistrust of the health system has made people reluctant to seek treatment from health facilities, further impacting the health sector and increasing the risk of mortality and morbidity from otherwise treatable diseases. 

Ebola in West Africa Potential Impact on Food Security
Created: 14/04/2016 +

Overview

Around 22 million people are estimated to live in the three countries most affected by the Ebola epidemic, Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. As of 3-4 November, the estimated cumulative number of confirmed Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases reported by WHO in the three most affected countries is 13,241 including 4,950 deaths. However, the numbers of registered cases and deaths seem to underestimate the real magnitude of the outbreak.

If not addressed in the coming weeks, the consequences of the outbreak will lead to long-lasting impacts on farmers' food livelihoods and household economies, resulting in a major food security crisis by March 2015. The most affected areas within each country are also the most agriculturally productive. Reduced food trade and rising prices, as well as expected reductions in domestic harvests, are all undermining a fragile food security situation.

Control measures implemented to contain the outbreak, such as border closures, quarantine, movement restrictions, curfews, have curtailed the movement and availability of food, goods, and services in the region, leading to panic buying, food shortages and increased basic food and commodity prices. Higher food prices and the loss of purchasing power mean an increasing number of vulnerable households are resorting to negative coping strategies in order to access food.

Food insecurity and lack of access to markets have been increasing community tensions. Lack of food in quarantined areas has led to violence.

A multidimensional and multi-sector approach is required to contain the outbreak and stabilise affected areas while safeguarding against a long-term food security crisis. 

 

 

Ebola in West Africa: Protection and Security
Created: 14/04/2016 +

Overview

UN and national officials are warning of the serious threat Ebola is posing to the safety of the countries. In a statement to the UN Security Council on 9 September, the Liberia’s Defence Minister warned its national existence was "seriously threatened" by the Ebola virus.  

The Governments’ poor management of the epidemic has generated deep frustration among the three countries’ societies, and the security situation, particularly in Liberia, is gradually deteriorating. The Ebola crisis has exposed citizens’ lack of trust in their governments and exacerbated social tensions, increasing the possibility of profound unrest in these fragile countries. The lack of a prompt, robust, and efficient response from the international community contributes to the mistrust.

Children and women have been deeply affected by the EVD outbreak. Children related to people with EVD have been abandoned. Children are extremely vulnerable and in critical situations in the three most-affected countries due to the loss of a parent.   

Ebola in West Africa: Impact on health
Created: 14/04/2016 +

Overview

As of 21 September, the estimated cumulative number of confirmed Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases reported by WHO in the three most affected countries (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) is 6,242, including 2,909 deaths. The ‘hidden caseload’, however, is unprecedentedly large, and these figures are believed to include only a fraction of all cases in this rapidly spreading epidemic. 

According to a WHO projection, the aggregate caseload of EVD could exceed 20,000 by early November. Other agencies project the possibility of more than ten times as many cases, use different assumptions such as transmission to other countries, and evolution of the virus towards easier transmission between people.

The humanitarian community is already overwhelmed with the management of the epidemic and is greatly challenged in facing all the implications of this unprecedented and complex regional crisis. The current outbreak in West Africa is by far the largest ever recorded, and already numbers more cases than all past Ebola epidemics combined. 26 million people are estimated to live in the three most-affected countries. The epidemic started in Guinea in December 2013 but was only identified in March, and spread to Liberia, Sierra Leone, Senegal and Nigeria.  

Bangladesh: Floods August 2014
Created: 13/04/2016 +

Overview

Since 13 August continuous rainfall in north and northeastern Bangladesh, together with the onrush of water from upstream, have caused flash floods in low-lying and densely populated areas. More than 800,000 people have been affected, including 500,000 displaced. As of 25 August, humanitarian actors on the ground report nine deaths. The most affected districts include Nilphamari, Lalmonirhat, Kurigram, Rangpur, Gaibandha, Jamalpur, Sirajganj, Sunamjong and Sylhet. 

Timor-Leste: Drought
Created: 13/04/2016 +

Overview

400,000 people – around one third of Timor-Leste’s population – are estimated to be severely affected by El Niño-induced drought. Over 100,000 people currently face Stressed (IPC Phase 2) food security outcomes, and are likely to move into Crisis levels of food insecurity as the impacts of a poor harvest accrue. Reports of failed staple crops, including maize and rice, due to delayed, erratic or insufficient rains are widespread. Livestock sickness and losses have been reported as water and food supplies run low. WASH conditions are worsening. Food and water shortages are hampering school feeding programmes and the incidence of diarrhoea is increasing.

While mountainous areas report better crop prospects after improved rainfall since January, southern, eastern and northern coastal areas, including in Lautem, Viqueque, Covalima and Oecusse, remain severely affected by drought. In these areas, the May dry season is expected to set in early, reducing the likelihood of late season improvements in crop growth and harvest yields. With 41% of Timor-Leste’s population below the poverty line and over 70% reliant on subsistence agriculture, high levels of vulnerability exacerbate the impact of the drought. Negative coping mechanisms, including eating less, changing to less safe water sources, and selling of assets are reported. 

Philippines: Drought
Created: 13/04/2016 +

Overview

The Philippines has been affected by a strong El Niño-related dry spell since December 2015, which has hit food production. El Niño peaked between December and February, and drought affected 40% of the country, and is expected to persist in 2016.

The most drought-affected area is the island of Mindanao in the south, which is the country's poorest area and where more than half of the population is reliant on agriculture. According to the Department of Social Welfare and Development, 676,465 people have been affected by drought in the following areas of Mindanao: Cotabato, South Cotabato, and Sultan Kudarat in Soccsksargenand Maguindanao in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM). The Zamboanga peninsula in Mindanao has been facing severe water shortages. 

Eastern Ukraine: Conflict
Created: 07/04/2016 +

Overview

A surge of violence since midJanuary, including battle for the city of Debaltseve in midFebruary, has caused a wave of new displacement into government-controlled areas.

Food security and protection continue to be major concerns for people in non-governmentcontrolled areas who are cut off from supplies, especially older people who did not register as IDPs before the 1 February deadline, and other vulnerable groups. Food security is further constrained by rising food prices.

The local currency (hryvnia) has been devalued by 50%, contributing to a reduction in households’ purchasing power.

In Luhansk region, the shortage of medicines and essential supplies, including food, is even more acute, and the humanitarian situation is particularly alarming. 

