• Crisis Severity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Impact ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Humanitarian Conditions ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Complexity ?
    0 Very low
    Very high 5
  • Access Constraints ?
    No constraints
    Extreme constraints

Key figures

  • 3,892,000 People displaced [?]



Türkiye currently hosts the largest number of refugees and asylum seekers in the world – about four million people. The majority of registered refugees in Türkiye are Syrians who have been fleeing their country since the beginning of conflict in 2011. Over 3,700,000 registered Syrian refugees are present in Turkey, including around 51,000 living in seven camps. The rest live in host communities. ? Turkey also hosted over 29,000 refugees and asylum seekers mainly from Afghanistan, Iran, and Iraq as at January 2022. There were over 1,320,000 foreign nationals with residency permits as at January 2022.? Registered refugees have access to basic services such as healthcare, education, social services, and employment, but it is not easy for them to access formal employment, which leads them to move within Türkiye in search of job opportunities.? 

Turkey’s economy is considered strong despite the deterioration of the lira, which lost about half of its value in the last two years against the US dollar. This deterioration affects the socioeconomic situation of refugees in terms of increasing debt levels and limited purchasing power, which leads to decreasing food consumption and/or frequent adoption of negative coping strategies.? 

There has been an escalation of violence between government forces and the Kurdistan Workers’ Party since 2015, creating further humanitarian concerns in southeast Türkiye. Up to 1.1 million people may have been internally displaced as a result of conflict, with no information available on whether they are still displaced. Humanitarian access is highly constrained in the areas most affected by violence, which makes the delivery of assistance more difficult and contributes to large information gaps about humanitarian needs.?

Latest Developments


As of 31 October 2022, at least 29,500 Syrian refugees are recorded to have voluntarily returned to Syria from Türkiye this year, despite the UN Human Rights Council declaring Syria as unsafe for return. In contrast to the Turkish government claim that the returns are voluntary, many interviewed returnees have indicated that they were detained in poor conditions, beaten, and intimidated by the Turkish authorities to force them to sign the Voluntary Return Request Form. Many other Syrians chose to return due to unsafe and precarious conditions in addition to economic hardship and discrimination they have experienced in Turkiye as asylum seekers, highlighting the humanitarian need for protection and livelihoods assistance. The situation is expected to worsen with the current government rolling out plans to return 1 million refugees back to Syria and most parties campaigning on anti-refugee sentiment for the coming 2023 general elections ?.

Humanitarian Access



Türkiye faced moderate humanitarian access constraints in the past six months, scoring 2/5 in ACAPS’ Humanitarian Access Index. The humanitarian access situation has improved from the last assessment because the reports of voluntary returns of Syrian refugees to unsafe places did not go along with a denial of humanitarian entitlement to assistance in the past six months.

For more information, you can consult our latest Global Humanitarian Access Overview – December 2022.


Nearing general elections and economic hardship trigger a renewed military incursion of Türkiye into northern Syria, resulting in displacement and urgent humanitarian and protection needs Latest update: 19/10/2022


Highly unlikely Somewhat likely Highly likely


Very low Moderate Major