• Crisis Severity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Impact ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Humanitarian Conditions ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Complexity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Access Constraints ?
    No constraints
    Extreme constraints

Key figures

  • 4,094,000 People displaced [?]



Türkiye currently hosts the largest number of refugees and asylum seekers in the world – about four million people. The majority of registered refugees in Türkiye are Syrians who have been fleeing their country since the beginning of conflict in 2011. Over 3,735,000 registered Syrian refugees are present in Turkey, including around 51,000 living in seven camps. The rest live in host communities. ? Turkey also hosted over 29,000 refugees and asylum seekers mainly from Afghanistan, Iran, and Iraq as at January 2022. There were over 1,320,000 foreign nationals with residency permits as at January 2022.? Registered refugees have access to basic services such as healthcare, education, social services, and employment, but it is not easy for them to access formal employment, which leads them to move within Türkiye in search of job opportunities.? 

Turkey’s economy is considered strong despite the deterioration of the lira, which lost about half of its value in the last two years against the US dollar. This deterioration affects the socioeconomic situation of refugees in terms of increasing debt levels and limited purchasing power, which leads to decreasing food consumption and/or frequent adoption of negative coping strategies.? 

There has been an escalation of violence between government forces and the Kurdistan Workers’ Party since 2015, creating further humanitarian concerns in southeast Türkiye. Up to 1.1 million people may have been internally displaced as a result of conflict, with no information available on whether they are still displaced. Humanitarian access is highly constrained in the areas most affected by violence, which makes the delivery of assistance more difficult and contributes to large information gaps about humanitarian needs.?

Latest Developments


No recent significant humanitarian developments. The crisis is being monitored by our analysis team.

Humanitarian Access



Humanitarian access in Turkey has remained constrained in the past six months. Refugees, asylum seekers, and migrants face difficulties in gaining access to services and assistance. Without official documentation, refugees cannot access essential services such as healthcare. Undocumented migrants and refugees are also at risk of detention and deportation. There are considerable delays in the registration process, particularly in applications for international protection.

The registration process for aid organisations is considered complex and time-consuming. Humanitarian agencies face interference by the Government in the implementation of humanitarian activities: government-appointed trustees closely monitor humanitarian organisations, and any efforts to raise funds from donors need government approval. Access of aid organisations to people in need in the Kurdish region is limited because of checkpoints, active fighting, and movement restrictions.

The presence of explosive remnants of war and mine contamination, especially in the east near the borders with Armenia, Iran, Iraq, and Syria, creates a hazardous environment for accessing and delivering humanitarian assistance.

Read more in the latest ACAPS Humanitarian Access Overview.