Despite recent conflicts and a tense political relationship with Israel and sometimes Syria, Lebanon is currently a relatively stable country. As a result, many refugees have sought safety there, with 1.5 million Syrian refugees, about 180,000 Palestinian refugees, and 28,800 Palestinian refugees from Syria. ?
Tensions between host and refugee populations are frequent as the high number of refugees has put pressure on the already strained Lebanese economy. Food and rent prices have increased, competition for jobs has grown, and there is pressure on the health and education systems. In addition, refugees in Lebanon face significant protection issues, including lack of documentation, evictions, and discrimination. Although the pressure from the government and Hezbollah on Syrians to return to Syria has been increasing, the actual number of returnees remains unknown.?
INFORM measures Lebanon’s risk of humanitarian crisis and disaster to be medium, at 5.3/10. Vulnerability is of particular concern, at 6.3/10. ?
There are no major humanitarian access constraints but the Lebanese government's refusal to formally recognise Syrians' refugee status and the absence of formal refugee camps results in limited humanitarian assistance. Humanitarian actors must usually help Syrian refugees in need with short-term and repetitive responses rather than longer-term strategies. ?
02/05: Lebanese authorities have evicted at least 50 people from their homes in an informal settlement in Tyre. The eviction is said to be part of a campaign to limit the pollution of the Litani River along which the settlement was located. Since January 2019, the campaign has forced some 1,500 refugees out of the area. ?
Shelter: Formal refugee camps for Syrians are banned in Lebanon forcing a large number of Syrian refugees to live in makeshift tents (19%) and in non-residential structures such as construction sites, animal sheds, and garages (15%), which offer little protection from the elements and leave refugees exposed to extreme weather during Lebanon’s harsh winter months. ?
WASH: Needs are high in Lebanon for refugees as well as for host communities. In particular, the WASH systems lack the capacity to cope with the influx of refugees. At the end of 2017, 64% of the Lebanese population did not have access to safe drinking water. ?
Protection: Legal documentation remains the major protection concern in Lebanon both for Palestinians and Syrian refugees, preventing them from accessing basic services and from being legally employed. ?