• Crisis Severity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Impact ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Humanitarian Conditions ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Complexity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Access Constraints ?
    No constraints
    Extreme constraints

Key figures

  • 3,764,000 People displaced [?]
  • 414,000 Severe humanitarian conditions - Level 4 [?]



Since 2011, Turkey has been one of the main host countries for refugees fleeing violence and insecurity in Syria. Over 3,735,000 registered Syrian refugees are present in Turkey, including around 51,000 living in seven camps, primarily located in the southeastern regions of the country. The rest live in host communities, mainly in Istanbul, Gaziantep, Hatay, and Sanliurefa cities. Syrians living in Turkey have been granted temporary protection status by the Turkish Government.? Registered refugees have access to basic services such as healthcare, education, social services, and employment, but it not easy for them to find a formal job, which leads them to move to other areas in search of employment.? Humanitarian organisations are responding through cash-based interventions, shelter, food assistance, and NFIs. ? 

COVID-19 containment measures such as transitioning to remote learning are likely to affect people with limited access to digital platforms. Only 33% of Syrian children enrolled in school always have access to online education systems. Learning is shifting between remote and in-person based on the pandemic status. ? 

The June 2021 Inter-Agency Protection Sector Needs Assessment for refugees and asylum seekers found that 69% of respondents are struggling to meet food costs, 65% are struggling to meet rent or housing costs, and 39% are struggling to meet utilities costs. Syrian refugees are coping by reducing food expenses or borrowing money from friends or family. ? 

In recent years, the number of Syrian arrivals in Turkey has remained relatively stable, largely as a result of a deal struck between the Turkish Government and the European Union in 2016, which made it more difficult for refugees to travel west from Turkey to Europe, as well as the periodic closures of Turkey’s border with Syria. ?

Latest Developments


No significant recent humanitarian developments. This crisis is being monitored by our analysis team. 

Humanitarian Access



Humanitarian access in Turkey has remained constrained in the past six months. Refugees, asylum seekers, and migrants face difficulties in gaining access to services and assistance. Without official documentation, refugees cannot access essential services such as healthcare. Undocumented migrants and refugees are also at risk of detention and deportation. There are considerable delays in the registration process, particularly in applications for international protection.

The registration process for aid organisations is considered complex and time-consuming. Humanitarian agencies face interference by the Government in the implementation of humanitarian activities: government-appointed trustees closely monitor humanitarian organisations, and any efforts to raise funds from donors need government approval. Access of aid organisations to people in need in the Kurdish region is limited because of checkpoints, active fighting, and movement restrictions.

The presence of explosive remnants of war and mine contamination, especially in the east near the borders with Armenia, Iran, Iraq, and Syria, creates a hazardous environment for accessing and delivering humanitarian assistance.

Read more in the latest ACAPS Humanitarian Access Overview.