Sudan: Jebel Marra Displacement
Created: 07/04/2016 +

Overview

Violence between government forces and the Sudan Liberation Movement led by Abdel Wahid Al Nur (SLM-AW) has persisted in Darfur’s Jebel Marra region since 15 January 2016. At least 100,000 people have been displaced. Over 60,000 people have arrived at three locations in North Darfur including the UNAMID base in Sortoni, IDP sites in Tawila locality and Kebkabiya. An unknown number of people have been displaced to villages and towns in Central Darfur, where severe access restrictions have prevented verification. Displaced people are also hiding in the mountains and at risk of ongoing fighting. Women and children comprise 90% of the displaced. Civilians have been indiscriminately targeted. IDPs are in critical need of humanitarian assistance across all sectors. 

South Sudan: Severe Food Insecurity
Created: 07/04/2016 +

Overview

On 22 October, IPC released a report stating that 30,000 people are estimated to be experiencing Catastrophe (IPC Phase 5) food security outcomes in Unity state’s Leer, Guit, Koch and Mayendit counties. The people who fled to the bush during the intensification of violence between April–June are most affected. 3.9 million people are estimated to be experiencing Crisis (IPC Phase 3), Emergency (IPC Phase 4) and Catastrophe (IPC Phase 5) food security outcomes across South Sudan. Jonglei, Upper Nile, and Unity states are the most affected.

Rwanda: Refugee Influx from Burundi
Created: 07/04/2016 +

Overview

Civil unrest erupted in Burundi following the announcement on 26 April that Burundian President Nkurunziza, would be seeking a third term in power. Situation in Burundi is of concern

Refugees started arriving in Rwanda in mid-April 2015, at around 200–300 per day. After the announcement, the rate increased to 3,000 per day, with 20,400 refugees arrived in Rwanda as of 26 April. This can be considered as preventive measures taken by fleeing population.

Reception centres in Bugesera and Nyanza districts are overwhelmed. The Rwandan Government and UNHCR plans to relocate 16,000 refugees to Mahama refugee camp, Kirehe district, by 1 May. 

Pakistan: Earthquake
Created: 07/04/2016 +

Overview

On 26 October, at 9:09 UTC time, a 7.5 magnitude earthquake struck northeast Afghanistan, north Pakistan and some areas of Indian-controlled Kashmir. The earthquake occurred at a depth of 212.5km, with the epicentre near Jurm, in the Badakhshan province of Afghanistan. The affected areas of Pakistan, more densely populated than those of Afghanistan, registered major damage, and casualties. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, in northern Pakistan, was the most affected, with at least 221 dead, and 1,664 injured. The national toll is 268 dead, and 1,864 injured. Around 13,771 houses were damaged or destroyed.

Nigeria: Lassa Fever Outbreak
Created: 07/04/2016 +

Overview

A suspected outbreak of Lassa viral hemorrhagic fever was announced in Nigeria on 8 January. The Lassa virus is carried by the multimammate rat. It is transmitted to humans through physical contact with objects; eating contaminated food; or infected bodily fluid. On 14 January, official records states at least 140 suspected cases and 30 confirmed cases, including 53 deaths, in 14 states indicating a case fatality rate (CFR) of 37.9%. As of 20 January, local media has reported as many as 212 suspected cases and 63 deaths in 17 states.

Nigeria Returnees from Cameroon
Created: 07/04/2016 +

Overview

Over July, Cameroon has repatriated an estimated 3,500 undocumented Nigerian asylum seekers towards Adamawa state. Another 12,000 are stranded at the Nigeria/Cameroon border in Adamawa state. They can be expected to be repatriated throughout August and are in urgent need of further assistance. Cameroon’s decision follows a series of Boko Haram attacks in Cameroon; Cameroonian authorities claim the militants have entered the country disguised as refugees. Significant shelter and WASH needs have been reported for returnees in Adamawa and Borno states. The current level of response is reportedly not covering basic needs and should be scaled up ahead of the expected additional arrivals. 

Myanmar: Floods
Created: 07/04/2016 +

Overview

74 people have died, over 39,500 displaced households (197,500 individuals) and over 330,000 people have been affected in 12 out of Myanmar’s 14 states and regions after over a week of torrential rains which began 26 July, linked to Cyclone Komen. The numbers of dead and affected continue to rise.

On 31 July, Rakhine state, Chin state, Sagaing region and Magway region were declared natural disaster zones.

Access has been severely restricted as floods and landslides have destroyed or damaged vital infrastructure.

The needs of those affected is yet to be assessed. Myanmar’s large displaced population, particularly the 130,000–140,000 Rohingya are particularly vulnerable

Extreme Winter Conditions
Created: 05/04/2016 +

Overview

Sixteen of 21 provinces in Mongolia, mainly in the northeast, have been affected by a dzud, a phenomenon characterised by harsh winter conditions that result in extremely high numbers of livestock deaths. Around 400,000 people in the northern and western part of the country are at risk of losing livestock and livelihoods in the coming weeks. As of the beginning of March, over 200,000 livestock, out of an estimated 52 million, have died. The situation is expected to worsen, as the heaviest snowfalls are expected to coincide with the beginning of the spring birthing season. 

Read more

Malawi: Displacement from Mozambique
Created: 05/04/2016 +

Overview

Armed clashes between the Mozambican army and opposition party Renamo have prompted over 11,000 people to flee to Kapise, Mwanza district, Malawi, since midDecember. Conditions in the camp are harsh: it is overcrowded, there is very limited sanitation infrastructure, and no educational facilities. Major needs include access to water and sanitation, and shelter construction. The camp is located in a hard-to-reach area, and rains have severely damaged the only accessible road.  

Libya: Mediterranean Sea, Vulnerable Migrants
Created: 05/04/2016 +

Overview

Between 1 January and 20 April 2015, there were about 18 times as many refugee deaths in the Mediterranean Sea compared to the same period last year, according to initial estimates from the International Organization for Migration: 1,750 people died trying to reach Europe from North Africa and Turkey. In 2014, more than 3,400 people are thought to have died attempting the crossing. Over the past 18 months, Italian ships have rescued more than 200,000 people in the Mediterranean Sea. While there has been a significant number of departures from Tunisia, the scale of sea migration from Libya grew exponentially in the second half of 2014 and the trend continues into 2015. Since political instability in Libya escalated into outright conflict in 2014, there has been a massive increase in the number of people attempting to cross the Mediterranean to Europe. Numbers spiked in the first months of 2015. Contributing factors include increasing humanitarian needs in Libya, tighter border restrictions for third-country nationals trying to enter Libya’s neighbouring countries, and impunity for smugglers. 

