A complex emergency has persisted in DRC for more than 20 years. Over 99% of displacement, which is frequent and repeated, is due to armed clashes and intercommunal violence between foreign, self-defence, and other armed groups. 4.49 million IDPs are registered and 800,000 refugees are hosted in neighbouring countries. DRC also hosts approximately 533,000 refugees. ?

An Ebola virus outbreak began in Ituri and Nord-Kivu provinces on 1 August 2018, with 529 cases and 311 deaths (CFR 58.8%) as of 15 December. Conflict in Nord-Kivu make the response to extremely challenging, and activities are regularly suspended. ?

By mid-December 2018, almost 670,000 Congolese nationals returned from Angola to Kasai and areas close to the border after the Angolan government forced all those without documentation to leave. Most returnees are staying with host communities while some are sleeping out in the open or in churches. They are in need of healthcare, food, drinkable water, WASH, and also face protection concerns as the security situation in Kasai is volatile.? 

The Commission électorale nationale indépendante announced the provisional results, with Félix Tshisekedi declared the new president, after elections took place on 30 December in a tense climate with reports of widespread irregularities, voter suppression, and violence. ?

INFORM measures DRC's risk of humanitarian crisis and disaster to be very high, at 7.6/10. Lack of coping capacity is of particular concern, at 8/10 as well as vulnerability at 7.6/10. ?

Latest Developments

07/03: Seven people in Oninga, Walikale territory (Nord-Kivu) have died due to severe diarrhoea since 1 March, out of 30 hospitalised cases (CFR 23.3%). Due to a shortage in medicine and general lack of functioning health facilities, residents have started fleeing the area towards Walikale town, a 14 days walk. Without urgent intervention, the outbreak is likely to spread. Oninga is only reachable via helicopter, which further complicates the response.?

28/02: Unknown assailants partially burnt down an Ebola treatment centre in Katwa town (Nord-Kivu), forcing MSF to suspend their activities. Confirmed and suspected patients were transferred to nearby treatment centres, but the attack has hampered MSF’s ability to respond to the crisis. This is the 11th security incident reported in Ebola-affected areas since the beginning of the year. 879 cases and 553 deaths (CFR 62.9%) have been reported since the beginning of the outbreak. ?

21/02: The presence of wild elephants in Haut Lomami province has led some 165,000 people to flee their homes between September 2018 and January 2019 to safer locations within Bukama, Kamina, and Malemba Nkulu territories. Over 55,000 hectares of crops were destroyed by the elephants, and food security, nutrition, and livelihoods needs are expected. The new displacement also exacerbates existing vulnerabilities in host communities. ?

21/02: At least 100 people (both civilians and combatants) were killed between 31 December 2018 and 16 February 2019 in Masisi territory (Nord Kivu) following clashes between the Nduma defense of Congo movement (NDC/Rénové) and several Nyatura factions. Due to insecurity, MSF suspended its activities in Masisi on 8 February. ?

Key figures

  • 13,000,000 People in need  [?]
  • 4,500,000 IDPs  [?]
  • 528,500 Refugees  [?]
  • 13,100,000 Severely Food insecure  [?]
  • 10,500,000 In need of health assistance  [?]

Key priorities

Food security: 13.1 million people are in IPC Phase 3 (Crisis) and  IPC Phase 4 (Emergency), mainly in the conflict-affected eastern part of the county and Greater Kasai region, where a severe cholera outbreak and recent influx of returnees from Angola further aggravate the situation. ? Conflict and insecurity, which limit access to livelihoods and disrupt farming activities, are key drivers of food insecurity, especially in the east and in the Greater Kasai region ​​​. ? ​

Protection: Sexual gender-based violence (SGBV) by armed groups and government forces is often reported in conflict-affected areas: in 2017 over 13,000 cases of SGBV were reported across the country. ?

WASH 13.1 million people are in need of WASH support:?50% of households in DRC do not have access to drinking water, and poor sanitation and hygiene services are among disease predisposing factors. Damage to WASH infrastructure in conflict as well as long-term displacement and a high concentration of IDPs has placed pressure on water resources. ?

Information Gaps and needs

  • Very limited information available on nutrition