Turkey hosts almost 4 million foreign nationals who seek international protection. The majority are Syrians (over 3,500,000). Up to 360,000 are refugees and asylum seekers from Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, Somalia, and other countries.? In the southeast, between 355,00 and 500,000 people have been internally displaced by violence between the PKK and government forces since December 2015.?
The Syrian conflict and refugee crisis, internal conflict between the government and the Kurdistan Worker’s Party (PKK), which re-escalated in July 2015, and an attempted coup in July 2016, are key events that have reduced stability in Turkey in recent years. Clashes and bomb attacks occur mostly in the southeast, but occasionally in Istanbul and Ankara. Curfews also limit access to affected areas in the southeast.? Many NGOs have been shut down under allegations of supporting armed groups since the attempted coup in July 2016. In 2017, NGO staff were detained, international staff deported, and organisations’ permits revoked.?
The state of emergency declared after the 15 July 2016 coup has been extended seven times. ?More than 50,000 people have been arrested since then, mostly from the judicial and military sectors. ?Also, over 150,000 people have been dismissed or suspended from their jobs, mostly in the education sector. ? Civil society has been targeted, with associations shut down and foreign staff expelled, mostly for alleged links with the Gülenist movement or for supporting the PKK. ?Media freedom and the independence of the judiciary are of concern. ?
INFORM measures Turkey's risk of humanitarian crisis and disaster to be high, at 5.0/10. Hazard and exposure are of particular concern, at a 7.8/10 rate.?
No recent significant humanitarian developments. This country is being monitored by our analysis team. Last checked 18/09.
Food: More than 90% of refugees in Turkey live outside camps, but around 56% of Syrian refugees living within host communities are not receiving any food assistance. ?
Livelihoods: Legal conditions of residence for asylum seekers hinders their freedom of movement and their opportunities to find a job. It is highly difficult for Syrian refugees to obtain work permits. Fewer than 20,000 have been issued for a total number of over 3.5 million people. ?
Education: Over 350,000 Syrian refugee children are still out of school. Temporary education centres are not always available, it is stretched beyond capacity, and some charge high tuition fees. ?
Health: Health services are under strain and some clinics and hospitals have seen services are under strain and some clinics and hospitals have seen caseloads increase by up to 40%.?
Protection: Migrants face physical abuse and arrest for lack of documentation. Arbitrary detention and punishment, extra-judicial execution, suspension and dismissals are all risks for opponents of the government.?
Information Gaps and needs
- State of press freedom has declined, with recurring shutdowns of mainstream and social media. Less information is available.
- Access to southeast Turkey is extremely controlled. No information on needs of IDPs in the region.
-There is lack of information regarding sectoral humanitarian needs of refugees and IDPs in Turkey.