Secondary Data Review: Libya, Humanitarian Impact of the Conflict
Created: 05/04/2016 +

Overview

It is estimated that two million people, almost one-third of the total population, may have been affected by the conflict in Libya, due to displacement, the disruption of food, fuel, water, and medical supplies, as well as electricity, gas, healthcare and public services. This report presents the available secondary data on the impact of the crisis. Current data is supplemented with information on the impact of the 2011 crisis and/or pre-crisis data wherever possible. 

Liberia: Re-Emergence of Ebola
Created: 05/04/2016 +

Overview

On 20 November, a new Ebola virus disease case was confirmed in Monrovia, capital of Liberia. The latest case, depending on sources either a 10-year or 15-year-old boy, who lives in the eastern Paynesville district of the city, was admitted to a treatment centre in the outskirts of Monrovia on 19 November. Two direct family members tested positive as well on 20 November. As of 20 November, at least four other people, of whom two relatives, had been admitted to the Ebola treatment centre (ETC). At least 153 contacts have been identified and are being monitored. Food and water were delivered on 21 November to high risk contacts. 

Humanitarian Implications of Violence in Northern and Central Iraq
Created: 05/04/2016 +

Overview

In the north of Iraq, Kurdish Peshmerga forces, assisted by Iraqi Security Forces (ISF), US airstrikes, and other armed groups have continued their counteroffensive against IS in Ninewa, Kirkuk, Salah al Din, and Diyala, retaking some key areas. The fighting however continues to fuel displacement. Due to improved data collection, estimates of the displacement caused by IS’s advances in early August have risen to more than 620,000 people. 

Indonesia: Drought
Created: 05/04/2016 +

Overview

Over 1.2 million people are in need of food assistance in Indonesia as a drought-related food crisis has been affecting most of the country since August 2015. El Niño meant that the rainy season did not start in December as expected: after a short period of average rain in the first days of January, rainfall returned to well below-average in February.

Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT), one of the poorest provinces, is one of the most affected, and makes up almost half of the people in need, as high poverty and malnutrition exacerbate the impact of the drought. In NTT, besides the 500,000 people in need of food assistance, an additional 700,000 are considered at risk of food insecurity. 

Greece: Asylum Seekers and Migrants
Created: 05/04/2016 +

Overview

During the first six months of 2015, the islands of Greece overtaking Italy as the primary point of arrival, and already surpassing the numbers for whole of 2014. In January 2015, there has been a 145% increase in asylum seekers and migrants crossing the Mediterranean from Turkey to Greece compare to January 2014. During the first six months of 2015, more than 158,000 people crossed the Mediterranean Sea. As of 24 July, 100,000 people have arrived on Greek islands since the beginning of 2015, 130% more than arrived in all 2014. More than 1,000 people have been arriving every day since the beginning of June, as opposed to 200 in May. More migrants and asylum seekers are expected in the coming months as the peak season usually lasts from July to September. According to a government official, more than 200,000 migrants are expected to arrive by the end of the year.

Ethiopia: Drought and Food Insecurity, March 2016
Created: 05/04/2016 +

Overview

Ethiopia isaffected by the worst drought for 50 years, with over 10.2 million people in need of food assistance as of March 2016, compared to 2.9 million in the beginning of 2015. In 2016, the number of people in need is expected to reach over 15 million. Most of the regions of Amhara, Oromia, and SNNPR are reported to be at least in Crisis (IPC Phase 3) food insecurity. In the most affected areas, over 75% of meher cropping production has been lost, one million livestock have died, and over 1.7 million are reportedly at risk due to poor body conditions. Meher cropping represents 90% of the country’s total grain production, which accounts for 80% of Ethiopian agriculture. 

Ethiopia: Drought and Food Insecurity, January 2016
Created: 05/04/2016 +

Overview

Since June 2015, Ethiopia has been affected by the worst drought in the last 30–50 years, with over 10.2 million people in need of food assistance as of December 2015, compared to 2.9 million in the beginning of 2015. In 2016, the number of people in need is expected to reach over 15 million. Most of the regions of Amhara, Oromia, and SNNPR are reported to be in Crisis (IPC Phase 3) food insecurity. In the most affected areas, over 75% of meher cropping production has been lost, one million livestock have died, and over 1.7 million are reportedly at risk due to bad body conditions. Meher cropping represents 90% of the country’s total grain production, which accounts for 80% of Ethiopian agriculture.

Ethiopia: Displacement in Gambella Region
Created: 05/04/2016 +

Overview

Since the start of the conflict in neighbouring South Sudan on 15 December 2013, more than 218,700 South Sudanese have crossed into Ethiopia’s Gambella region. So far in August, 3,448 new arrivals have been registered. In July, more than 7,200 South Sudanese arrived in Gambella, an increase from the 2,500 arrivals in June. Most people originate from Upper Nile and Jonglei states, and are fleeing food insecurity and generalised violence. Capacity of camps receiving refugees are overstretched. More than 13,000 new arrivals are awaiting transfer to a new camp that is being developed. More than 45,000 refugees are living in host communities. Conditions for those staying at entry points are worse than those staying in camps, as limited facilities are available. 

China: Yunnan Earthquake
Created: 04/04/2016 +

Overview

On August 3, at 16.30 local time, an earthquake, with a magnitude of 6.1 at a depth of 12 km, hit Longtoushan township in Ludian county, Yunnan province, which is located in South West China.

As of August 7 17.00 local time, 615 people had been killed, 3,143 had been injured and 114 people were still missing. 230,000 had been relocated. Rescue teams are still combing the rubbles in search of survivors.

80,900 houses have been destroyed, 120,100 are seriously damaged and 466,100 slightly damaged. In Yengan village, 90% of houses have been reported damaged.

Chad: Population Displacement From CAR
Created: 04/04/2016 +

Overview

Civilians have borne the brunt of violence in CAR, prompting large-scale internal and cross-border displacement. Most of CAR’s Muslim population has fled to the eastern part of the country or sought refuge in neighbouring countries. Intercommunal conflict has been ongoing in CAR since December 2013, originating in a cycle of reprisals between the predominantly Muslim and Chad-backed Seleka, and mainly Christian self-defence groups, known as anti-balaka.

