Turkey hosts around 3.9 million foreign nationals who seek international protection. The majority are Syrians (over 3.5 million). Up to 360,000 are refugees and asylum seekers from Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, Somalia, and other countries.? In Turkey, over 1.1 million people have been displaced by violence between the Kurdish PKK and Turkish military since 2015. The majority of IDPs are Kurds from eastern and southeastern provinces. ?
Turkey has been significantly impacted by the Syrian conflict and refugee crisis as well as internal conflict between the government and the Kurdistan Worker’s Party (PKK), which re-escalated in July 2015. Clashes and bomb attacks occur mostly in the southeast, but occasionally in Istanbul and Ankara. Curfews also limit access to affected areas in the southeast. Many NGOs have been shut down under allegations of supporting armed groups since the attempted coup in July 2016. In 2017, NGO staff were detained, international staff deported, and organisations’ permits revoked.?
The state of emergency declared after the coup attempt has been extended seven times. It ended on 18 July 2018 following the transition to an executive presidency. More than 142,000 people were arrested during the state of emergency, including 319 journalists. Over 150,000 people were also dismissed or suspended from their jobs, mostly in the education sector. Civil society has been targeted, with associations shut down and foreign staff expelled, mostly for alleged links with the Gülenist movement or for supporting the PKK. Media freedom and the independence of the judiciary are of concern. ?
INFORM measures Turkey's risk of humanitarian crisis and disaster to be high, at 5.0/10. Hazard and exposure are of particular concern, at a 7.8/10 rate. ?
No recent significant humanitarian developments. This country is being monitored by our analysis team. Last checked 12/12.
Food: More than 90% of refugees in Turkey live outside camps, but around 56% of Syrian refugees living within host communities are not receiving any food assistance. ?
Livelihoods: It is very difficult for Syrian refugees to obtain work permits, limiting their livelihood opportunities. Only 22,000 of over 3.5 million Syrian refugees have been issued work permits since January 2016. ?
Education: Over 350,000 (38%) Syrian refugee children are still out of school. Temporary education centres are not always available and are stretched beyond capacity. ?
Health: Health services are under strain, especially in the eastern and southeastern provinces. ?
Protection: Migrants face physical abuse and arrest for lack of documentation. Arbitrary detention and punishment, extra-judicial execution, suspension and dismissals are all risks for opponents of the government. ?
Information Gaps and needs
- Press freedom has declined, with recurring shutdowns of mainstream and social media, resulting in less information available.
- Access to southeast Turkey is extremely controlled. No information available on needs of IDPs in the region.
-There is a lack of information regarding sectoral humanitarian needs of refugees and IDPs in Turkey.