Budget: In June 2018, South Sudan’s cabinet adopted a budget of 81.6 billion South Sudanese pounds (USD 626 million) for the 2018–19 fiscal year, an increase of 75% from the previous period.?The government depends on crude oil, but output is less than half its pre-war level of 245,000 barrels per day.?
Currency: The South Sudanese pound (SSP) was introduced following independence and operates under a managed float, i.e. its exchange rate depending on the price of oil and the value of other regional currencies. Initially, the currency was intended to have parity with the Sudanese pound (SDG), trading at 2.67 SSP to the US dollar.? However, a parallel exchange rate has emerged, varying from 4.6 SSP in early 2012 to 8 SSP in 2015. The Government has attempted to unify the two exchange rates by devaluing the South Sudanese pound in November 2013 and again in September 2014, following a drop in financial reserves.??
Inflation: Annual inflation in 2016 was almost 380% and it is forecast at 180% in 2017. Following the shutdown in oil production, inflation in 2012 was 45%, but the country faced deflation in 2013 as production resumed before inflation returned at 1.66% in 2014.?
Key industries: Oil is exported through two pipelines that run to refineries and shipping facilities at Port Sudan on the Red Sea.
Trade flows: Since the closure of the border with Sudan in 2011, the flow of commodities to northern regions of South Sudan has dwindled to a virtual standstill, with only a few informal routes still open to cross-border trade (e.g. near Aweil, for goods from Darfur and near Renk for mechanised farming). As a result, markets in these regions have become heavily dependent on food commodities and other goods from Uganda. In southern areas, supplies from Uganda were always important, but more so after the border closure. In eastern areas (Jonglei, Eastern Equatoria, and Upper Nile) supplies from Ethiopia and Kenya may be relevant, but much less important than those from Uganda.? In 2016, South Sudan exported USD 1.34 billion of goods and imported USD 348 million, resulting in a positive trade balance of USD 994 million.?
Main export products: Crude petroleum makes up 99.8% of exports.?
Main partners (exports): China (USD 1.33 billion), Algeria (USD 7.09 million), Pakistan (USD 6.56 million), Uganda (USD 2.35 million), and Jordan (USD 343,000). ?
Banking: In addition to the central bank, there are also commercial and foreign banks.? Penetration of the banking sector is negligible, and the urban population enjoys the most banking services.? Two Kenyan banks, Equity Bank and Kenya Commercial Bank, lead the banking sector. ?
Remittances: Data on remittances is not available.
Resources: Hydropower, fertile agricultural land, gold, diamonds, petroleum, hardwoods, limestone, iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver.? South Sudan’s forest resources are also abundant.?
Markets: The main retail markets in the country are in the state capitals, namely Juba, Aweil, Malakal, Wau, Torit, Kuajok, Bentiu, Bor, Rumbek, and Yambio. The most important wholesale market is Renk, in Upper Nile state.?
Agriculture: Agricultural production is mainly rain-fed; as such, rainfall variability is a major factor that determines crop performance. Crops are mostly produced on small, hand-cultivated plots farmed by women-headed households belonging to larger family aggregations, reflecting the polygamous nature of most communities. After many years of conflict and high levels of insecurity, farmers have become accustomed to cultivating only land close to their home or in group-farmed blocks of individual plots of land, according to location. Cereal area per household was estimated at 0.9 ha in 2014.?
Mechanised agriculture: Large-scale rain-fed mechanised cereal production is practiced in the Upper Nile counties of Renk, Manyo, Baliet, Fashoda, and Malakal.
Farmers commonly use their own seeds saved from the previous year’s harvest. The use of commercial pesticides, fertilisers and herbicides is uncommon except for large-scale mechanised farms in Upper Nile state.?
Livestock is a very important asset for households throughout the country, mainly cattle, goats, and sheep. The cattle population is estimated at 11.7 million, with 12.3 million sheep and 12.6 million goats. ? Sale of livestock, especially small ruminants, offers significant income opportunities for both pastoralists and sedentary livestock rearers. While the domestic cattle market is growing, cattle sales, unless forced by circumstances, are considered taboo.??
Labour force per occupation: In 2017, 72% of the working-age population was employed in the agricultural sector, 20.5% in services and 7.5% in industry.?
Services: The service sector mainly consists of government employees, NGO employees, and small businesses such as shops and restaurants.?