From December 2013 to February 2014 the Chadian Government evacuated its citizens from CAR, mainly to camps along the border and to the capital N’Djamena.

Chad officially closed its border with CAR in May 2014, but displaced people have continued to cross into the country.

As of 8 September, there are 113,343 evacuees (including third-country nationals and migrants), and 94,512 CAR refugees, 19,471 of whom have arrived since December 2013.

The newly arrived are mainly Muslim and hosted in predominantly Christian areas in Chad. Before the crisis, CAR refugees in Chad were mostly of non-Muslim background.

The categorisation of displaced people arriving from CAR is a major challenge: most arrive without legal documents.

Chad is host to 461,000 refugees in total. The country faces chronic food insecurity, natural hazards and regular outbreaks of diseases. 

Cameroon: Displacement in the Far North
Created: 04/04/2016 +

Overview

Since 2013, the conflict between Boko Haram (BH) and the Nigerian Government has spilled over into neighbouring countries, including Cameroon.

BH attacks in Cameroon intensified in December 2014, and in February 2015 the Multinational Joint Task Force (MJTF) launched an offensive, led to another influx of displaced people to Cameroon.

As of end April, there were 400 new arrivals every day at the only refugee camp, Minawao, which hosts 37,000 refugees.

In total, there are 81,700 IDPs, 36,000 returnees and 74,000 Nigerian refugees in Far North region. Access to water and sanitation is lacking. In addition, 200,000 people in the Far North live in acute food insecurity and about 35% of children in border areas are estimated to be malnourished. 

Floods in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Croatia
Created: 04/04/2016 +

Overview

Continuous, heavy rainfall, commencing on 13 May, has resulted in extensive flooding in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), and Croatia. 

Three months’ worth of rain fell in only three days; it is the heaviest rainfall in BiH since records began in 1894.

In Serbia, more than 1.6 million people are affected by the floods (22% of the population). The most affected areas include Belgrade City and the municipalities of Obrenovac, Lazarevac and Grocka.

In BiH, an estimated 1.5 million people are affected (39% of the population). The most affected areas are Bosanski Šamac, Odžak, Orašje, Doboj, Bijeljina, Brčko, Maglaj.

In Croatia, 38,000 people are affected. The most affected towns and villages are Gunja, Rajevo Selo, Račinovci, Posavski Podgajci, Vrbanja, Drenovci, Strošinci, Đurići and Bošnjaci

As of 22 May, more than 120,000 households in Serbia are without electricity, and as of 19 May, more than one million people do not have access to water in BiH.

3,500km (2,175 miles) of roads in Serbia need repair. Schools remain closed in the affected areas.

The economic impact is enormous. Preliminary estimates show recovery costs of more than one billion euros (USD 1.4 billion) in Serbia and hundreds of millions of euros for BiH. In Croatia, damage to agriculture alone is expected to reach at least 30 million euros

The Balkans: Asylum Seekers, Migrants, and Refugees in Transit
Created: 04/04/2016 +

Overview

As of 16 November, close to 820,000 people have arrived in Europe by sea in 2015, including 673,916 to Greece, 142,400 to Italy, 2,797 to Spain and 105 to Malta. 85% of the arrivals are from the world’s top ten refugee-producing countries. 52% of the refugees are from Syria, 10% from Afghanistan, 6% from Iraq. As the sea route to Italy via North Africa is longer and more risky, and as the number of Syrians has increased, more people are travelling through Greece and then through the Balkans to reach northern and western Europe. The main pattern of movement is from Greece to the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) northwest through Serbia, Croatia, and Slovenia towards Austria and Germany.

Greece has received the highest number of refugees and asylum seekers in decades and, several months after the start of the crisis, the rate of people arriving continues to grow. Despite the onset of winter, the movement is not expected to decrease, and UNHCR anticipates up to 600,000 arrivals between November 2015 and February 2016. Very few recent arrivals are pursuing asylum in the Balkan countries.

Humanitarian needs are driven by obstacles at the borders, overcrowded and expensive transportation, long waits for registration, tensions between host communities and refugees, the risk of exploitation by smugglers, as well as inadequate assistance and shelter. Local and international capacities are under strain, and the arrival of winter is expected to exacerbate needs.

The closing of various borders in Europe is placing a further strain on the situation, and could result in people being stuck in transit facilities, leading to overcrowding.

Ethiopia: Drought and Food Insecurity
Created: 04/04/2016 +

Overview

Ethiopia is affected by the worst drought for 50 years, with over 10.2 million people in need of food assistance as of March 2016, compared to 2.9 million in the beginning of 2015. In 2016, the number of people in need is expected to reach over 15 million. Most of the regions of Amhara, Oromia, and SNNPR are reported to be at least in Crisis (IPC Phase 3) food insecurity. In the most affected areas, over 75% of meher cropping production has been lost, one million livestock have died, and over 1.7 million are reportedly at risk due to poor body conditions. Meher cropping represents 90% of the country’s total grain production, which accounts for 80% of Ethiopian agriculture. 

South Sudan: Armed Conflict and Severe Food Insecurity
Created: 04/04/2016 +

Overview

Two major crises are ongoing in South Sudan: armed conflict and severe food insecurity.

Fighting between government and opposition forces as well as intercommunal violence increased in mid-February in areas of Greater Upper Nile. Violence has mostly been concentrated around Malakal (Upper Nile), Pibor (Jonglei) and Leer (Unity). Greater Upper Nile hosts nearly 1.4 million IDPs, comprising 90% of the total IDP population of South Sudan. Fighting has also spread to Wau in Western Bahr el Ghazal where 8,000 displaced people are yet to receive assistance. In Western Equatoria, fighting has been ongoing since late 2015, where up to 80,000 people have been newly displaced.

Food insecurity has reached unprecedented levels: 2.8 million people are severely food insecure. Areas most affected include conflict-affected areas of Greater Upper Nile, particularly in central and southern Unity state where 40,000 people are close to Catastrophe (IPC Phase 5). Food insecurity has also worsened in regions that have previously been considered stable, including in Greater Equatoria and Northern Bahr El Ghazal. 

