Crisis Severity The severity score from 1 to 5 is based on 31 indicators aggregated into 3 pillars (impact, conditions, and complexity)3.30 Very lowVery high 5
Impact This measures the impact of the crisis itself, in terms of the scope of its geographical, and human effects.3.20 Very lowVery high 5
Humanitarian Conditions This measures the conditions and status of the people affected, including info about the distribution of severity.3.50 Very lowVery high 5
Complexity This measures the complexity of the crisis, in terms of factors that affect its mitigation or resolution.3.10 Very lowVery high 5
Access Constraints This measures the level of humanitarian access constraints.4.0No constraintsExtreme constraints
The conflict between Israel and Palestine continues to generate severe humanitarian needs among the Palestinian populations of the West Bank, Gaza, and East Jerusalem. An estimated 2.2 million people, including 1.08 million Palestinian refugees, are in need of humanitarian assistance, mostly in the Gaza Strip, Area C of the West Bank and East Jerusalem. The largest number of people in need are in the Gaza Strip constituting more than 1.5 million people or 65% of the total population in need, and there is a high level of needs across most sectors.?Violations of international humanitarian and human rights law pose severe protection threats against Palestinians.? Palestinians are affected by protection risks, including 1.9 million most in need of protection. 1.8 million people are also in need of WASH assistance and 1.7 in need of food assistance.?Electricity and fuel shortages affect provision of basic services, particularly in Gaza where hospitals use emergency generators with low fuel stocks. Medical supplies are depleting, leading to disability and death.
Political negotiations with Israel, aimed at easing the blockade of Gaza, as well as internal attempts at mediation between Hamas and the Palestinian Authority failed to produce meaningful results in 2018. In 2019 the humanitarian impact of the blockade and internal political divisions between the administrations of the West Bank and Gaza continues to be severe. Over 3-5 May hostilities escalated between Israeli forces and militants in Gaza. Rockets were fired into Israel, while the Israeli army launched airstrikes in to Gaza. Four Israelis were killed; 27 Palestinians were killed and around 170 injured. Following mediation by Egypt and the UN, a ceasefire was reached on 6 May.?Crossing points in and out of Gaza remain closed until further notice.?
INFORM measures Palestine's risk of humanitarian crisis and disaster to be medium, at 4/10.?
30/07/2020: On 19 May, the Palestinian Authority (PA) announced they are ceasing security coordination with Israel, including the issuance of Israeli permits for Palestinians, necessary to access essential services in Israel. This decision is affecting Palestinians' access to healthcare. Additionally, the import of essential supplies and operations by humanitarian agencies have been disrupted. The COVID-19 response has also been affected. The PA will no longer accept transfers of funds from taxes Israel collects on its behalf, which make up 80% of the PA's monthly revenues. The funds are normally used to finance government employees' salaries and public services in both the West Bank and Gaza. As a result, the PA was unable to pay full salaries for some of its 180,000 government employees in June.?
09/07/2020: In April, Israel pledged before the UN not to demolish homes for the duration of the COVID-crisis and associated isolation guidelines. Despite a spike in COVID-19 case numbers in the West Bank (exceeding 5,000), in June alone 30 Palestinian homes were destroyed, equal to the total number of demolitions across January-May. The demolitions resulted in 100 Palestinians displaced in the West Bank, including 53 minors. In East Jerusalem, 13 homes were demolished in June, leaving 51 people, including 31 minors, homeless and displaced. Additionally, 33 non-residential structures were demolished in the West Bank and three in East Jerusalem. There is no information available on the location or shelter situation of these newly displaced Palestinians.?
ACAPS' team is daily monitoring the impact of COVID-19. Find more information related to the outbreak here.
Very high constraints
Palestinians are subject to several bureaucratic constraints and movement restrictions severely impacting access to services and humanitarian aid. Humanitarian access also remains challenging, with different levels of constraints between the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. The Gaza Strip is in the 13th year of a blockade imposed by Israel and Egypt. In the West Bank, the Barrier and other physical constraints such as military checkpoints remain a major impediment to humanitarian access. Besides physical constraints, further challenges faced by humanitarian organisations include visa restrictions, access to enter certain areas of the country, occasional and unannounced closures of programmes, and confiscation of aid.
Read more in the latest ACAPS Humanitarian Access Overview.
Source : OCHA - https://www.ochaopt.org/reports/protection-of-civilians
Protection: 1.9 million people are estimated in need of protection. People are facing or at risk of forced displacement, administrative detention, exposure to explosive remnants of war (ERW) and physical violence.?
Health: Continuity of medical care is threatened by the financial crisis and electricity shortages. Mental health disorders constitute a major medical concern, particularly affecting children.?
WASH: Several factors including electricity shortages, infrastructure damaged by Israeli airstrikes, and a growing population, have contributed to the erosion and contamination of Gaza’s aquifer. 96% of Gaza’s potable water is unfit for human consumption.?
Food Security: The deteriorating economy, high unemployment, and low incomes, have resulted in high levels of food insecurity. In Gaza, an estimated 62% of the population are food-insecure, while 53% of the population live below the poverty line.??
As of 12 July, 7,037 Palestinians have tested positive for COVID-19, 6,965 in the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) and 72 in the Gaza Strip. In addition, 36 people have died.?
People in densely-populated refugee camps face a higher risk of infection due to overcrowding and inadequate sanitation. The Palestinian health infrastructure, weakened during conflict and by the Israeli blockade, is not prepared to cope with an increase of patients. There are urgent shortages of protective equipment kits, treatment for respiratory distress, ventilators, and cardio-monitors. The territory lacks specialised staff in intensive care units. Authorities in Gaza have called for the lifting of the Israeli blockade to allow medical equipment to be sent in.?
Since 22 March Palestinian authorities have imposed a curfew in the West Bank and blocked all access routes to and from Hebron. Access from Gaza to the outside world through the two passenger crossings with Israel and Egypt is severely constrained. Erez crossing, controlled by Israel, has been largely shut down. On 13 April, Rafah Crossing was reopened in one direction for four days, allowing around 400 Palestinians to return from Egypt.
COVID-19 has resulted in a significant decline in economic activity in oPt. Around 53,000 families across the territory have fallen into poverty in recent weeks, following loss of income sources. In Gaza, the share of poor households is expected to reach 64%.?
Find more information about the global impact of COVID-19 here.