38 communities, home to 6,000 Palestinians, live in or near the 18% of the West Bank designated by the Israeli authorities as “firing zones”. The Israeli military claims these areas of land for training and security purposes. Palestinians who live in these zones face severe access restrictions, recurrent demolition, and forced displacement.??
Over 60 Bedouin communities in area C of the West Bank -- more than 10,000 people -- are at risk of forcible transfer due to a "relocation plan".? They have very limited access to water and education.
There are over 2.2 million Palestinian refugees, 1.4 million in Gaza (70% of the population), and 820,000 in the West Bank. In total, 1.1 million refugees are in need of humanitarian assistance. Palestinian refugees are particularly vulnerable to restrictions of movement, difficult socioeconomic conditions, violence, and demolitions. Military incursions, followed by abductions and violence towards the refugees, are reported in camps where nearly 250,000 refugees live. These are often in response to incidents of Palestinian youth and children throwing stones at soldiers.??
Journalists are regularly subject to interrogations and detentions without charge. Hamas increasingly used arbitrary detentions, interrogations, and harassment against journalists in Gaza. Human rights organisations noted an increase in the number of journalists arrested by the Palestinian Authority in the West Bank in 2017 as well. This corresponds to the implementation of a new law allowing the government to imprison Palestinians for publishing any criticism of the PA on websites or social media. The Electronic Crimes Law, issued in July 2017, has been criticised as restricting freedom of expression.???
Both Israeli and Palestinian prisons are accused of using torture as an interrogation method.??
In 2017, the number of Palestinians detained by Israeli authorities increased compared with 2016. More than 20% of those detained were minors.? There are 6,500 Palestinian prisoners in Israeli prisons, including 58 women and girls and 350 boys. Around 450 people are being held under renewable administrative detention orders without charge.? Some people spend years under administrative detention.?Israel has ratified laws that violate the rights of prisoners.? They are subjected to solitary confinement, constant incursions into their rooms and medical negligence. There are reports of physical and verbal violence against imprisoned women. ??
Recurring cases of torture in Palestinian prisons are reported. Data gathered by Palestinian human rights groups suggest that the number of torture victims in Hamas-controlled prisons and detention centres in Gaza increased significantly in 2017.? There are doubts as to whether the trials and detention conditions in Gaza adhere to international standards, especially concerning capital punishment.?
People with disabilities
An estimated 49,000 individuals have some form of disability in Gaza, about 2.4% of the population.? Approximately 16,000 children have disabilities. Some 36% of children with disabilities in Gaza do not attend school and only about 45% are enrolled in regular education.? They face access barriers including transportation difficulties and discrimination. 20% of Palestinian refugees with disabilities experience gender-based violence. ?
Electricity shortages prevent people with disabilities from using essential electrical devices such as air mattresses, scooters or electric wheelchairs, and oxygen devices and vaporisers for people with respiratory conditions. Therapeutic services have had to reduce operating hours. In addition, the deteriorating economic situation of households in Gaza reduces the ability of families to cover expenses such as special hygiene items, assistive devices, transportation and rehabilitation costs.?