Somalia: Drought
Created: 23/03/2016 +

Overview

Significant pasture degradation and water shortages have been reported in parts of Somalia due to dry weather and high evaporation rates (FSNAU 18/03/2016). In total, one million people are estimated to be affected by the drought (DRC 11/03/2016). The most affected areas are the northern regions of Puntland and Somaliland Hiraan and Gedo regions in Southcentral Somalia.

In northern regions, two consecutive below-average rain seasons (July–September and October–December) have severely affected pasture and water conditions, and the current dry season (January–March) is worsening the situation. Below-normal rainfall and drought conditions are leading to large-scale food insecurity, abnormal outmigration of livestock, rising water prices, and a sharp increase in debt levels among poor households. Farmers and herders are the most affected (OCHA 09/03/2016). Some relief is expected with the 2016 rainy season in April, which is forecasted to be average (GIEWS 17/03/2016; FEWSNET 29/02/2016).

Yemen: Escalation of Conflict
Created: 18/03/2016 +

Overview

Since 23 March, more 150,000 people have been displaced, over 1,000 were killed and 4,350 injured. Access conditions are severely restricted while urgent humanitarian needs are increasing. This adds to the already dire situation of 16 million people in need of assistance over a total population of 26 million. This represents 60% of the population. 

Access has deteriorated and led to significant shortages of fuel and electricity. These have affected the functioning of hospitals, the availability of drinking water and food.

19 out of 22 governorates are affected by the conflict, which has escalated since 23 March. Alliances are complex, at times transitory. Several local militias have supported the Government. Armed Sunni tribesmen and Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) have been fighting the Houthi advance, although AQAP continues to oppose the Government as well. 

On 26 March, a Saudi Arabia-led coalition launched air attacks. Nonetheless, Houthis continued advancing south. Airstrikes and fighting have continued unabated, particularly in the southern governorates, with no reported progress on a political settlement in the short term. 

India: Floods in Tamil Nadu
Created: 18/03/2016 +

Overview

Several days of heavy rainfall in Tamil Nadu in southern India has led to flash floods particularly affecting Cuddalore district. As of 14 November, 56 people have been reported killed and at least 29,000 people have been evacuated, the majority from rural areas. The total number of people affected is not known. 

Roads and bridges have been damaged, and several villages are reported to be cut off. Power and communication infrastructure has also been affected. Tens of thousands of houses have been damaged or destroyed. 

Humanitarian Impact of Operation Protective Edge in the Gaza Strip, Palestinian Territories
Created: 18/03/2016 +

Overview

As of 17 July, 227 Palestinians have been killed, and 1,585 injured as a consequence of the hostilities. According to OCHA, nearly 80% of the casualties were civilians, of whom over a quarter were children.

Some 1,660 homes have either been destroyed or damaged, prompting the displacement of 9,900 individuals.

A further 22,600 residents of northern Gaza (mainly Beit Lahiye) have left their homes following IDF strike warnings, and now reside in over 21 UNRWA schools. 

The Balkans: Asylum Seekers, Migrants, and Refugees in Transit
Created: 18/03/2016 +

Overview

As of 16 November, close to 820,000 people have arrived in Europe by sea in 2015, including 673,916 to Greece, 142,400 to Italy, 2,797 to Spain and 105 to Malta. 85% of the arrivals are from the world’s top ten refugee-producing countries. 52% of the refugees are from Syria, 10% from Afghanistan, 6% from Iraq. As the sea route to Italy via North Africa is longer and more risky, and as the number of Syrians has increased, more people are travelling through Greece and then through the Balkans to reach northern and western Europe. The main pattern of movement is from Greece to the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) northwest through Serbia, Croatia, and Slovenia towards Austria and Germany. 

Greece has received the highest number of refugees and asylum seekers in decades and, several months after the start of the crisis, the rate of people arriving continues to grow. Despite the onset of winter, the movement is not expected to decrease, and UNHCR anticipates up to 600,000 arrivals between November 2015 and February 2016. Very few recent arrivals are pursuing asylum in the Balkan countries. 

Humanitarian needs are driven by obstacles at the borders, overcrowded and expensive transportation, long waits for registration, tensions between host communities and refugees, the risk of exploitation by smugglers, as well as inadequate assistance and shelter. Local and international capacities are under strain, and the arrival of winter is expected to exacerbate needs. 

The closing of various borders in Europe is placing a further strain on the situation, and could result in people being stuck in transit facilities, leading to overcrowding. 

 

The Balkans: Asylum Seekers, Migrants and Refugees in Transit
Created: 18/03/2016 +

Overview

Over 800,000 asylum seekers and refugees have made their way towards Europe by land and sea in 2015. As the sea route to Italy via North Africa is longer and more risky, and as the number of Syrians have increased, more people are traveling through Greece and then through the Balkans to reach northern and western Europe. The main pattern of movement is from Greece to the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) in a northwestern route through Serbia, Croatia, and Slovenia towards Austria and Germany. 

As of 5 November 2015, Greece had received the highest number of refugees and asylum seekers in decades, with over 656,108 people arriving by sea in 2015. The arrival of 210,265 in October alone marks a 2,729% increase compared to October 2014. Over 93% come from the world’s top 10 refugee producing countries; over 60% are from Syria. However, this is a significant under-estimation as only about one-third of refugees and asylum seekers are reportedly registering on arrival to transit countries, according to UNHCR. Very few recent arrivals are pursuing asylum cases in the Balkan countries. 

The humanitarian needs are driven by obstacles at the borders, overcrowded and expensive transportation, tensions between host communities and refugees, long waits for registration, the risk of exploitation by smugglers, as well as inadequate assistance and shelter. Local and international capacities are under strain, and the arrival of winter is expected to exacerbate needs. 

Latina America and Caribbean: Zika Virus Epidemic
Created: 18/03/2016 +

Overview

The Zika virus epidemic in Latin America and the Caribbean is most affecting Brazil, with over one million cases estimated. Colombia reports over 18,000 confirmed and 2,000 suspected cases and anticipates over 650,000. El Salvador reports over 6,000 suspected cases. Venezuela reports over 4,500 confirmed cases, however unofficial estimates are thought to be as high as 400,000. 

An alert to the first confirmed case of Zika virus in Brazil was issued in May 2015 by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). As of 1 February, Zika has been confirmed in 23 countries in South and Central America and the Caribbean. The spread of the disease is likely to continue as the vector species, the Aedes mosquito, is widely distributed in the region. 

