A complex emergency has persisted in DRC for more than 20 years. Over 99% of displacement, which is frequent and repeated, is due to armed clashes and intercommunal violence between foreign, self-defence, and other armed groups. 4.49 million IDPs are registered and 800,000 refugees are hosted in neighbouring countries. DRC also hosts approximately 533,000 refugees. ?

An Ebola virus outbreak began in Ituri and Nord-Kivu provinces on 1 August 2018, with 529 cases and 311 deaths (CFR 58.8%) as of 15 December. Conflict in Nord-Kivu make the response to extremely challenging, and activities are regularly suspended. ?

By mid-December 2018, almost 670,000 Congolese nationals returned from Angola to Kasai and areas close to the border after the Angolan government forced all those without documentation to leave. Most returnees are staying with host communities while some are sleeping out in the open or in churches. They are in need of healthcare, food, drinkable water, WASH, and also face protection concerns as the security situation in Kasai is volatile.? 

The Commission électorale nationale indépendante announced the provisional results, with Félix Tshisekedi declared the new president, after elections took place on 30 December in a tense climate with reports of widespread irregularities, voter suppression, and violence. ?

INFORM measures DRC's risk of humanitarian crisis and disaster to be very high, at 7.6/10. Lack of coping capacity is of particular concern, at 8/10 as well as vulnerability at 7.6/10. ?

Latest Developments

21/05: The transmission of Ebola virus disease (EVD) continues to intensify, with more than 120 confirmed cases between 13-19 May. Most cases have been reported in Mabalako, Beni, Butembo, Kalunguta, Katwa, Mandima and Musienene. Cumulatively, there are a total of 1,825 EVD cases and 1,215 deaths (case fatality ratio 67%) as of 19 May. There are increasing direct threats against EVD response teams. As a result of the ongoing violence, healthcare workers are refusing to wear personal protective equipment in healthcare facilities and are only performing infection prevention and control measures, putting healthcare workers at risk of transmission. ?

09/05: Since mid-April, intense fighting between non-state armed groups and government forces has triggered mass displacement in the Ebola affected province of Nord-Kivu. On 6 May, an unconfirmed number of people left Rugari in Rutshuru territory, following clashes between an armed group and FARDC. Displaced people are in need of WASH, shelter, food and health assistance, however, access to the affected population is constrained by ongoing insecurity and difficult terrain. Internal displacement and cross border displacement to Uganda could facilitate the spread of Ebola; the transmission rate has been increasing since late March. ?

30/04: Fighting between the FARDC and armed militia group M23 in Kateku in Walikale territory, Nord Kivu triggered large scale displacement  between 27 and 29 April.  An unknown number of displaced people are moving towards safer villages in the south of Lubero territory. Needs likely include shelter and NFIs, protection, food, WASH and health.?

Key figures

  • 13,000,000 People in need  [?]
  • 4,500,000 IDPs  [?]
  • 528,500 Refugees  [?]
  • 13,100,000 Severely Food insecure  [?]
  • 10,500,000 In need of health assistance  [?]

Key priorities

Food security: 13.1 million people are in IPC Phase 3 (Crisis) and  IPC Phase 4 (Emergency), mainly in the conflict-affected eastern part of the county and Greater Kasai region, where a severe cholera outbreak and recent influx of returnees from Angola further aggravate the situation. ? Conflict and insecurity, which limit access to livelihoods and disrupt farming activities, are key drivers of food insecurity, especially in the east and in the Greater Kasai region ​​​. ? ​

Protection: Sexual gender-based violence (SGBV) by armed groups and government forces is often reported in conflict-affected areas: in 2017 over 13,000 cases of SGBV were reported across the country. ?

WASH 13.1 million people are in need of WASH support:?50% of households in DRC do not have access to drinking water, and poor sanitation and hygiene services are among disease predisposing factors. Damage to WASH infrastructure in conflict as well as long-term displacement and a high concentration of IDPs has placed pressure on water resources. ?

Information Gaps and needs

  • Very limited information available on nutrition