Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)3.90 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.3.80 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.4.50 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.3.20 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.4.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
State of Palestine: Annexation of the West Bank
The conflict between Israel and Palestine, and the Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza, continues to generate severe humanitarian needs among the Palestinian populations of the West Bank, Gaza, and East Jerusalem. An estimated 2.2 million people, including 1.08 million Palestinian refugees, need humanitarian assistance, mostly in the Gaza Strip, Area C of the West Bank, and East Jerusalem, with 65% of those in need (1.5 million people) in the Gaza Strip.?There are 1.9 million most in need of protection. Violations of international humanitarian and human rights law pose severe protection threats against Palestinians. Some 1.8 million people are in need of water, sanitation and hygiene assistance and 1.7 million are in need of food assistance.? Electricity and fuel shortages affect provision of basic services, particularly in Gaza where hospitals use emergency generators with low fuel stocks. Medical supplies are depleting, leading to disability and death. Humanitarian access and people’s access to services are hindered, as Israeli authorities restrict Palestinians’ movement through physical obstacles, including the Israeli West Bank Barrier, and military checkpoints.?
INFORM measures Palestine's risk of humanitarian crisis and disaster to be medium, at 4/10.?
26/11/2020: Recent increase of COVID-19 cases in Gaza is overstretching the weak health system and limiting access to healthcare for COVID-19 patients. At 23 November, a cumulative total of 15,000 cases of COVID-19 and 69 deaths have been reported. More than 99% of these cases were reported since August. Daily case numbers have been on an upward trend through November, with more than 10,000 cases reported so far this month. Gaza’s 500 hospital beds are not enough for the population (est. 2 million). Hospitals lack oxygen-generating machines, ventilators, protective gear, and hygiene materials. Entry restrictions continue to limit availability of medical supplies. Public healthcare remains underfunded, with weak infrastructure and insufficient medicine stocks, while private clinics are too expensive for most Gazans. The lack of adequate WASH infrastructure in Gaza means many residents cannot implement basic safety measures against COVID-19, such as hand hygiene.?
06/11/2020: On 3 November, 76 homes and other structures -- several WASH-related -- were demolished in the West Bank, displacing 73 Palestinians, including 41 children from a Bedouin community. This is the largest forced displacement incident since 2016. The vulnerability of those displaced is compounded by onset of winter and COVID-19.?
ACAPS' team is daily monitoring the impact of COVID-19. Find more information related to the outbreak here.
Very high constraints
Palestinians are subject to several bureaucratic constraints and movement restrictions severely impacting access to services and humanitarian aid. Humanitarian access also remains challenging, with different levels of constraints between the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. The Gaza Strip is in the 13th year of a blockade imposed by Israel and Egypt. In the West Bank, the Barrier and other physical constraints such as military checkpoints remain a major impediment to humanitarian access. Besides physical constraints, further challenges faced by humanitarian organisations include visa restrictions, access to enter certain areas of the country, occasional and unannounced closures of programmes, and confiscation of aid.
Read more in the latest ACAPS Humanitarian Access Overview.
Source : OCHA - https://www.ochaopt.org/reports/protection-of-civilians
Protection: 1.9 million people are estimated in need of protection. People are facing or at risk of forced displacement, administrative detention, exposure to explosive remnants of war (ERW) and physical violence.?
Health: Continuity of medical care is threatened by the financial crisis and electricity shortages. Mental health disorders constitute a major medical concern, particularly affecting children.?
WASH: Several factors including electricity shortages, infrastructure damaged by Israeli airstrikes, and a growing population, have contributed to the erosion and contamination of Gaza’s aquifer. 96% of Gaza’s potable water is unfit for human consumption.?
Food Security: The deteriorating economy, high unemployment, and low incomes, have resulted in high levels of food insecurity. In Gaza, an estimated 62% of the population are food-insecure, while 53% of the population live below the poverty line.??
As of 5 October, 52,954 Palestinians have tested positive for COVID-19, 49,527 in the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) and 3,427 in the Gaza Strip. In addition, 402 people have died.?
The COVID-19 pandemic is overstretching the already fragile healthcare system and infrastructure, especially in Gaza. Population in Gaza also struggles with the continued air, sea, and land blockade, in addition to inadequate living conditions and dilapidated critical infrastructure.?
COVID-19 has resulted in a significant decline in economic activity in the State of Palestine. After an economic growth of only 1% in 2019, the economy is projected to contract by at least 7.6% in 2020. According to a survey on the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown (March to May 2020) on Palestinian households in both Gaza and the West Bank, 52% of surveyed households did not receive any wages during the lockdown period, while 25% received part of their wages. 42% of surveyed Palestinian households’ income declined to half or more during the lockdown period compared to February 2020. Since August, the State of Palestine faced another lockdown, which is likely to worsen the economic situation and people’s livelihoods.?
Find more information about the global impact of COVID-19 here.