On 1 February 2016 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared Zika a public health emergency, following a significant increase in the number of reported cases since the start of the year. The last time WHO declared a global health emergency was during the Ebola outbreak. The current Zika outbreak is unlikely to present a crisis of the same scale; the declaration has been issued to fast-track aid and further research, particularly due to a potential link with neurological disorders and congenital birth defects. 

Central America: Drought in El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua
Created: 18/03/2016 +

Overview

500,000 people in the Central American “Dry Corridor”, covering El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua, are estimated to be facing severe food insecurity, while around 1.3 million are facing moderate food insecurity. An El Niñorelated dry spell has resulted in significant crop losses during the primera season in all four affected countries for the second consecutive year, severely limiting food reserves in affected areas.

Burundi: Electoral Violence
Created: 18/03/2016 +

Overview

Socio-political tensions are rising in Burundi with the approach of parliamentary and presidential elections in May and June, and the constitutional court’s approval of President Nkurunziza’s bid for a third term. Mass protests organised by civil society and some opposition parties since 26 April have turned violent. As of 5 May, at least 13 individuals have been killed, more than a hundred injured, and at least 600 arrested, and nearly 39,100 have fled to neighbouring countries. Inter-ethnic tensions, a rift between the military and the police, and an existing challenging humanitarian situation are all potential aggravating factors. 

So far, clashes have taken place mostly in the capital Bujumbura and surrounding areas, but eight provinces have been identified as potential ‘hot spots’ for an election crisis and related violence. Young men and those seeking to flee the country are particularly vulnerable . 

Tanzania: Displacement from Burundi
Created: 18/03/2016 +

Overview

Political tensions in Burundi escalated after the President announced his intention to run for a third term in April. Violent protests in the capital have killed 20 and injured 200. On 13 May, leaders of the army attempted a coup, which failed after two days of violent clashes. The situation remains tense and people are fleeing the country. 

More than 112,000 Burundians have sought asylum in neighbouring countries since the beginning of April, including almost 70,000 in Tanzania as of COB on 19 May.  

The situation is critical in Kagunga, where 20,000–35,000 people are crowded into a small village. 150 to 200 continue to arrive in Kagunga every day. Transportation is a challenge in relocating refugees. In addition, all refugee camps are crowded, with limited access to WASH facilities and clean water. Thousands of cases of watery diarrhoea have been reported and a cholera outbreak is confirmed. As of 21 May, there have been more than 2,400 suspected cases of cholera; 33 people have died. 

Burkina Faso Floods
Created: 17/03/2016 +

Overview

24,354 people (3,080 households) have been affected by heavy winds and floods in seven regions of Burkina Faso. Eight have been killed and 54 injured. The most affected areas were Bissighin and Kilwin neighbourhoods in the capital Ouagadougou (Centre region), and Dallo department (Centre Ouest region). 1,184 people were also affected in Wendpoli in the Sahel region, where food insecurity is high. Significant property damage was reported, as well as food stocks and other material having been carried away by the floods. 2,430 people have been temporarily rehoused in schools. Rains are expected to continue until the end of August, and gaps have been identified in the response for food security, health, rehabilitation and protection. 

Floods in Serbia and Bosnia Herzegovina and Croatia
Created: 17/03/2016 +

Overview

Continuous, heavy rainfall, commencing on 13 May, has resulted in extensive flooding in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), and Croatia.

Three months’ worth of rain fell in only three days; it is the heaviest rainfall in BiH since records began in 1894.  In Serbia, more than 1.6 million people are affected by the floods (22% of the population). The most affected areas include Belgrade City and the municipalities of Obrenovac, Lazarevac and Grocka.  In BiH, an estimated 1.5 million people are affected (39% of the population). The most affected areas are Bosanski Šamac, Odžak, Orašje, Doboj, Bijeljina, Brčko, Maglaj.

In Croatia, 38,000 people are affected. The most affected towns and villages are Gunja, Rajevo Selo, Račinovci, Posavski Podgajci, Vrbanja, Drenovci, Strošinci, Đurići and Bošnjaci.

As of 22 May, more than 120,000 households in Serbia are without electricity, and as of 19 May, more than one million people do not have access to water in BiH.

3,500km (2,175 miles) of roads in Serbia need repair. Schools remain closed in the affected areas.

The economic impact is enormous. Preliminary estimates show recovery costs of more than one billion euros (USD 1.4 billion) in Serbia and hundreds of millions of euros for BiH. In Croatia, damage to agriculture alone is expected to reach at least 30 million euros

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Mongolia: Extreme Winter Conditions
Created: 09/03/2016 +

Overview

Sixteen of 21 provinces in Mongolia, mainly in the northeast, have been affected by a dzud, a phenomenon characterised by harsh winter conditions that result in extremely high numbers of livestock deaths. Around 400,000 people in the northern and western part of the country are at risk of losing livestock and livelihoods in the coming weeks. As of the beginning of March, over 200,000 livestock, out of an estimated 52 million, have died. The situation is expected to worsen, as the heaviest snowfalls are expected to coincide with the beginning of the spring birthing season. 

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Short notes

Burkina Faso: Insecurity in Sahel Region
Created: 24/03/2017 +

Overview

Northern Burkina Faso has seen a rapid deterioration of the security situation since January 2017. Various attacks have been carried out in the area ranging from targeted killings, assassination attempts, village and school incursions to complex attacks against army or police position ?. The Ansarul Islam group, which has links to the Ansar Dine movement in Mali, is suspected to be behind most of the recent attacks ??.  The increase in threats and attacks has caused fear across the region and led to the closure of over 600 schools in Oudalan and Soum provinces ?. Insecurity is also impacting access to other social services such as health, food security and protection.

Ansarul Islam is a new armed group, first known in December 2016 when it claimed responsibility for the attack of Nassoumbou military base in Burkina Faso, which resulted in 12 soldiers killed. Since then, it has claimed responsibility or being suspected for most of the recent attacks in the region ?. Ibrahim Malam Dicko is allegedly the leader. He first joined the Macina Liberation Front, an armed group close to Ansar Dine based in Mali, and in 2016 established his militia around Djibo in Burkina Faso and Douna and Selba in Mali ?. The aim of this group seems to re-establish a Fulani kingdom in the Sahel region ?.

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Iraq: Displacement from West Mosul
Created: 22/03/2017 +

Overview

As of 16 March 2017, Iraq’s humanitarian coordinator has warned that the pace of displacement during the first weeks of the west Mosul operation is higher than expected, and response capacity will be exhausted if new arrivals continue to increase. On 19 February an offensive towards the western part of Mosul was launched, and on 21 February new arrivals were outpacing returns for the first time in six weeks. Since then camp capacity has been repeatedly reported as severely restricted. 

Brazil Yellow Fever
Created: 01/02/2017 +

Overview

Summary

Between 1 December 2016 and 31 January 2017 651 suspected cases and 127 confirmed cases of yellow fever have been reported in Brazil. Of all reported cases, 125 have resulted in deaths. This outbreak is the worst to affect the country since 1980.

 

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Serbia: Winterisation for Refugees
Created: 14/01/2017 +

Overview

Temperatures have dropped down to -20°C at night in Serbia since early January 2017 – way below the average low of  -2°C.? Even during the day, temperatures are sometimes below -10°C.?

The refugee and migrant population has been particularly affected by the cold wave, due to poor shelter and NFI conditions, and low access to healthcare. There are at least 7,200 refugees in Serbia, with 80 to 100 arriving daily, and around 100 crossing onwards into other countries every weeK.???

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Haiti: Hurricane Matthew, 5 October 2016, 0930 GMT
Created: 05/10/2016 +

Overview

Hurricane Matthew, a Category 4 Hurricane, struck the southwest coast of Haiti 0700 local time (1200 GMT) on 4 October. Wind speeds of 230km/h were recorded, and caused widespread damage, flooding and displacement. It continued across the northwest of the country.? The government has issued a Red Alert and officially requested UN assistance.?

Over 1.24 million people are affected in the departments of Grand Anse (468,000 people) and Sud (775,000), including 522,000 chldren.? 350,000 are presently estimated to be in need of assistance.?

ACAPS will produce a Briefing Note in the coming hours.

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Thematic reports

Africa: Fall Armyworm Outbreaks
Created: 23/03/2017 +

Overview

Outbreaks of Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, have been reported in DRC, Zambia, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa, Namibia, Swaziland, Ghana and Kenya. Regionally, around 330,000 hectares of staple crops, especially maize, have been affected. The remaining southern African mainland countries remain at high risk. 

The severity of the impact on regional crop production is yet to be established. The damages caused by the infestation depend on the stage at which the pest attacked the plant. Crops that were infested during the early stages of crop development, in late December, had to be replanted, while those infested later in their growth seem to have recovered without intervention.

 

Nigeria: Farmer - Fulani Herder Violence in Benue, Kaduna and Plateau States
Created: 21/03/2017 +

Overview

The longstanding violence between herders and farmers in Nigeria’s Benue, Kaduna, and Plateau states has increased in recent years. In 2016, at least 800 people were killed in southern Kaduna and 1,269 in Benue state, where at least 14 of the 23 LGAs were invaded.

The February 2016 attack on 10 villages in Agatu LGA, for instance, displaced over 7,000 people. With the state government unable to provide or maintain camps and relief, IDPs are unable to meet their basic needs. At least 62,000 people have been displaced in the three states since 2015.

Northeast Nigeria: Protection
Created: 10/02/2017 +

Overview

The BH insurgency and the military’s counterinsurgency has resulted in a severe crisis in Nigeria’s northeast. More than 20,000 people have been killed and 4,000 women and girls abducted since the conflict began eight years ago. 1.6 million people remain internally displaced.

The number of people with protection needs has grown from 2.6 million in 2015 to 6.7 million in 2017, as areas that were previously held by BH have been become accessible. Needs result from attacks on communities, chronic insecurity, and violations of human rights and international humanitarian law. Women and children, who make up 55% of the displaced population, are most critically affected. Many men have been killed, detained, or are otherwise unaccounted for. Sexual and gender-based violence is frequent, as vulnerable populations adopt negative coping strategies like transactional sex and the sale and use of illicit drugs. 

See map above for suicide attacks and attempts in northeast Nigeria.

Middle East - EU Migration: Scenarios
Created: 09/02/2017 +

Overview

ACAPS and the Mixed Migration Platform have produced a new set of Middle East–EU migration scenarios, outlining possible developments in migration via Turkey and Greece over the next six months.

Following scenario-building workshops in Brussels and Antakya in January and February, five scenarios were identified:

-              Continued restricted migration

-              Number of asylum-seekers in Greece falls

-              Number of asylum-seekers in Greece increases

-              Increased returns to Syria

-              Increased movement into Turkey

The report outlines triggers that could drive these scenarios, as well as the impact and humanitarian consequences of each scenario.

Northeast Nigeria: Food Security and Nutrition
Created: 21/12/2016 +

Overview

Food security, food production, nutrition, and livelihoods have been enormously compromised by the conflict. Displaced populations and host communities in the northeast face particularly severe food insecurity resulting from poor production and loss of livelihoods. A marked increase in the food insecure population has been noted in addition to a loss of livelihoods.   

Crisis Overview 2016: Humanitarian Trends and Risks for 2017
Created: 01/12/2016 +

Overview

The Crisis Overview 2016: Humanitarian Trends and Risks for 2017, outlines the countries where needs are greatest, and growing, as we approach the end of 2016.

Based on our weekly Global Emergency Overview (GEO), and four years of data on humanitarian needs across 150 countries, we have identified ten countries where humanitarian needs are likely to be highest in 2017, as well as four that merit attention, as they face a potential spike in needs. We also consider the humanitarian situation in the northern triangle region of Latin America, where the wide-ranging humanitarian impact of pervasive gang violence is chronically underreported.

Haiti: Protection
Created: 26/10/2016 +

Overview

This report focuses on protection-related issues in the aftermath of Hurricane Matthew. Selected key findings:

  • Some aid is reportedly being distributed according to political support, creating discontent and distrust.
  • Sexual and gender-based violence is a major concern, particularly in shelters, where cases of rape have already been reported.
  • The government has announced a plan to close all remaining temporary shelters, but no strategy is in place to assist those who have lost their homes. Forced relocations and evictions of IDPs have occurred in Haiti in the past.

Haiti: Department Profile, Grande'Anse
Created: 21/10/2016 +

Overview

This thematic report is the second in a series of profiles on the worst affected departments in Haiti following Hurricane Matthew. It compiles and analyses existing pre-crisis data at the departmental level across a range of sectors and is intended to serve as a reference point for understanding the current humanitarian crisis.

Haiti: Department Profile, Nippes
Created: 21/10/2016 +

Overview

This thematic report is the third in a series of profiles on the worst affected departments in Haiti following Hurricane Matthew. It compiles and analyses existing pre-crisis data at the departmental level across a range of sectors and is intended to serve as a reference point for understanding the current humanitarian crisis.

 

Haiti: Department Profile, Sud
Created: 20/10/2016 +

Overview

This thematic report is the first in a series of profiles on the worst affected departments in Haiti following Hurricane Matthew. It compiles and analyses existing pre-crisis data at the departmental level across a range of sectors and is intended to serve as a reference point for understanding the current humanitarian crisis.

Hazard profile: Sud is prone to natural disaster and has limited disaster risk reduction mechanisms. Exposure and vulnerability to hurricanes, floods, droughts, earthquakes are elevated compared even to the rest of Haiti.

Societies and communities: 775,000 people live in 18 communes. Settlements are concentrated on the coast, while population density is lower in the mountainous interior.

Economy: Over half the population lives in the bottom two quintiles of socio-economic well-being. Key economic activities include agriculture, fishing and animal husbandry.

Haiti: Market Environment Analysis
Created: 13/10/2016 +

Overview
  • The hurricane had a major negative impact on livelihoods, infrastructure and roads. Widespread damage to subsistence production increases the reliance of households on markets for basic needs. At the same time, essential movement of money and goods has been severely constrained, with some departments cut off from the capital, resulting in localised shortages of basic items and price increases.
  • Households in Haiti were struggling to recover from several years of drought and the consequences of the 2010 earthquake. High levels of inflation, limited government support, and continued erosion of livelihood opportunities are some of the main challenges. 
  • Markets in Haiti have shown to bounce back relatively quickly after sudden-onset events. Market-based responses, including cash-based programming, which also helps restore market functionality, have proven to be a feasible option to consider over in-kind assistance.  However, there is currently insufficient information available in the public domain to inform decisions on the most appropriate interventions beyond the immediate response phase. Rapid remote assessments on the functionality of markets, availability of goods and price data (food and non-food items) is required.

 

Lessons Learned for Hurricane Matthew Response in Haiti
Created: 10/10/2016 +

Overview

These lessons learned are a result of the analysis of main findings and lessons from the impact and response to past hurricanes in Haiti and hurricanes that impacted in locations with similar characteristics and features of Haiti. They cover Haiti's vulnerability to disaster, assessment methods, communciations and coordination, health, shelter, WASH, and cash response.

The aim is to improve the performance of humanitarian actors in the response of the Hurricane Matthew, assist agencies working in the response, and encourage positive action by decision makers.

 

Northeast Nigeria: Scenarios
Created: 06/10/2016 +

Overview

Over five years of conflict in northeast Nigeria has resulted in critical levels of malnutrition and food insecurity. The military offensive in 2016 has resulted in the recapture of many urban areas and increased humanitarian access. While the government of Nigeria and humanitarian community are scaling up, the response remains inadequate. Driven by a lack of food and livelihoods in their places of displacement, many of the displaced are returning home to locations lacking critical infrastructure and essential services. The ongoing conflict has the potential to continue to cause further displacement and reduce food security.

There is an urgent need to ensure a coherent and robust response strategy that takes into account future developments to guide the current scale-up of operations.

The scenarios within this document are not attempts to predict the future. Rather they are a description of situations that could occur in the coming nine months, and are designed to highlight the possible impacts, and resulting humanitarian consequences, of the insurgency in northeast Nigeria.

Iraq: Displacement in KR-I
Created: 24/08/2016 +

Overview

Some 250,000 Syrian refugees are registered in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KR-I), most having fled armed conflict in Syria in 2012 and 2014. 90% are Syrian Kurds. In 2014 and 2015, Iraqi IDPs fleeing Islamic State (IS) increased the population of KR-I by more than 30% in just two years. As of early August, KR-I hosts 955,200 IDPs, 28% of the total displaced in Iraq. 

Syrian Refugees in Jordan: Political and Financial Dynamics
Created: 24/08/2016 +

Overview

Refugees fleeing political turmoil and armed violence in Syria began to arrive in Jordan in 2011. As of 19 August 2016, there are 656,042 registered Syrian refugees, 78.5% of whom are living in urban areas. Most refugees have been in Jordan for years: the largest influx from Syria to Jordan was in 2012 and 2013, with 176,020 and 301,620 refugee arrivals, respectively.

Bangladesh JNA Light Waterlogging
Created: 04/05/2016 +

Overview

In November 2013, ACAPS supported a 'light' joint needs assessment in southwest Bangladesh, which was a consolidation of the waterlogging situation,  without field assessment, in order to promote a shared situational understanding. This report gathers data on reported needs form a sample of unions in Satkhira, Jessore, Khulna, and Bagerhat districts.

Bangladesh Pre-disaster Secondary Data Review: Waterlogging
Created: 04/05/2016 +

Overview

In 2014, the Joint Needs Assessment consolidation project prepared a series of pre-disaster secondary data reviews relating to particular natural disasters in Bangladesh. Each report covers the history and location of such disasters, their impact, response needs and capacity, lessons learned, and existing information gaps.

Bangladesh Pre-disaster Secondary Data Review: River Flooding
Created: 04/05/2016 +

Overview

In 2014, the Joint Needs Assessment consolidation project prepared a series of pre-disaster secondary data reviews relating to particular natural disasters in Bangladesh. Each report covers the history and location of such disasters, their impact, response needs and capacity, lessons learned, and existing information gaps.

Bangladesh Pre-disaster Secondary Data Review: Haor Flooding
Created: 04/05/2016 +

Overview

In 2014, the Joint Needs Assessment consolidation project prepared a series of pre-disaster secondary data reviews relating to particular natural disasters in Bangladesh. Each report covers the history and location of such disasters, their impact, response needs and capacity, lessons learned, and existing information gaps.

Bangladesh Pre-disaster Secondary Data Review: Flash Floods and Landslides
Created: 04/05/2016 +

Overview

In 2014, the Joint Needs Assessment consolidation project prepared a series of pre-disaster secondary data reviews relating to particular natural disasters in Bangladesh. Each report covers the history and location of such disasters, their impact, response needs and capacity, lessons learned, and existing information gaps.